Journal of History of Modern Art 2022 KCI Impact Factor : 0.55

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pISSN : 1598-7728 / eISSN : 2733-9793
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2007, Vol., No.22

  • 1.

    Lee Friedlander’s New Documentary photography within the context of the late 1960’s American society

    강인혜 | 2007, (22) | pp.7~36 | number of Cited : 0
    This paper examines Lee Friedlander’s New Documentary photography within the context of the late 1960’s American society. The New Documentary photography refers to the works produced by a group of free-lancer photographers under the influence of unconventional style and techniques conceived by Robert Frank and William Klein. Their works have been regarded as something new due to their personalized expressions while they were inheriting the features of the conventional documentary photography, which was the recording of the reality. Among these photographers, especially Lee Friedlander, with the support of John Szarkowski, solidified his status as modernist in the genre of documentary photography through <New Documents> (1967) exhibition held in the Museum of Modern Art. In this sense, this paper starts with the critique of Szarkowski’s position. Whereas Szarkowski defined Friedlander’s photographs from the perspective of modernism, this paper tried to explore his works within a larger social field of the late 1960s’s America. Therefore, if Szarkowski concentrated on the formal aspects of Friedlander’s works when analyzing their images, this paper rather discusses them in association with the larger social phenomenon, such as postmodernity, and the contemporary visual cultures. Moreover, this paper also notes how the new representation systems of New Documentary can challenge the photographic representation itself. If the representation systems of documentary photography is based on the totalizing vision of the perspectival space and the dominant position of camera’s eye, those of New Documentary photography never espouse the dominant position of camera’s eye. The perspectival space is no longer sustained, and the coherent narratives of the image cannot be read any more. With these features, this paper sought to investigate how these new representation systems can be read as the symptom of the shift in the society. The huge transformation in the late 1960s’ America led to the change in the viewer’s position and spatial relationship in visual cultures. From this perspective, the new representation systems of New Documentary photography can be deemed as an alternative to the conventional photographic practices.
  • 2.

    A Study on Robert Irwin's Architectural Sculpture

    Imshil Hong | 2007, (22) | pp.37~62 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this essay is to explore Robert Irwin's architectural sculpture focused on relationship between works and the site where works are located. Architectural sculpture was characterized by Carl Andre, Rosalind Krauss, and Lucy Lippard. They characterized architectural sculpture as postmodern sculpture in the expanded fields. Robert Irwin's architectural sculpture was generated by expansion from space of painting to environment of real world. By questing art without frame and object, his architectural sculpture has been produced. He wanted to dismantle frame of paintings and sculptures He even recognized museum as frame so he moved onto the outside of museum, the real world. Architectural sculpture in the real world should not be framed as well. Robert Irwin, in Being and Circumstance, has identified four general working categories for sculpture. The titles he has chosen are self-explanatory and emphasize the amount of interaction between site and sculpture: site-dominant, site-adjusted, site-specific, and site-determined. Irwin has defined his work as site-determined sculpture. Site-determined sculpture draws all of its cues(reason for being) from its surroundings. It allows the site itself to generate the appropriate parameters of medium, scale, and contents, and it thereby creates an intrinsic identities within each particular site. Irwin's concept based on site-determined has following characteristics. First, after works installing site, they has not changed site. That is, because site would not be altered, natural environment can be preserved when works were located in natural environment. Second, site-determined sculpture can give social meanings and functions to the public. Irwin concerned about functions and features of site and way of public lives. Finally, in site-determined sculpture, object does not distinguish from site. By fusing with environment, object could not be recognized from environment. Irwin can get rid of object out of site but there is viewer's perceptions in site. He thought that if viewer could perceive the site, site itself without object could be art. He claimed that art could be created not by artists but by viewer who could see the beauty of the site. In conclusion, Irwin presented object negated from the site by site-determined art. The site absented object became place which viewer perceives.
  • 3.

    From Melancholy to Mourning: Historical trauma in the artworks of Anselm Kiefer

    Jin-Sung Chun | 2007, (22) | pp.63~104 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Anselm Kiefer is acknowledged as one of the most distinguished and polemical German artist since the Second World War. Huge catalogues of his artworks place themselves in the context of the peculiar memory culture of Germany which was primarily shaped by traumatic war experiences and political catastrophe. Originating from the psychoanalytical theories, this paper argues that Kiefer’s artworks both functioned as a symptom and a remedy of the historical trauma. Kiefer, as a postwar artist, explored the German image-reservoir and attempted to monumentalize it in his own fashion. Such provocation resulted in opening the Pandora’s box of postwar German psyche, which was familiar with repressing its traumatic past and also impregnated with the process of self-dissociation, such as melancholy. Kiefer’s dealing of fascist icons is not necessarily linked to his preoccupation with fascism but should be interpreted as a compulsion to repeat the trauma. His art-world specifically represents an artist’s pendulum that swings between “acting-out” and self-reflection, where the term “aesthetics of the sublime” symbolizes the swing. The absolute negativity in Kiefer’s works was intended to represent the unpresentable trauma, since the aesthetics of the sublime refuses any “sublimation” of irredeemable loss and any facile replacement of “melancholy” by the “mourning.” A true mourning, in the eyes of Kiefer, never precludes an earnest confrontation with the melancholy, but rather presupposes it. This paper contrived to follow his artistic trajectory, which circulates from melancholy to mourning. From the rude performances over the monumental melancholy to the self-distancing mourning works, Kiefer’s art-world figured out a way to represent and forget the intractable trauma. Through the multi-medial uses and misuses of the hybrid historical images, Kiefer finally reaches the “sublime objects” in the sense of Lacan and Zizek which tends to represent the trauma in the form of a “thing(das Ding),” whose “gaze” plays a role in awakening spectator’s self and his/her traumatic past. In Kiefer’s work it appears in the motif of artist’s palette.
  • 4.

    The Stieglitz Circle, Early American Modernism, and the Use of Psychological Theories

    Eunyoung Cho | 2007, (22) | pp.105~139 | number of Cited : 1
    Challenging traditional academicism and advocating advanced artistic ideas, Alfred Stieglitz and his circle at the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession at 291 Fifth Avenue in New York played a major role in leading the New York avant-garde and modernist movement in early twentieth-century America. Adhering to the idea of art for the expression of the artist's subjective experience and perception, they asserted that the artist was to devise autonomous pictorial reality, either through subjective interpretation of external phenomena, or through projection of his or her emotions and psyche. In their pursuit of a radically new form and structure for the pictorial surface, they attempted to seek new theoretical principles from the latest philosophical, psychological and scientific ideas. This article, through a close analysis of the artistic endeavors and the critical writings of 291, investigates the impact of psychological theories on how Stieglitz and his associates regarded the concept of the unconscious mind and its role in the process of artistic creativity. Reflecting the intellectual unrest of the era, the associates of 291 embraced not only metaphysical/non-empirical ideas, but also empirical/philosophical concepts as well as experimental psychology. Along with Stieglitz, key critics like Maurice Aisen, John Weichsel, Sadakichi Hartmann, Marius de Zayas, and Benjamin de Casseres discussed the nature of artistic creativity by repeatedly using psychological concepts in their activities and writings, especially those published in Camera Work (1903-1917), the circle's quarterly journal. Pamela Colman Smith, Georgia O'Keeffe, and Marsden Hartley, among others, also explored their unconscious mind for creative endeavors. Moreover, some major figures of the early modernist movement, including Gertrude and Leo Stein, Mabel Dodge, and Hutchins Hapgood, participated in 291's inquiries into psychological theories. Other activities at 291 that related to the circle's concern with the unconscious mind included examinations of "primitive" art and children's art. The 291 associates' understanding of psychological theories and uses of the concept of the unconscious mind as creative source were deeper and broader than have generally been claimed. Their interests ranged widely from the ideas of those of metaphysical and philosophical psychology, to those of early dynamic psychology, functional psychology, and psychoanalysis. They examined, directly or indirectly, the ideas of William James, Henri Bergson, Jean Martin Charcot and his colleagues, and Sigmund Freud, among others.
  • 5.

    Die Logik des Bilde in der Modernen Kunst bei Gottfried Boehm

    Kim, Seung-Ho | 2007, (22) | pp.141~166 | number of Cited : 1
    Die Moderne Kunst wirft viele Fragen auf. Der Uebergang von der Aesthetik in die Kritik ist im englischen Sprachraum eingeleitet, waehrend in Europa vor allem im romanischen und germanischen Sprachraum versucht wird, die Tradition und die Moderne im Bereich der Bildenden Kunst zusammenzustellen. Dass Gottfried Beohm, wer hier vorgestellt und seine Aufsaetze im Zusammenhang mit "der Logik des Bildes" ausgelegt werden, von der Philosophie und Aesthetik ausgehend neue Froschungsansaetze ans Tageslicht bringt, liegt seine Position auf der Hand. Das Verstehen und die Interpretation von Kunstwerken ist im Vergleich zu den Nachbarn der Wissenschaften nicht so weit entwickelt, wie der Autor in dem Text<Jenseits der Sprache: Anmerkungen zur Logik des Bildes> formuliert. Wie in der Sprachphilosophie wie Wittgenstein "linguistic turn" stattfand, soll auch in der Kunstgeschichte "iconic turn" in Verbindung zur Logik des Bildes unternommen werden, um die Fragen, welche in der Kunstwissenschaft unberuehrt blieben, Was ist ein Bild?, was heisst Interpretation?, Was ist die Interpretartion des Bildes? sowie Was ist Grundvoraussetzung dabei?, zu beantworten. Wenn man vor Bild steht und den Gehalt des Bildes zu lesen versucht, greift mann in der Modernen Kunst zur Hilfe. Die Logik des Bildes steht im Zusammenhang von linguistic turn. Damit ist vorauszusehen, dass der Autor einen wissenschaftlichen Diskurs auffordert. Und das Verstehen des Bildes setzt das Verhaeltnis zwischen den Produzenten und Rezeptionen voraus, weswegen man mittels der Logik des Bildes ueber die Grenzen zwischen der Antike und Moderne, Renassance und Moderne hinaus aesthetische Erfahrungen erweitert. Die hier vorliegende Arbeit ist nicht beabsichtigt, neue Forschungsergebnisse zu zeigen, sondern ist lediglich ein Versuch, die Fragen nach den Moeglichkeiten von Interpretation des Bildes, deren Voraussetzung im Kontext der Logik des Bildes zu beantworten. Die Logik des Bildes geht von den Kunstwerken aus, die der Mensch schafft, und gesehen werden. Das Sehen des Kunstwerks ist fuer die Logik des Bildes grundlegend. Demnach sind das Sehen und Kunswerks in die Logik des Bildes verbunden. Diese Verundenheit bei Gottfried Boehm soll als eigene Forschungsaufgabe erkannt und als die Erfahrung des Aesthetischen in der Kunstgeschichte anerkannt werden. Gottfried Boehm erforscht die Logik des Bildes, indem er das Bewusstsein von dem Bild und Interpretation in dem Text "Anmerkungen zur Logik des Bildes" im Jahr 2004 behandelt, um die Interesse fuer die Bildwissenschaft zu erwecken. Es bleibt noch die Frage, in welchem Zusammenhang mit iconic turn sich die Logik des Bildes steht, inwieweit die Logik des Bildes als eine Methode der Kunstwissenschaft verstanden werden kann. Dennoch verdient sein Bemuehen unsere Aufmerksamkeit genuegend.
  • 6.

    Memory, Desire, and Spectacle: the Making of the National Museum of Contemporary Art in Korea

    Eunhee Yang | 2007, (22) | pp.167~198 | number of Cited : 6
    The opening of the National Museum of Contemporary in Korea's new building in the suburban Seoul in 1986, rather a remote place for a museum, signaled a new age in the history of art museums in Korea, by consolidating art professionals'long wish to build their own 'sanctuary' or 'hall of fame' in a grand scale. This study begins with the premises that the very idea of "white cube" remains with the ideal of 'place of art's own sake' not with the physical site, and that the idea of "white cube"has been working in the formation of the museum. The focus of the study is on how the making of the "white cube" was affected by the politics of the 5th Republic, led by President Chun Doo Whan who had arisen to power via a military coup, drove Korea to the Cold War ideology, and subsequently to a series of spectacles in order to disorient people's attention from democracy-demanding demonstrations and to pompously convince them to believe that they were living in a better country. For that, four aspects of the museum building process were discussed: the efforts of the former directors who served the museum in the 1980sto secure the finance and the site of the new building, and to implement new policies of special exhibitions the complicated ambition of the then-rather-unknown architect Kim Tae Soo who had been selected to design the museum after a long stay and education in the U.S. the spectacle-making strategy of the 5thRepublic such as 1986 Asian Games and 1988 Olympic Games, and the establishment of a series of other professional sports gamesthat overshadowed the museum building spectacle and finally the contribution of Nam June Paik, who had eagerly answered a calling from his homeland and donated one of his largest pieces The More The Better to the new museum. Thus, the "museal desire" of the Korean art world was met with the President's plan of cultural spectacle along with other sports-related spectacles. In the age of spectacles, however, the presence of North Korea and its threat to hinder those spectacles surfaced above all the events. The museum building was comparably successful in the art world but was neglected in the politics of Cold War.
  • 7.

    A study on the public interest of the art museum under the changing cultural situations

    Seon-Ryeong Cho | 2007, (22) | pp.199~232 | number of Cited : 14
    This essay suggests a way of understanding the concept of the public interest of the art museum under the changing cultural situations. The concept of art museum as public institution, tracing back to the inauguration of the Louvre where the nationalized collection from aristocrats and royal family was opened to the public without entry fee, has diverse meanings, such as the preservation of art works for the future generations, the reinforcement of public accessibility, the educational effort for the visitors to learn about the value of high art, and etc. With the changing cultural situations for recent thirty years, new rules of the art museum and new meanings of its public interest have been emerging. Nowadays, the art museum is no longer regarded as the institution for collecting and researching art works, but as the place for entertainment where visitors enjoy diverse cultural programs. And the meaning of the public interest of the art museum is largely focused on popularity. While Western art museums have already undergone many variations, Korean counterparts just begin to change. Facing different requirements to be fulfilled in one breath, art museums in Korea have experienced errors and difficulties. This essay seeks a way to define the public interest of the art museum by relying on two theories. One is cultural economics, and the other is politics. These theories ask on what ground supporting art by the government could be justified, and present the answers. First, according to cultural economists, art has non-user benefit, that is, the value which has some effects on those who don't participate in artistic activities directly and causes the reluctance of the private investment. In result, demand always exceeds supply in the supposed free market. So supporting art by the government could be justified. Second, according to the theory of the liberalist perfectionism, the government should make efforts to help its people develop their autonomy. Art is one of the effective means to meet the task because it doesn't force people but invite them to enhance the quality of their lives. The public values of art explained by these theories could be identified as the contents of the public interest which the art museum should support. Based on these theories, the public interest of the art museum could be understood as the intersected field of popularity and professionalism. The former without the latter leads to populism, and the latter without the former leads to elitism. After criticizing the blockbuster exhibitions which are recently all the fashion in Korea by the same principle, this essay wants to designate the conditions of the successful museum exhibition in the light of the public interest by presenting two examples from MoMA. The first sample is the exhibition "Manet and the execution of Maximilian"(2006-2007), and the second one is "Machine Art"(1934). By linking the inner issues of art to the outer ones, and by making the museum the place for social discussions. two exhibitions increase the public values of the art museum.
  • 8.

    Mapping the East in the Universal History of Art

    Murai Noriko | 2007, (22) | pp.233~253 | number of Cited : 1
    Art defined as a universal expression of human creativity is a modern concept. Although the discourse of art originally emerged in the West and has worked to consolidate European hegemony, it historically required the absorption of non-Western Others in order to validate its claim of universality. Universal survey museums played an essential role in visualizing the universality of art, and East Asian objects were the first category of non-Western objects that was appropriated into this project. This paper examines the elevation of East Asian objects to art at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in the early twentieth century, and uncovers the ideological and political motivations of American museums behind their promotion of East Asian art. The American desire to create a distinctly American cultural identity through art museums furthermore converged with the interests of modern Japanese cultural nationalism through the figure of the Japanese art critic Okakura Kakuz, who worked as a curator of East Asian art at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  • 9.

    Museum as Powerhouse: Museum Performance in 21st Century Taiwan

    Lai Ying-Ying | 2007, (22) | pp.255~270 | number of Cited : 0
    In recent years, like all museums worldwide, museums in Taiwan have endeavored to attract visitors; organizing blockbuster exhibitions of great masters is one way to do so. However, the inherent danger of this approach is that the museum comes to resemble a venue for the ‘culture business,’ and the exhibition is operated as a profit-generating machine. Although employing sound strategies can facilitate the success of an event, organizers must never forget the core mission of the museum. What is meant by ‘museum performance?’ With its mission and vision in mind, it is the task of the museum to perform to its greatest potential and capacity while facing shrinking budgets that prevent them from increasing their collections, engaging in new projects, and maintaining an adequate staff . Fortunately, with the growing maturity of museum professionals, some museums have managed to effectively integrate both public and private sector resources to enhance their overall performance. Community engagement, audience development, marketing strategies and the public and scholarly response are all measures of successful performance. This report aims to examine the performance of three museums, each different in size, by examining one exhibition from each museum as a case study. Emphasis is placed on each museum’s program and project, as executed under its unique policy and mission. In each instance, museum professionals employed various societal resources to enhance museum performance. Museums have transformed into active sites for communication and recreation that provide audiences with accessible learning environments, while bridging gaps between the elite and the general public, high art and low art, traditional antiquities and contemporary avant-garde art . In 21st century Taiwan, the museum functions as a powerhouse that generates energy in society, aggressively elicits public participation, and transmits old wisdom to future generations.
  • 10.

    Minjung Art as Space of Hybridity

    Nan Ji Yun | 2007, (22) | pp.271~311 | number of Cited : 20
    All art is a product of ideology as well as a mirror on realities of time; Minjung Art is no exception to this idea. While Minjung Art set forth social utterance and social reform, it is also a manifestation of historical and social contexts. Critical writings on Minjung Art hitherto have mainly focused on addressing its ideological aspects and therefore it is more difficult to find texts that examine the realities of its time represented in Minjung Art. In this paper, I will attempt to illuminate this lesser discussed aspect of Minjung Art; its aspect as the "mirror of reality." Looking through the mirror of Minjung Art, I am able to see what Homi Bhabha described as the "Third Space." This theoretical term refers to a cultural contact zone that deconstructs the fiction of "purity" of a native culture and reveals its "hybrid identity." In this Third Space, native and foreign things do not merely meet each other but ambiguous and complex exchanges occur continuouslyamong diverse signs in the form of collision, amalgamation, appropriation and adaptation. When the détente between the Left and the Right as well as multinational capitalism became familiar realities, global space of hybridity emerged worldwide in the late 20th century, thereby creatinga sensibility of the post-modern. Located in the inferior space called the other and inevitably exposed to the world powers, the Third World became an exemplar site in the global space of hybridity. The Korean society in the 1980s is a typical example of such "third-worldly" space of hybridity and Minjung Art is its version of art practice. In the 1980s, Korea underwent a period of rapid, domestic political change in which one-person dictatorship ended in a pretext and was placed in diversified international relations – being the only divided nation (after the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989). At the same time, the nation’s economy rapidly shifted to a main peripheral nation of multinational capitalism and to a post-industrial society. Accordingly, disparate contexts in areas of politics, economy and society became entangled and Minjung Art bore out of these contexts. With the aims of "pure" nationalist art, Minjung Art, in fact, became a vivid documentation of this "impure" site. Not limited by critically represented urban landscapes, Minjung Art generated cultural responses from the realities of hybridity including inclination to pure-bloodism or ethnic homogeneity. Korean racial superiority complex came into effect with even more force as the crisis of hybridity unfolded in front of the Koreans and in visual arts, it emerged as Minjung Art. This is an example of nationalism Frantz Fanon referred to as a type of defense mechanism. The modes of hybridity that emerged in Minjung Art werefirst presented through images of the nation state and its members. The native images therein aimed at a singular ethnic nation are mixed with the actual conditions as a universal crossroad images of the subject matter "minjung" (means ‘people’ in Korea) of the same ethnicity and images of the cosmopolitan "masses" thatare of multiple ethnicities, are entangled. The images represented in Minjung Art are not univocal signs that represent nationalism. In contrast, they are equivocal signs that reveal a peripheral status surrounding the Korean Peninsula which brought the changes in its imperative under the premise of diversity and fluidity of nationalism. Whether the site of hybridity is depicted directly or indirectly, a crossroad of complex international relations – a geopolitical map of Korean Peninsula at the time is juxtaposed on the works of Minjung Art. It is also possible to look at the site of hybridity through the visual environment portrayed in the works of Minjung Art. Minjung Art’s notion of utopia basedon an agricultural society rooted in tradition has been realized in the temporal-spatial matrix of plasticity where tradition and modern, natural and artificial, agricultural and industrial are interlaced. This matrix was forged within the visual environment of Korea at the time when different time zones and disparate spaces intermixed due to accelerated industrialization. Whether Minjung Art paintings depicted tradition and nature, modern cities or both, they are artistic responses to the site of hybridity and to the sense of plasticity implied by this site of hybridity. Minjung Art was manifested in both hybrid images in styles that hybridized various artistic approaches. Modern art in Korea has been rapidly changed and has often been subject of experimentation diverse styles for its cultural and geopolitical conditions allowed foreign artistic styles to be introduced and adopted in haste. Due to this process, a number of styles came into simultaneous existence in the 1980s. In the pretext of nationalist style of pure ethnicity, Minjung Art was at first a product of art historical context (considering Minjung Art as a type of stylistic antidote to overcome the crisis of hybridity). However, Minjung Art is also a mirror of art historical context (because its works reveal a hybridity of diverse styles). As stated above, the hybridity of Minjung Art is contained in the imagery of pure ethnicity and it is also manifested through a representation of the site of hybridity. In some cases, this is revealed in a manner that combines both comparison and coexistence. Perhaps Minjung Art was the last struggle to preserve the pure ethnicity of artists who personally felt the crisis of ethnic, societal and artistic hybridity. A wide range of images represented in Minjung Art and thus it is an act of artistic exorcism – either to transcend the precarious reality or to meet it face to face as to ward it off. As attempted in this paper, exploring another aspect of Minjung Art and approaching it with different perspective is a work to open up a sign to many "differences". It is a way of side stepping the myth of "totality"that follows all signs. In other words, it is a way of finding among the diverse signs of Minjung Art what the narrative of "singular culture of singular ethnicity"suppressed and it is also a way of revising what the narrative distorted. Among many artistic trends in the history of modern Korean art, the only case of the many assessed as a truly "Korean" modern art in the international art world is Minjung Art. The true Korean identity of Minjung Art is contained not in a singular logic that defines it instead, it is in the diverse difference implied by it. If Minjung Art is a true Korean modern art, it is identified as such because Minjung Art has exposed clearly the lively site of hybridity in Korea at the time, when a diversity of ethnicities transfused, not because of the nationalist ideology that aspires to protect the pure Korean ethnic blood. A better way to describe this situation is that even such purism is a product and a mirror of the place of hybridity in which everything mingles together. Minjung Art is the clearest mirror of Korea of this period. It reveals through concrete images the particular cultural and geopolitical positions confronting Korea at the time.
  • 11.

    Music, Noise, and Silence : Sound in Modern Art

    Rhee Jieun | 2007, (22) | pp.313~343 | number of Cited : 11
    This paper charts the short history of sound as part of the 20th-century modern art. In particular, it seeks to explore ways in which sound functions in the realms of visual art. From abstract paintings in the early 20th century to the 2007 art biennale in Venice and Muenster, sound has taken a small yet distinctively important part in the development of modern art. The purity of painting in abstraction that painters pursued in the early 20th century was compared to the non-descriptive quality of music. Time and movement in varying rhythms and speeds also crossed over into the visual realm as the artists discovered new possibilities in film as 'motion picture.' In an effort to depart from the old tradition of representation and narrative arts, many artists thus adopted music as their ideal model, experimenting with its forms as a means of broadening our visual experience. Futurists were those who blatantly extolled machines and their noise. They explored symthesthetic functions of sound and the visual by employing words and sound in their paintings and sound poems. Dadaist also fused the visual with the aural in their performances during the First World War. Marcel Duchamp experimented with sound in his <Music Erratum> and <With Hidden Noise>. Noise was everywhere in the art world, signaling the end of the dominance of the visual in art. In the mid-20th century, we come across John Cage who once again brought the noise into our attention. His famous <4'33''> inspired many artists working in the visual realm. Those who were active in Fluxus and performance art admitted to no small extent their debts to Cage. Including George Brecht, Benjamin Patterson, Paik Nam June. these artists made artworks out of the sound of everyday life. In recent years, we frequently encounter sound as an inseparable component of visual experience in art museums and galleries. Janet Cardiff and Susan Philipsz can be found among new artists who pursue so-called 'Sound Art.' In an attempt to challenge, if not do away with, the hegemony of vision in the experience of 'spectators', these artists try to immerse their perceptual fields with whispering voices and music. By discrediting the visual at the heart of visual art, they deconstruct the ocularcentrism and seeks for the incorporated sensory experience in art.