Journal of History of Modern Art 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.88

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pISSN : 1598-7728 / eISSN : 2733-9793
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2008, Vol., No.24

  • 1.

    에드워드 호퍼(Edward Hopper) 회화에 나타난 소외의 표상 - 모더니즘과 필름 느와르와의 연관성을 중심으로

    권주연 | 2008, (24) | pp.7~28 | number of Cited : 4
    Edward Hopper is a well-known American realist who consistently portrayed the motif of alienation in his art. His works depict deserted streets in the city or country, or people isolated in the midst of a city. These works represent the theme and sentiment of alienation and estrangement. Previously, studies on Hopper have centered on relating this alienation motif to the overall tendencies of American society during Hopper’s time, citing that he reflected the sentiment of the society of his era. This generated narrative-based interpretations, concluding that Hopper was a realist or a figurative painter. However, while viewing his works within social-cultural contexts remains dominant, there have been few remarks on Hopper’s interest in plastic features. This these aims to distinguish Hopper from other realism artists based on studies that discuss Hopper’s formalities. This these looks to emphasize his strenuous efforts in seeking plasticity and formative features. Furthermore, Hopper’s paintings will be related to Film Noir in the aspects of feminism, psychoanalysis and film theories. This will in turn give a new view of Hopper in contemporary discourse, and further expand interpretations of Hopper’s work by various perspectives. This these first examines the aspects of realism which were the mainstream in the American art world and society during Hopper’s time. In the early 20th century, American society greatly emphasized patriotism due to the drastic changes inside and outside of the country. These social and cultural aspects are commonly claimed to be what made Hopper a realist. However, when comparing Hopper’s works with those of John Sloan, Hopper’s interests in the plastic features of object forms and canvas composition can be traced. In this respect, this study will further discuss Hopper’s unique modernistic features in his realism paintings. His interests in formation of objects including architectural features, abstract expression of lighting, and multiple perspectives convey how deeply Hopper was interested in plastic features and his close attention to painting formality even though he was a realismpainter. The modernistic aspects of his works are defined here to emphasize Hopper’s creativity in the respect of merging realism and modernism. Going through modernism was a starting point to further develop multiple interpretations without simply regarding Hopper as a modernist. Based on this, this these extends the discussion toward the relevance between Hopper’s paintings and Film Noir. These two share an understanding of the social context of the 1940s and 50s, and various discourses are applied to interpret this link. Both depict the corruption and hypocrisy of city life (and cityscape) and gender discourses with the radical change in gender roles of the time. In this respect, this these highlights the inevitability that caused the visualization of these phenomena in Hopper’s works and in films. In particular, it is worth mentioning Victor Burgin, who expanded gender discourse in Hopper’s works as the gender structure issue in a capitalistic world, expanding previous gender discourse that was limited to a social context perspective. Furthermore, Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis theory was applied to analyze how Hopper’s paintings and Film Noir represent the gaze mechanism in city spaces and within the stream of gender discourse. The gaze mechanism theory was adopted here due to the aspect of the voyeuristic gaze and Lacan’s gaze. Laura Mulvey is the early Lacanian who insisted that the socially constructed gender differences are shown in films in the domain of gaze. She regards the male as the absolute visual subject and discusses the male voyeuristic gazes in films. Brian O’Doherty defended Mulvey’s theory and expanded his arguments to the difference in visuality in Hopper’s paintings based on gender difference theory. On the other hand, Mulvey’s arguments were criticized by Lacan’s theory itself that, fundamentally, the eye and the gaze are separated and are two different things. This provided a theoretical base for inducing the unseen gaze in Hopper’s works. The dark external window in Hopper’s paintings, in particular, proves Lacan’s theory that when a subject is viewing an object, the object itself is already gazing at the subject beyond the reach of the subject’s gaze. This in turn provides a post-modernistic conclusion that denies the ideology of an absolute subject. This these aims to provide multi-layered interpretations of Hopper’s isolation motif by applying various contemporary discourses. This these is an attempt to extend discussions on Hopper’s works with diverse interpretations of the post-modern world, without defining his works in the facet of certain ism.
  • 2.

    ‘인간가족(The Family of Man)’전의 이면: 아메리카니즘의 정치적 선전

    김나정 | 2008, (24) | pp.29~58 | number of Cited : 1
    This study presents an investigation into “The Family of Man”, which was planned by Edward Steichen(1879-1973), the director of Department of Photography at the Museum of Modern Art(MoMA), in 1955. After a huge success at the museum, the photography exhibition went on a tour around 38 nations in the world under the sponsorship of the United States Information Agency(USIA) for seven years. There is no doubt that it’s one of the monumental blockbuster exhibitions in the 20th century with the total visitors of nine million. Such a popular success and personality, however, rendered the exhibition familiar and not fully understood at the same time. In addition to the temporary conditions of the exhibition, the fact that the exhibition didn’t deal with the complete works of consistent artists made it rather difficult for the conventional art critics to cover it. Consisting of 503 works by 273 photographers, the exhibition had a variety of status and origin of the photographers and photos, which didn’t allow the critics to regard them as consistent ‘artistic works’ by an ‘artist.’ Thus this study tried to deal with the exhibition as a kind of text telling a story of America and arts in the 1950s covering the entire tour from 1955 to 1962 and assuming the curator Steichen as the text’s author. Accordingly it reorganized an artistic exhibition that doesn’t exist any more in the context of the world history and artistic history of the times. The operation was intended not only to interpret the hidden sides of the exhibition, which treated the ‘history’ of mankind of the times as the ‘mythology’ that mankind was one family, but also to reveal that America’s modernist arts and modern museums that argued for only ‘arts’ with the exclusion of ‘politics’ were actually the products and devices of the mainstream ideology that they belonged to. Based on the previous discussions that took a critical approach to the exhibition in the political, social and economic context, the study attempted to find the position and meanings of the exhibition in the history of American’s modernist arts. The impulses of antinomy inherent in modernist arts were detected in that MoMA applied the opposite positions of depoliticized aesthetics and propaganda to its ‘paintings’ and ‘photos’ respectively during the period of the exhibition. Thus the study considered the history of paintings and photos, which the conventional formalisticcriticism tried to separate, as the relational terms tangled up with each other in the cultural policies during the Cold War period. For the discussion purposes, the background of planning the exhibition was reviewed. The United States gradually formed its national identity called Americanism as there came the Cold War period after the Second World War under the social situations in the 1950s. The background of the exhibition was also examined from the perspective of arts history through the process of America’s modernist arts being institutionalized in MoMA and photography being integrated into arts there. It was under those contexts that “The Family of Man” held in MoMA was analyzed in details. The conviction in the objectivity of photographs that made the materials of the exhibition was established by the identity of photographers during the Golden Age of photojournalism after the war, the institutional device such as publications, and social discourse. The installations of the exhibition had popular features added to the abstract forms of Modernism. It’s also pointed out that the exhibition’s narrative based on the objectivity of photography and modernist aesthetics was nothing but the mythology of sentimental humanism that would erase the unique historical situations. In other words, the university of the worldwide ‘Family of Man’ that the exhibition tried to talk about was none other than the American vision for the ‘one world’ or Americanism in the end. That’s how the exhibition ended up with being used as a tool of cultural imperialism on a world tour sponsored by the USIA. Through the research process, the investigator tried to discuss “The Family of Man” as a case of Americanism’s propaganda. The trial derived from the expectation to open a place of criticism by juxtaposing the demographic potential inherent in photos, the medium of mechanical reproduction, and an exhibition at a public museum with the ideology of power that prevented the potential from being implemented. It’s also noted that “The Family of Man” employed the approach of mixture occupying the middle zone among the opposite terms comprised of antagonistic elements such as fine and propaganda art, high and low culture, and culture and exhibition value. The exhibition seems to take a unique position in the history of America’s modernist arts in that it put modernist arts to perversion and contamination crossing the boundaries of the dichotomous opposite terms of Modernism. Such an evaluation is not an attempt to include “The Family of Man” in the expanded examples of the success of America’s modernist arts. On the contrary, it’s a trial to shed light to the different sides of the history of America’s modernist arts by regarding the exhibition as a case where the purity of Modernism was contaminated and an example of the ‘culture value’ of a modern arts museum being damaged.
  • 3.

    The Generalization and New Paradigm of Aesthetic Experience: Yves Michaud’s Art Theory

    현지연 | 2008, (24) | pp.59~80 | number of Cited : 1
    The French philosopher Yves Michaud has asked about the nature of contemporary art and aesthetic experience all along from his first book, “Artist and commissionaires”. He comprehends that the paradigm of the Modernism is not more available for the contemporary art’s situations and observes how the new paradigm of art relates to the work of art and products the new forms of aesthetic experience. He observes “the double movement between vaporization of art and aestheticization of societies” invading our life in the whole aspects like science, politics, art, architecture, fashion, cooking etc. He describes the process of this ‘double movement’ and its consequences that consist of the new paradigm of art and aesthetic experience in our time. The position as analytic philosopher adopted by Michaud is more flexible than that of ontology or historicism. Because the ontology is inclined to set something forth as a premise and the historicism to recognize the only one dominant form. For Michaud, one of the most proper means to explain the art might be to observe, analyze and diagnose as exactly as possible the new paradigm of art.
  • 4.

    Joseph Beuys: Schmerzraum. Hinter dem Knochen wird gezählt.

    Eugene Blume | 2008, (24) | pp.81~114 | number of Cited : 0
    Der Vortrag “Joseph Beuys: Schmerzraum. Hinter dem Knochen wird gezählt” geht von der These aus, dass das Leiden und der Schmerz im Werk von Joseph Beuys als Initialvorgang eine entscheidende Rolle spielt. Früh schon mit einem Sendungsbewusstsein ausgestattet, wollte Beuys als Künstler die Welt verändern. Seine Motivation, Kunst zu studieren, speiste sich aus dieser utopischen Rolle, die er der Kunst zugedacht hatte. Erst das etwa Mitte der 1950er Jahre sich einstellende Bewußstein, welchem politischen System er als junger Mann gedient hatte, stürzt ihn in eine tiefe Lebenskrise. Beuys begreift die menschenverachtende Rolle der Nationalsozialisten und wird erstmals mit dem Grauen von Auschwitz konfrontiert. In der Folge nimmt er an einen internationalen Wettbewerb teil, der die Aufstellung eines Mahnmals in Auschwitz-Birkenau zum Ziel hat. Es entstehen zahlreiche Zeichnungen zu Auschwitz und die Vitrine “Auschwitzdemonstration”. Seine existentielle Krise ist zugleich Untergang, wie Auferstehung. Von der Depression geheilt, stellt Beuys zunehmend den Schmerz, das Leiden, den Schmerz und den Tod ins Zentrum seiner künstlerischen Arbeit. Eine Durchsicht seines gesamten Werkes macht deutlich, dass diese Themen bis zu seinem Lebensende seine wichtigsten bleiben. Beuys formuliert, dass der Schmerz, das Leiden und der Tod das Bewußtsein fördert. Erst durch die Wahrnehmung des physischen Leidens wird sich der Mensch seiner selbst und seiner Kräfte bewusst. In Parallele dazu sieht er die Passion Christi als kulturbildende Kraft, die durch das Leiden ein neues Bewußtsein geschaffen hat. Der Vortrag erzählt in Parallele zu Beuys die Geschichte des romantischen Physikers Theodor Gustav Fechner, der durch eine schwere Krankheit hindurch sein Weltbild ändert und ähnlich wie Beuys, die inneren Seelenkräfte der Welt zu analysieren beginnt. Fechner tut es als Wissenschaftler, Beuys als Künstler. Beide nähern sich aber inhaltlich einander an, besonders in ihren Beschreibungen der Rolle übersinnlicher Kräfte.
  • 5.

    The Pedagogical Meaning in Joseph Beuys’s ‘Social Sculpture’: Mainly Through ‘Blackboard’ in the 1970

    Song Hai Young | 2008, (24) | pp.115~138 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Joseph Beuys’s ‘social sculpture’ unfolds in the way that it emphasizes the manifestation of collective creativities of all participants and endorses the notion of ‘extended art’, which subverts the conventional way of plastic art and sees art as a part of ordinary human life. Based on Steiner’s theory of cognitive thought, Beuys’s works are intended to show the cognitive process that combines the emotion made by the texture of material and the rational thought generated by the linguistic concept. The subject of this study, the 1970s blackboard, addresses the issue of rational thought. While working as a professor, Beuys often discussed social and political issues with students, and such experiences induced him to get involved in various organizational activities. After he resigned from the professor position in 1972, he promulgated his own ideas on social reform by utilizing blackboard as an educational tool through lectures in Germany and abroad. That way, he reemerged as a prominent social reformer and teacher who delivers truth. As he grew famous, his blackboards were settled and displayed in museums in various ways, but they were characteristically featured as part of installation art in which other objects were also involved. Beuys proposed a new role of art museum as the site where ‘ongoing forum’ in which mutual communication is always enabled takes place, and a self-complete school in which interdisciplinary studies are conducted takes shape. In this non-conventional notion of art museum, the blackboard functions as a pedagogical medium that induces open thought on the part of audiences. Beuys’s installation work <Direction of Energies to a new Society>(1974-1977) points to a pedagogical function of ‘social sculpture’ by stressing human creativity enacted toward a new society. Such intention materializes in 100 blackboards, an educational tool to facilitate the viewers’ thoughts. However, to the Londoners who saw <Direction of Energies to a new Society> in 1974, as well as contemporary viewers who have to see it from a great distance, Beuys’s blackboards are not an open medium that enabled the unrestrained imagination and thought, so much as an educational instrument that served to implant Beuys’s subjective world view and his authorial voice into the viewer’s mind
  • 6.

    Utopia bei Joseph Beuys und seine Schritte zur (politischen) Verwirklichung

    Jea-Won Kim | 2008, (24) | pp.139~166 | number of Cited : 3
    Joseph Beuys blieb nicht nur als ein avangardistischer Künstler der Zeit, sondern als ein Politiker auch (kurze Zeit). Aber mußte er da leider gegen seiner Absicht zurücktretten. Dann was für ein politisches Gedanken hatte Beuys eigentlich, oder welche Idee oder politische überzeugung hatte er denn? Diese Arbeit analysiert seine politische überzeugung, die er gesellschaftliche Änderung durch Kunst erreichen könne. Gleichzeitig konzentriert auf seinen Werken, die seine politische Idee veranschaulicht wurden. Dafür einige Beispiele unter seinen Werken wurde näher betrachtet; nämlich die Zusammenhänge zwischen der Gründung der Deutschen Studentenpartei und Eurasien-Serie, der Organisation für direkte Demokratie durch Volksabstimmung und der dokumenta V, der FIU: Free International University und der dokumenta VII(7000 Eichen - Stadtverwaldung statt Stadtverwaltung), und die Grünen-Aktivität. Beuys war ein stark sozialengagierter künstler, da wird man all sein Gestus oder Mimik ohne vielseitige überlegungen nicht interpretieren können. Wie er selbst erwähnt, wurde sein Skepsis gegenüber hochentwickelter, industrialisierter Gesellshaft der westen Welt seiner Zeit vorrausgesetzt. Er meinte, plazieren kompromisslos starre Ideologien, die nun kalten Krieg verursachten, und hochentwickelte Technik in der Mitte in der heutigen Gesellschaft fest. Da je verwüstetes Individuum oder verdorbene Gesellschaft solle eigene, tief verborgene Wunde zeigen, um sie zu heilen. Und durch tatsächliche Realisierung der erweiterten Kunstbegriff endlich solle man zurm ursprüglichen Zustand, Wiedervereinigung der Menschen und Natur zurückkehren. Schließlich zur Utopia, wo wahre Freiheit und Frieden existieren. Man kann von seiner Werken feststellen, wie er über die Zusammenhänge zwischen Kunst und Leben oder über die Rolle der Kunst in der Gesellschaft so ernst wahrgenommen hat. Im Zentrum seines künstlerischen Gedanken steht die Menschen. Außerdem hat er seine idealistische Anschauung über der spirituellen oder geitigen Elemente von den Menschen und von der Natur durch seine zahlreiche Performance zum Ausdruck gebracht. Also gäbe es zweiwesentlich eigenschaftlichen Zielsetzungen von seiner Kunst, nämlich, erweiterter Kunstbegriff und Harmony der materellen Welt und der geistigen Elemente, um Wiedervereinigung der Menschen und Natur zu erreichen. Eigentlich ist die Kunst bei ihm nicht für die Künstler selbst oder für die einige Kunstliebhaber, bzw. Kunstkenner, sondern für die allgemeine Menschen in der Welt leben. Seine berühmte Äußerung, “jeder ist ein Künstler”, teilt seine künstlerische Absicht in erweitertem Kunstbegriff treffend mit. In diesem Zusammenhang überzeugte er sich selbst so sehr, daß man durch die Kunst die Gesellschaft ändern könne. Diese überzeugung stammt hauptsächlich von seinem Erlebnis in Russland im zweitem Welt Krieg oder von seiner anthroposophischen überzeugung aus. Durch frei demokratische Diskussion oder Kommunikation kann man die wahre Harmony oder Frieden zwischen Menschen, zwischen Menschen und Natur erreichen. Da hallte er die Verwirklichung wahrer Freiheit und Frieden der Menschen oder der Natur als Utopia fest. Solche utopische Vorstellung von ihm könnte als fromm oder idealistisch betrachtet werden, weil die Realisierungsmöglichkeit in Wirklichkeit nicht so optimal aussieht. Seine utopische Vorstellungen wurden grundsätzlich auf drei verschidenen Basis entstanden, nämlich der langen romantischen Tradition in Deutschland, der anthroposophischen Weltanschauung von Rudolf Steiner(1861-1925) und der radikal kritischen Zeitgeist im 60er Jahren. Beuys wurde extrem verschieden beurteilt; einerseits sei seine Kunst optimal gelungene Showmanship rein aus Sensationalismus, weil er trotz seinen prächtigen Behauptungen und sensationellen Aktionen nichts in der gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit geändert habe. Und andererseits sei er ein wahrer heroischer Künstler, der die geistige Wunde heutiger Menschen wahrnehmen und heilen wollte. Da betont seine lange Freund, gleichzeitig ein Sammler seiner Werke, van der Grinten über seine Bedeutung, daß er durch seine Kunst den allgemeinen Menschen ‘Hoffnung’ gegeben habe. Schließlich ist es klar, daß er durch seine Kunst die Möglichkeit der Kunst im erweiterten Begriff entwickelt hat, und noch spielte er eine wegweisende Rolle in der Öffnung zur Vielseitigkeit der künstlerischen Aktivität in postmoderner Zeitalter. Obwohl er doch sein utopisches Bekenntnis in so radikal revolutionären Art darlegte, konnte er die Schwelle der Kunst nicht überschreiten, weil die Kunst keine derekte Realisierungsmethode in der wirklichen Welt sein kann. Nur kann die Kunst indirekterweise, als Ideal für die bessere Zukunft funktionieren!
  • 7.

    Mathew Barney and Joseph Beuys: For and Against Mythology

    정연심 | 2008, (24) | pp.167~202 | number of Cited : 1
    Inspired by the exhibition entitled “Barney and Beuys: All in the Present Must be Transformed,” which was organized at the Guggenheim Museums in Berlin and Venice in 2007 by Nancy Spector, I determined to examine not only the underlying philosophical questions on the use of myth but also the fundamental differences of the two distinguished contemporary artists, Matthew Barney and Joseph Beuys. The first point is closely related to the intrinsic involvement of myth and the use of newly concerned materials such as fat and petroleum jelly (Vaseline) that the two artists retrospectively employed. Their works and writings seem to testify to the fact that Barney and Beuys are constructing and deconstructing myth that is already dead in our time. The highly esoteric and freemasonic narratives that Barney unfolds in the five series of his Cremaster Cycle embody his own longing for the death of mythology. Yet his construction of Cremaster paradoxically engenders a fresh way of looking at the individual, society and the world as a different entity, which we ordinarily think of as enduringly consistent, ordered and interwoven, or as M. Foucault would say, “discursive.” To a certain degree, Barney's gestures and performances extend cryptic symbolism to a socio-cultural realm, because the body and gender he brings to life in his performances negates the Oedipal complex, inviting a new gender of “Body without Organs,” as in the writings of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. This is best exemplified in Barney's MILE HIGH Threshold: FIGHT with the ANAL SADISTIC WARRIOR and BLIND PERINEUM, in which he uses his own body as a visual field emblem, sealing his orifices with Vaselin. In Fornication with the Fabric of Space, the artist exposes the interlocked relationship between sports, muscle, resistance and sexual desire in the use of non-phallic images. While Beuys's social activism is characterized best in his perception and practice of “Social Sculpture,” Barney’s Cremaster Cycle interjects personally invented mythology in the realm of psychological situation and condition in his work. My paper also looks at the way in which both artists, representing different generations and nationalities, directly respond to the social, political and cultural strata in which their works are created, and in which political and ecological agendas are highly charged. Dialectically, these idiosyncratic performers can be placed vis-à-vis each other. The intersecting element of these two artists is that, in spite of their differences in concepts and ideas, they engage in a constant and metaphoric search of the philosopher's stone by which ancient scholars happened to discover alchemy and science. Equally, the same initiation of shamanistic ceremonies and performative diverts these two artists as far as they can go. The media they embrace is quite different: Beuys uses theatrical means for his performance art whereas Barney has been reinventing new possibilities in the cinematic genre for his collaborations with professional actors, as well as people on the street. Walter Benjamin’s Aura is to be challenged and reinterpreted in the new guise of an authentic, esoteric, lingering remembrance of theatricality in Barney's oeuvre.
  • 8.

    Deorientalization of Korean Oriental Painting in the 1980s

    Hyunsook Kim | 2008, (24) | pp.203~224 | number of Cited : 14
    The dominant group within oriental painting circles in the 1960s and 1970s strived to achieve modernity in furthering tradition by grafting the spiritual expression and symbolic overtone of The Southern Literature Painting with the Western painting’s use of perspective or abstract painting’s principles of composition. This was challenged in the 1980s by a new generation that brought to the forefront the use of Chinese ink emphasizing strong expressiveness and shaping of forms. The new movement in the oriental painting circles of the early 1980s, following the discourse on Korea Studies(國學), assumed Silgyeongsansu(實景山水; natural scenery painting) exemplified by Jeongseon(鄭善) from 18th century, continuing through Yi Sangbeom(李象範) and Byeon Gwansik(변관식), as the core of Korean tradition. But it was expanded to include landscapes and portraits of urban space as subject matters, and the expressiveness of sumuk(水墨) was also expanded to be utilized as material for expression of modern sensibility befitting the trend of thought in the new form-emphasizing art. The Sumuk Movement won over many young oriental painting artists through group or large-sized exhibits and collectively rose up as the general current in oriental painting throughout the 1980s. The start of the Chaemukhwa (彩墨畵; colored ink painting) era in the mid 1980s, when chaesaekhwa (彩色畵; colored oriental painting) overwhelmed Sumukhwa (水墨畵; black ink painting), was critically brought on by the work of Bak Saeng-gwang(朴生光), who was invited to the special exhibit of Korean art at the 1985 Paris Grand Palais. After Bak, Hwang Chang-bae(黃昌培) became notable for making great strides for the vision of Chaesaekhwa. He not only reached the level of "mubeop-yibeop"(無法而法, method without method) with the skillful expression of brush strokes based on Chinese classics, but also used acrylic, graphite powder, together with Chinese ink. As such, the boundary of genres between oriental painting and western painting crumbled and a horizon of existence simply as “just painting” was presented. The transformation of oriental painting circles of the 1980s, comprising the start of officially using the term ‘Hangukhwa’(韓國畵, Korean Painting) in place of 'Dongyanghwa'(東洋畵, Oriental Painting), and using sumuk for its materiality as a medium of expression rather than its spirituality, the climaxing of interest in the everyday and the present, the dominance of Chaesaekhwa which widely incorporated folk and shamanist paintings, the overcoming of the dualism of Chinese ink and coloring, is notable for indicating the deorientalization of oriental painting. The collapse of the dominance theory of the Southern School of Chinese Painting represented by Dong Qichang(董其昌)’s sangnampipbukron(尙南乏北論, High South Low North Theory) and the retreat of dongdoseogiron(東道西器論, Eastern Way Western Means Theory) correspond to the abandonment of the specter called dongyang(東洋, The East) that has weighed down our thinking for a long time after the end of the 19th century.
  • 9.

    An Analysis of Korean “Soonjung Manwha” with Focus on Sword of Fire by Kim Hye Rin

    Kim, Hye-Joo | 2008, (24) | pp.225~252 | number of Cited : 0
    Market for manwha is conspicuously polarized into two separate ones for either sex unlike any other media market. In East Asian countries, including Japan, dichotomy has existed between manwha for men and that for women or between manwha for boys and that for girls. In Korea, however, the term "soonjung manwha", i.e., manwha about pure love, has been used as a conception that comprehends manwha for women in general. And yet controversy over soonjung manwha never seems to be concluded due to its diversification in the 1990's. Soonjung manwha may rightly be called so, when we consider it mainly deals with human relations, flows of emotions, change of thoughts, and complex human psychology, whatever its story may be. And we can find its uniqueness in the fact that it not only defies the dualism of glamour girl/ muscular man implied in manwha for men, but represents female viewpoint through aesthetic forms. Conventional soonjung manwha mostly relies on romance plot that is facing criticism for its re-production of patriarchal values. But the writers of soonjung manwha who emerged in mid 1980's reject the fixed ideas of patriarchal values and sex roles. Herein is placed Kim Hye Rin's Sword of Fire. She reveals the collective experience of women and womanly sensitiveness and treats the issue of recovery of female identity by challenging the ideology of chastity, so the work can be read as a feministic manwha. Thus Sword of Fire may be characterized by its presenting the idea of initiative and subjective(independent) woman who overcomes the social circumstances and sex consciousness in 1980's and 1990's, together with its attempts to establish Korean aesthetic viewpoint free from the Western aestheticism. Sword of Fire, with insights into history and life and thorough historical investigations, is also evaluated as a work that demonstrates the high caliber of Kim Hye Rin as a story teller. On the other hand, writer's main view in Sword of Fire can be summed up as a warmhearted attitude toward men. This is also implicit in her view of human nature that denies the dualistic scheme of good and evil. On the other hand, I think that there still remains the residue of soonjung manwha of the 1980's that had a preference for aesthetic characters and valued romantic love. In respect of the plastic art, however, Kim Hye Rin can be considered very unique and original in that she attempts to reflect Korean aesthetic viewpoint in the costumes, hair styles and the proportion of human body, e.g. comparably big faces, in defiance of the Western ideal proportion of the figure, and she also adopts brush painting style instead of screen tone.