Journal of History of Modern Art 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.88

Korean | English

pISSN : 1598-7728 / eISSN : 2733-9793
Home > Explore Content > All Issues > Article List

2010, Vol., No.28

  • 1.

    Legacy of Minjoong Art and ‘Post Minjoong Art’

    Seewon Hyun | 2010, (28) | pp.7~39 | number of Cited : 5
    This research places its purpose on examining the characteristics and meanings of th‘e Post Minjoong Art’ concept while mainly considering the relationship between the Arts and the reality that Minjoong Art suggested in 1980s. This research plans to state which influential relationship Minjoong Art, getting re-illuminated in Art History, has with the Arts during those times by studying for the first time the concept of‘ Post Minjoong Art’ which is gathering critical interest in Contemporary Art fields. Moreover, it will insist that ‘Post Minjoong Art’ has a dual attribute of extending the results of Minjoong Art while escaping its limitations. Minjoong Art was Realism Art that agonized over social communication and realistic participation which intended to find the direction of the Art Movement along with proper expression methods while emphasizing Realism. Following the 1st generation of Minjoong Art which emphasized‘ art as communication’ and the 2nd generation of Minjoong Art which emphasized political participation of the Arts, Minjoong Art at the late 1980s tried to show that the populace is the main body of political struggle through the reappearance of idealized laborers and farmers. Minjoong Art produced results as Realism Art in the context of intending to communicate with society while critically recognizing the reality of those days. However,portraying the populace as the typical masculine hero image of the late 1980s became the limitation of the Arts Movement in the context of styling the autonomy of the Arts and the problem awareness of the individual author. Within the introspection of Minjoong Art becoming rigid, it could not produce repercussions as great as that of overwhelming the influx of Postmodernism in the art worlds as well as the radical changes in Practical Politics even though it searched through breakthroughs such as ‘the 4th generation of Minjoong Art’ and th‘e New Arts Movement’. The relationship between the systems of Art and Minjoong Art in the 1990s became the essential factor in determining the direction of Minjoong Art afterwards. It shows the conversion of Minjoong Art which is located in a time when the will of political correspondence is sharply decreased within the reduction of the democratization movement while it also becomes the evidence for examining how criticism of the art system suggested by Minjoong Art during the passing times of the 1980s was possible. Especially, an alternative space appearing in 1999 called‘ Pool’ processed exhibitions and symposiums which recognized practical, critical problem suggestions while emphasizing the social communication and the capacity of criticism on art systems which were the results of Minjoong Art. Hereby, the correlation of the 1st generation of Minjoong Art which pursued the social communication will of artists rather than practical political participation is revealed. Meanwhile‘, Post Minjoong Art’ appearing in the Arts field after 2004 only named some contemporary artists showing sociopolitical consciousness while lacking sufficient discussion and contemplation. The concept of‘ Post Minjoong Art’ is a barometer which suggests in which changed aspects that influences from Minjoong Art are continued and investigates the conversion of the Episteme of Korean Modern Art. Contemporary artists showing differences according to effects such as Postmodernism or Conceptual Art,even while expanding the problem awareness between reality and the Arts suggested by Minjoong Art, can be seen as the specialty of ‘Post Minjoong Art’. Even though the major premise of political participation called Realism and the Populace which Minjoong Art emphasized in the 1980s disappeared, ‘Post Minjoong Art’hopes to actualize social communication with the Arts on the basis of reality recognition through popular culture and interest in others. If Minjoong artists concentrated on the populace in the context of struggling for the actual rights acquisition of subordinate classes such as famers and laborers, then the recognition of the artist’s self-identity as well as society’s others is the characteristic clearly appearing when reaching ‘Post Minjoong Art’times after Minjoong Art. Considerations on the following generation that experienced Minjoong Art in Korean Modern Art hold significant meaning in that it examines the relationship between the legacy and influence of Minjoong Art. Since ‘Post Minjoong Art’ here is neither a collective group movement such as Minjoong Art nor a trend of the Arts, it provides the essential evidence for scrupulously examining the operation methods and messages of each artist within the background of the contemporary art system. In other words, ‘Post MInjoong Art’ stimulates the central point of what Contemporary Realism Arts is in suggesting how the present day Arts can produce critical messages toward society.
  • 2.

    Study on Transformation of the Function of Mirror in Contemporary Video Art

    Youngsil Sohn | 2010, (28) | pp.41~66 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this study is to approach the problem of identity by examining the transformation of the function of the mirror in video art. This is based on analysis of contemporary video art works such as Vito Acconci’s <Centers>and <Air Time> and Bill Viola’s <Reflecting Pool>. Rosalind Krauss, in <The video: The Aesthetics of Narcissism>, makes reference to those video images that pose questions on the representative position of the image, when the video is characterized by a simultaneity that is related to the artist’s own image. Based on this attribute Krauss has defined the video as narcissistic media. The traditional function of the mirror in video art has so far been conceived on the basis of a reflectivity related to the video’s distinctive quality. However, this function of the mirror related to the narcissistic illusion has been recently denied by contemporary video artists. Excluded from Krauss’s discussion is the idea that it is consideration on the specific characteristic of image which obscures the off-space which itself refers to a that which is dissimilar from image itself. The function of the mirror has been extended from narcissistic reflectivity to the consideration of off-space. Viola’s work has especially revealed the approach to the problem of identity through the exploration of the inner world through the body and is far from narcissistic narrative. In modern art, the mirror becomes the place of passing, and this tendency is particularly becoming noticeable in the medium of video. The mirror is the motor of separation. Here,the principle of the alterity acknowledges through its operation the other as a metaphor of separation which constructs the identity of the subject. Thus, the mirror does not simply face the aesthetics of narcissism, but functions to construct a distance between the act of representation and that of being represented; and also between the sign and signified object. In this process, video asserts its main characteristic as a medium of reflexive representation rather than a medium of simple representation. Moreover, the matter of the transformation of the mirror function seeks to approach the issue of identity. Video work that reflects the photographer herself overlaps with the image of the other recorded by the camera. Whereas the other is constructed through the formative establishment of artistic action in accumulated time, video art and its prompt emergence does not remain as the mere reflection of narcissism. Rather it functions as a reflexive medium by utilizing the body as the medium of identity construction. Modern artists need to transform the image or fiction of the artist’s body through the fabrication of a scenario in order to reconstruct and reformulate the identity of artist herself. The central point of this is the question of how to distinguish self from other. In other words, the issue of identity formation is deeply related to the matter of alterity. The despair of Narcissus stems from the impossibility of merging himself with his image as the mirror becomes an obstacle. The mirror is the impetus of separation. The principle of alterity acknowledges the metaphor of separation in constructing subjectivity. The analysis of the transformation of the mirror function within video art indicates that the traditional reflective function of the mirror had been extended to become the interface of the imprinted expression of body. It draws in the audience’s desire of passing through the mirror by the medium of body. By doing so, this also confirms the connection to the desire for recognition needed to guarantee the integrity of identity.
  • 3.

    “World of Art” and Decadent Art of Late Czarist Russia

    LEE, JOO EUN | 2010, (28) | pp.67~96 | number of Cited : 2
    This study will look into World of Art of the early 20th century in the context of its unique location, Saint-Petersburg, and with it the characteristics of Russian decadence art that hasn’t gained much attention thus far. World of Art was directed by the upper class, who rebelled against realistic aesthetics based on the sincere and simple description of peasant life, and emphasized social action. For World of Art artists, beauty itself was more important than social reality. A beautiful and rich style was more important than the content. In Russia, aesthetic value of artistic forms became an issue on a full scale. The freedom of expression, artists’ personalities and their interest in the subjective world are the fundamental elements that characterize World of Art. Looking at art as an expression of an individual’s self-consciousness was also the most important characteristic of decadence art. From its beginnings, World of Art believed Russian art should be global and aimed at vitalizing the beauty and grandeur of Saint-Petersburg of the 18th century. World of Art studied the culturally blossomed art of the past, especially neo-baroque art, and made it a model for a new experiment. Retrospectivism of World of Art functioned as neither a past-oriented nor a present-escaping resort. Rather, it functioned as progressive thinking with a dream of a society of unbreakable togetherness. World of Art tried to expand its goals from individual and subjective experience to collective experience and furthermore,to global tastes. Russians didn’t experience the shock of the end of the century and the ensuing psychological uneasiness to its core until the early 20th century. When the revolution first broke out in 1904 the country was going through extreme social change. On top of that,corruption of the upper class, big and small political scandals and incidents, unreasonable rebellious youths and fearfully speedy mechanization pushed that period into a decadent atmosphere. With this as a background, World of Art tried to stir up a renaissance of Russian art by infusing creative energy into the psychologically deteriorating period through an overall artistic ideal. World of Art didn’t suggest a completely new style. However, it can’t simply be understood as at ransitional trend between realistic and avant-garde art. World of Art shall be seen in a new light in modern art history as an active art movement that created an inclusive environment wherein artists with various styles could coexist. World of Art tried to bring Russian art onto the world stage.
  • 4.

    “Ah, you are surely my Raffael”-‘Micael Triegel’, Religious Painter of 21st Century?

    Jea-Won Kim | 2010, (28) | pp.97~123 | number of Cited : 2
    Michael Triegel was born between a professor of mechanical engineering as his father and a expert of science and technology as his mother in former East Germany, Erfurt. Before his graduation of high School(Gymnasium) he showed his talent in painting. In 1990 he enters the HGB(Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst) in Leipzig and became a pupil of Arno Rink(1940- ). He belongs to the so called grandson-generation of great East German Painter, the first Generation of Leipziger Schule, Werner Tübke(1927-2004). Michael Triegel and Werner Tübke experienced each other different ideological, social and political circumstances, but they were common in the way that their arts originated from the Renaissance and the Mannerism. There existed no more East Germany (DDR) when Triegel began his study in the HGB. He was free from the state where socialism was to be enchanted, and christianism and capitalism to be denied. It means that he belongs to a new generation of Leipziger Schule because he has taken a painter-training in the ideological vacuum of eastern part of Germany. His distinctive power of observation and exuberant figuring capability drew a great attention from the college time. He was giving a strong impression through his early works, for example, “tabula combinatoria” that expressed Christ without body in the figuration of resurrection, and “Abendmahl (the last supper)” in which eyes, mouth, nose of Christ were omitted. Until now he has produced various genres of paintings, reaching to not only portraiture, still life, landscapes, but also mythological and religious pictures. But it seems that he has shown strong interest in the works of religion. Unlike the other painters of Leipziger Schule, he did not need to confront the twisted modern history of Germany and his own painful experience of it. As he himself said,he tried to research and reinterprets the Christianity that “has essentially formed their lives through almost 2000 years.” In his endeavor to discover a new meaning of Christianity he has turned his attention to relations between him and Christianity, and further relations between human beings and Christianity. Through his religious works of till today he has showed his own subjective explanation of what the core principles of Christianity -sacrifice, death, resurrection, salvation are. His religious themes mainly have two fields. One is criticism an catholic church, and the other is reinterpretation of biblical contents. In this paper these two themes are separately discussed through respectively selected three works of him. If we see his religious works, in details, we come across his true interest. Free from ideological constraints he started his works from painstaking searching of what he is. Great were his passion and nostalgia for the origins (Greek and Roman mythology or Christianity) which are inherent in him, but inherited from outside of German culture. Triegel had a strong desire for freedom to comfort his agony, conflict and belief. As a result he reached to a deep understanding of human beings and a human-centered thoughts. He thought that human beings must be placed in the centre of earth as well as heaven concerning the reinterpretation of the bible. In order to express his thoughts he took a way of painting experimental and curious figures of Christianity. He would probably protest against peculiarities of religion that could not be explained by rationalities and logics. It can be said that he would strongly be against God-centered thoughts of new Platonic mysticism. Triegel would have tried to reflect self-centered religious beliefs of 21st century’s human beings who necessarily represent positivism and are deeply indulged in self-love. It’s very remarkable that the Catholic church gave Triegel, a human-centered religious artist, a chance to paint a portrait of the Pope Benedict XVI and let him have an interview with the Pope personally. When the Pope Benedict XVI saw his several drawings of himself, he said to Triegel, “Ah, you are surely my Raffael”. The Pope’s response would show his great expectation of Triegel’s work. With this remarks he would also look forward to seeing Triegel’s another view of Christianity. The Catholic church would probably like to make sure its willingness for reconciliation and communication through Triegel’s mission. It would be anticipated that this occasion would be just a beginning of new relationships between the Catholic church and arts.
  • 5.

    War and Gender: Making Histories and Visual Images

    Eunyoung Cho | 2010, (28) | pp.125~152 | number of Cited : 1
    This article is an expansion of a keynote speech delivered at the international symposium on “War and Gender in Korean and Japanese Art Histories”, organized by the Korea Association for History of Modern Art and held at Seoul National University on October 23, 2010. In keeping with the purpose for which this paper was originally written, I have examined how the politics of representation has been deeply rooted in visual images related to war and gender that have been produced across cultures and societies in the process of making histories. This article focuses on universal characteristics prevalent in images of war and gender represented in modern art and visual culture in the form of fine arts, photographs, prints,posters, postcards, advertisements, newspaper and magazine illustrations, cartoons, and media arts. Representations of race and gender in diverse societies and cultures have demonstrated almost perpetual changes, while reflecting the continuously shifting political and cultural relations among nations. The gendering of war as well as the gender roles of male and female represented in visual images, however, show that they have shared universal consistency across societies, regardless of cultural divergence from Asia to Europe and the United States. I examined the following cross-cultural consistency illustrated in numerous visual images related to war and gender. First, the conqueror/the powerful is gendered as masculine/culture, whereas the conquered/the weak is gendered as feminine/nature. This system of gendering war includes images representing the victor’s masculine domination and sexual assaults over the feminized enemy. Second, in wartime visual images-particularly in propaganda-men are given the “masculine” gender role and asked to prove their manhood by participating in war to protect their country, women, and children. Men’s gender identity becomes synonymous with war hero, warrior, martyr, or victim for his country. 152Third, women’s presence is much scarcer than men’s in war-related images. However,representations of women demonstrate more complex and marginalized gender identity. They can be divided into several types:1. Women’s“ femininity” is utilized to reinforce men’s“ masculinity”. In the same line with men’s gender role in the above, women’s weakness, along with children’s, is emphasized to evoke men’s duty for protection and shame for unmanly behavior. 2. Women as breadwinners, taking responsibilities for children and home. 3. Women as laborers and workers, replacing men’s duties in the home front, as well as physical and mental supporters and nurturers such as nurses, comforters, performers. 4. Women as war victims, such as subjects of violence and rape, comfort women, and prostitutes. These types of women are most frequently rendered by female artists who often advocate peace activism and anti-war messages. While examining this consistency in war-related art and visual culture, I have discussed some possible reasons behind the universal characteristics and, furthermore, have shown how images of“ masculinity” and“ femininity” are created utilizing methods that are crossculturally identical in patriarchic societies, even when each image reflects and advocates its’own nationalistic agenda.
  • 6.

    The Visual Representation of ‘Comfort Women’ and War Experience: in the Case of Iwami Furusawa

    기타하라 메구미 | 2010, (28) | pp.153~193 | number of Cited : 1
    Iwami Furusawa(b.1912-2000) is a Japanese male artist known for his many paintings of female nudes, who engaged in surrealist movement in 1930’s and went to China as a soldier. Furusawa’s art works from 1945 to mid-1950’s are characterized by their visual images of the front in China, comfort women, colonized land, Korean War, atomic bomb, Panpan,and the Japanese occupation by G.H.Q.. Especially I focus on the representation of comfort women in my paper. Furusawa expressed his view of history of human being and tried to recover his own ‘subjectivity’ as both a male and a Japanese on a large oil painting ‘Nagusamemodae’(1949)which is one of his masterpieces and depicts a comfort woman with a various Christian art code. The young voluptuous body of comfort woman on the picture represents his desire to control a female body, that is a colony, by a Japanese hetero-sexual man. On the other hand, how did Furusawa represent male bodies in those days? He described a few works with wounded soldiers or male prostitutes, and something was lacking in body or mentality with these male bodies. I analyzed how his experience of war and defeat in China and Korea were visualized in his art works, in the process of his reconstructing his identity after the war. Although art historians and critics have treated Furusawa as heresy as “an abnormal surrealist”, his visual representation of comfort women and male soldiers shows a common theme with postwar Japanese male intellectuals.
  • 7.

    The Museum of Sexual Slavery by Japanese Military: Gendered Nationalism and Politics of Representation

    Kim Hyeonjoo | 2010, (28) | pp.195~229 | number of Cited : 1
    The Museum of Sexual Slavery by Japanese Military opened in 1998 in the city of Kwangju in Gyeonggi province as the first alternative historical museum in Korea. With the purpose of history education on the subject of sex slaves for the next generation and vindication of ‘comfort women’, it was built next to the House of Sharing, a home for the living comfort women who were drafted for sexual slavery by Japan during World War II. In this article, I investigate how the museum has become a contested site which raises questions around the official history of Korea and Japan, gendered bias of Korean nationalism, and politics of representation. Its exhibits range from the remains, historial photographs, diagrams, maps to a replica of comfort house and testimonials by comfort women. Its peculiar contents of all, however, are the artworks produced by comfort women as well as contemporary artists of Korea on the subject. Those works of art lead us to consider discrepancies between self-representation and representation of others, ethical issues, or political positions of the artists in dealing with experiences of others. This article also discusses to situate the paintings produced by Korean comfort women at the boundary of art by considering issues such as the binarism of the amateur and the professional, the relationship between the process and the outcome in art making, especially in the context of new genre public art, and the relationship to Minjung Art. The study on the Museum of Sexual Slavery by Japanese Military entails complicated issues of the gendering Korean nationalism and politics of representation.
  • 8.

    What Japanese Women Artists Painted during the WWII— the Paintings by Hasegawa Haruko and Other Japanese Women Painters

    고카츠 레이코 | 2010, (28) | pp.231~277 | number of Cited : 0
    The author conducted a comprehensive survey of the Japanese women painters (of mainly western-style painting) before and during the wartime for the exhibition entitled Japanese women artists before and after World War II, 1930s-1950s held at Tochigi Prefectural Museum of Fine Arts in 2001. These women artists had been lost in oblivion in the postwar history for long time. The research revealed the reality of enormous gender inequality in the system of education, exhibition and even entire society at that time. It ruled all aspects of both public and private art school, official exhibitions, and many art organizations. On the other hand, the research also searched out the ambitious activities of women artists under such male dominated society. In order to ensure their opportunities to exhibit their works and further their pursuit of artistic skill, they worked together cohesively to establish art organizations and group exhibitions exclusive to women. These facts raise a question; what these Japanese women artists painted under the wartime circumstance in late 1930s and 1940s? On the occasion of the recent discovery of hitherto-unknown painting by Hasegawa Haruko (1895-1967) in which she painted a woman in the battlefield, this paper was written to introduce activities of and works by such women painters including Hasegawa, Migishi Setsuko (1905-1999), Nakata Kikuyo (Yoshie)(1902-1995) and Yoshida Fujiwo (1887-1987) during the wartime. By painting women working on the home front and boys in military training, the women artists did support the national policy of the Empire of Japan that was then prosecuting the war. While the influence of their activities is still questionable, it indicates that women also share part of the wartime responsibility. Though socially underestimated and thought to be inferior to men, women painters were not standing by doing nothing, but were actively engaged in warfare by possible means. This paper introduced their activities in detail and at length in order neither to appreciate nor to denounce their activities and works, but to figure out how and why the women, willingly or unavoidably, took part in the warfare, and to examine what roles and meanings their paintings and illustrations bore. Meanwhile, it is left for next occasion to introduce wartime works by Akamatsu Toshiko (Maruki Toshi, 1912-2000) and to explore continuity and discontinuity between during and after the war in the activities of the women artists including Hasegawa Haruko.
  • 9.

    Regarding the Subject of Pain, Mine and Others: History and Memory as Archives

    Chung Yeon Shim | 2010, (28) | pp.279~309 | number of Cited : 4
    Jacques Derrida notes in his Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression that “archive fever”occurs when there is trauma such as a phantom limb (physical) or consequent psychological obstacles to one’s memory. Trauma, developed from the Greek word titrōskō for wound,has been “intergenerational and transgenerational” in the form of postmemoirin the case of the Holocaust of World War II. Owing to many scholarly works, we have noticed that the trauma is apparent not only in the victims but also in the families of the perpetrators. This paper, however, is not a study of trauma in the Freudian sense. Rather by following archive fever used“ to record memory and history”, I want to demonstrate the way the “younger” generation of artists who did not experience the Pacific war, or the Korean civil wars firsthand, transforms their artworks and their documentary-like working process as a symbolic site of archives in order to“ record” and“ remind” people of the pain of“ mine”and others. By jeopardizing the political ideologies whose lens has been essential in looking at postwar Korean and Japanese artists in dealing with war-related subject matters, I should like to consider five particular artists―Yong Soon Min, Yoshiko Shimada, Yongsuk Kang,Makoto Aida, and Yukinori Yanagi ― as those who strive to present history they have not directly experienced as painful yet poignant memories. The archives in general exist as an “aporia” resulting from a difficulty or uncertainty, that is, from an indeterminacy of meaning by two different parties. In this light, my paper does not delve into the dichotomies of victimized Korean artists vis-à-vis Japanese artists and group the aforementioned five artists as the same“ generational” artists. By considering these and other comparable artists,I want to see what their artworks say about memory, history, and their pain as well as that of others. My paper first explores the polemical texts and works by Min and her visual and textual explanation of “positionality” as an Asian artist in the United States, whereas my consideration of Shimada, an outspoken active feminist constructs the American occupation of Japan after the end of the Second World War. Converting their artworks as “gendered” constructs, the two artists create therapeutic arenas for their subjects. Secondly, I shall examine the Korean artist Kang and the Japanese Aida to analyze the operation of photographic indexicality in their works. The alienated distance is rhetorically experimented with in Kang’s case as he has written in his statement about the silverprint works taken at the site of “Maehyang-ri”, where Korean-based American soldiers practiced air shooting. Kang’s grey-tone work is like a calm, yet psychologically embedded documentary film, and I try to take note of the underlying reason for his aesthetic decision for the alienating distance. This visual rhetoric is compared to works of Jeff Wall and Walid Raad in presenting ambiguity imbedded in the photographic tool. On the other hand,Aida’s series of works entitled Sensoga Returns/War Pictures Returns that he completed in past decades is rather controversial and visually quite striking and, even in some cases,disturbing. In Aida’s works, in particular, we witness a political ambivalence that makes us question whether the works glorify the war or criticize it. War, memory, history, and gender intersect in the works of Yukonori Yanagi as well as that of Nobuyuki Oura. Yanagi’s Hinomaru and Oura’s Holding Perspective Series touch on the controversial subject matter by dealing with the forgotten memory of their history,which is closely related to liquidating the vestiges of the Pacific Wars by presenting Japan as the victim (by the United States) and thecolonizer (of Korea), the very Janus-faced situation the country strives to forget. We find in these provocative artists the political ambivalence seen through our“ historical” eyes. Grouping these Korean and Japanese contemporary arts under the rubric of“ archives”, however, I have attempted to examine their work in parallel fashion, not hierarchically through the perspectives of gender and nation.
  • 10.

    Politik der Erinnerung: der noch nicht beendete Krieg und das Geschlecht

    Yung Wook, Kim | 2010, (28) | pp.311~334 | number of Cited : 3
    Die vorliegende Studie versucht die Minjung Art mit der Post-Minjung Art zu vergleichen,jeweils anhand von Werken Shin Hakchŏls und Ko Sŭnguks, unter dem Aspekt der sexualisierten Nation und des gegenderten Nationalismus. Minjung Art war eine Kulturbewegung, die im postkolonialen Zeitraum an einseitig-entstellter Rezeption der westlichen Moderne Kritik ausgeübt und nach der Form der selbständigen, dem politischgeschichtlichen Kontext in Korea entsprechenden Kunst gesucht hat. Der Geist von Minjung Art war unter anderem in der Entkolonialisierung zu finden, die auch Inhalte des Widerstandes gegen das diktatorische Regime, den Kulturimperialismus und letzten Endes den westlichen Kapitalismus enthielt. Jedoch konnte die Minjung Kunstbewegung sich davon nicht befreien, im gewissen Sinne die gewalttätige Struktur zu reproduzieren, die sie aufzuheben sich angestrengt hat, indem sie die sexualisierte Nation bzw. den gegenderte Nationalismus in den Vordergrund gestellt und dadurch den phallozentrischen Männerphantasien Vorschub geleistet hat. In Shin Hakchŏls Werken über die moderne und gegenwärtige Geschichte Koreas waren die Frauenkörper in einer grausam-phallozentrischen Erotik zum Ausdruck gebracht: Frauen, vergewaltigt und gelitten, wurden zum Symbol der gelittenen Nation. Hier waren die Kolonialherrscher und die kolonialisierten Männer in Streit um die einheimischen Frauen: sie wurden von beiden Seiten vereinnahmt und vergegenständlicht. Dagegen versuchte Ko Sŭnguk in seinem ‘Dongducheon Projekt’, die Representation oder genauer die Un/möglichkeit der Representation selbst zum Gegenstand der künstlerischen Überlegung zu machen. Dongducheon ist eine Stadt, in der die zweite Infanterie Division von USA stationiert war und immer noch ist. Und die von ihm vorgeführten Bilder der Frauen, die in Clubs in Dongducheon arbeiteten, brachten das Publikum zum Nachdenken über das Leben von ‘Homo Sacer’, den Menschen, die von dem gesetzlich-staatlichen Schutz ausgeschlossen sind. Ko Sŭnguks Projekt kann ein Beispiel dafür sein, daß die Künstler im Rahmen der Post-Mingjung Kunst über den gegenderten Nationalismus hinauszugehen und Alteritäten zum Ausdruck zu bringen suchen.
  • 11.

    Die Rezeption der Kinderkunst bei den Künstlern des Blauen Reiters-das Vorhaben des Umsturzes des herrschenden bildnerischen Zeichensystems

    윤희경 | 2010, (28) | pp.335~364 | number of Cited : 1
    Diese Arbeit untersuchte über die Wertschätzung und Rezeption der Kinderkunst von den Künstlern des Blauen Reiters. Die Künstler des Blauen Reiters versucten die wahre Realität der Welt einzudringen und sie in ihrer Kunst zu offenbaren, wobei sie das beherrschende naturalistische Zeichensystem verzweifelten. Sie dachten, daß sich das konvetionale bildnerische Zeichensystem auf die von der Zweck-Rationalität eingeprägte konventionelle Denkweise begründet. Die whare Realität der Welt, die Kandinsky als ‘innerer Klang’nannte, war für sie nur dadurch zu erreichen, eine von dem traditionalen Zeichensystem befreite, völlig neue Kunstsprache zu entwickeln. Aus diesem Grund haben sie die von der konventionalen Wahrnehmungsweise der Welt unbeeinflußte Kinderkunst als ein Vorbild aufgegriffen. Daher haben sie in ihrer programmhaften Almanach『 Balue Reiter』 neben den Werken der Berufskünstler auch die Kinderzeichnungen gleichwertig aufgenommen. Under den Künstlern des Blauen Reiters haben Wassily Kandisky und Paul Klee besonders intensiv mit den Kinderzeichnungen auseinandergesetzt. Kandinsky besaß gemeinsam mit Gabriele Münter eine große Sammlung der Kinderzeichnungen, die als seine wichtige Inspirationsquelle in den Jahren der Suche nach der neuen expressiven Kunstsprache dienten. Der Einfluß von Kinderkuns war nicht nur bei der einfachen äußerlichen Übernahme von bildlicher Sprache zu suchen. Was für ihn mehr von Bedeutung war, die typischen kompositionsweise der Kinderkunst. Die sprunghafte Verwendung der Proportion und die Auflösung aller rational nachvollziehbaren Raumübergänge dienten ihm als das Mittel, den narrativen Zusammenhang abzubrechen. Die gebrochene Syntax zwischen den gegenständlichen Bezüge ergibt nicht einmal eine lesbare einheitliche Assoziationskette, wobei eine ikonographische Auslegung seiner Werke verweigert wird. Dadurch gezielt wäre, die gewöhnliche, von dem praktisch-zweckmäßigen Interesse bestimmte Leseweise des Betrachters in die Frage zu stellen und eine neue Sehweise zu fördern, damit der ‘innere Klang’ herausgelesen wird. Auch Paul Klee schäzte die Kinderkunst sehr hoch. Für seine Suche nach dem Weg, das unsichtbare sichtbar zu machen, bot ihm Kinderkunst eine wichtige Lösung. Klee schätzte seine eigenen Kinderzeichnungen als ernste Kunstwerke hoch und daraus ein neues Darstellungsverfahren entwickelte, das er als ‘psychische Improvisation’ nannte. Die nächste Inspirationsquelle für Klees Kunst war das wissenschaftliche Buch Die Entwicklung der Zeichnerischen Begabung von Kerschensteiner. So sind zwischen den Kinderzeichnungen in diesem Buch und dem neu entwickelten schematischen Stil Klees gewiße Parallelen zu finden. Jedoch ist die Grundeinstellung über die Kinderzeichnung bei beiden sehr verschieden. Nach Kerschensteiners These gehöre die kleinkindliche schematische Darstellungsweise zu dem niederen Entwicklungsstand, welche durch Ausbildung zu dem Naturalismus übergehen müsse. Diese Einsicht ist gerade der Gegensatz zu der Meinung der Künstler des Blauen Reiters, die den schemtischen Stil der Kleinkinder viel höher als den naturalistischen Stil geschätz hatten. Die Einsicht der Künstler des Blauen Reiters weist eine gewisse Ähnlichkeit mit der heutigen wissenschaftlichen Strömung des Poststrukturalismus auf, welche die in der bisherigen europäischen Geschichte ignorierte oder unterdruckte Seite wieder rehabilitiert und die umgekehrte Neuordnung der Werte anstrebt. So gesehen, ging die Kunst der Entwicklungsschritt der Wissenschaft weit voraus.
  • 12.

    Faces of Korean Modern Art in Overseas Exhibitions

    Kim, JungHee | 2010, (28) | pp.365~403 | number of Cited : 2
    The <Exhibition of Korean Modern Art> in the Worldhouse Gallery in U.S.A. of the year 1956 is the 1st overseas exhibition of Korean art after the liberation from the Japanese colonization. From then on the interests and desires of Korean artists to participate in overseas exhibitions were very high and increased drastically. For example, as early as 1960the association of Korean Modern Artist opened a special Even though Korea could participate in Venice Biennale only 1986 for the first time, for example, the Association of Korean Modern Artists opened a special exhibition to raise fund to build a national pavilion in the Venice Biennale, but korean could participate in this Biennale for the first time only 1986 and the Korean national pavilion in Venice was built 1995 as the last national pavilion in the Giardini. For Korean artists in general overseas exhibitions have played as the most important instrument to make a carrier in this field because the latter appeared as an artistic success and guaranty by the qualifying through the international canons of the foreign professionals. The importance and impact of them for the Korean artists have been reduced bith with the increase of travels, and solo exhibitions in foreign countries at the end of the eighties and through the so called globalization of the nineties which accelerated the exchanges between countries not only in economical and cultural aspects but also in nearly all ones. Even though the overseas exhibitions are still wished by most of the Korean artists. As we can suppose from the above mentioned facts that the association of the Korean artists announced the necessity of the founding of the national pavilion, the awareness of the national identity was important for the Korean artists who have experienced the colonization and the civil war. These two elements, namely the importance of the exhibition in foreign countries, and of the meaning of the national identity among the Korean artists have been unified in overseas exhibitions as concept of a collective identity called as "Koreaness" or "something to be Korean". This phenomenon reached peak 1995, which was set as "the Year of Korean Art" by the Korean government. In this year the national pavilion of Korea in Venice Biennale was built and Jun Soochun received the Special Prize through the show in this room. The identity is not determined but constructed. The collective identity is not the real,but the imagined, and arbitrary. Moreover the meaning of 'being Korean' in the postnational era is not fixed the world wide increased migration. This phenomenon being called as nomadism shows the arbitrariness of the identity of a nation. It was proved through the exhibition "KOREAMERICAKOREA" which was held on May 2000 in Art Sonje Center in Seoul. Japan has played a decisive role in the process in which the "Koreaness" was created since the end of 1960s until to the beginning of 1990s. In the 1970s and 1980s the White or the Whiteness was exclusively the quality of the Koreaness in the Korean painting. It was created and constructed by Japanese critic Nakahara Yuske and reproduced by some particular Korean critics and painters. Such identification of Korean art was connected to the dualistic division of Orient and Occident. 40 or 50 years long the meaning of being Korean or the national identity of Korea, whatever it might be called, was mapped according to the dualism as the counterpart of the European and North American. In the dualistic pairing scheme Korea was mapped, not only by itself but also by the other, as the past against to the present, the spirit against the material or the nature against the material civilization. The item of the paring was varied or combined with the same part of another pairing schema. In this paper I will show how specific Korean art between 1960s and 2000 was identified as the Korean and how the former was mapped as the counterpart of the Western like nature, spirit or past. I will show how the Korean artists of the younger generation including the feminist women artists used the reversed orientalist view of the Western male audiences. It will be analyzed who and which institutional bodies had the hegemony in the processes in which the overseas exhibitions were organized and the artists were selected.