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2014, Vol., No.36

  • 1.

    Socio-cirtical Perspectives in Indonesia’s “Modern New Art Movements”

    강지용 | 2014, (36) | pp.7~36 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The objective of this essay is to examine the awareness of socio-political issues found in Indonesian Art and the presence of such awareness across New Art Movements continuing all the way to the present in Indonesian visuar art works. For this puprose, the essay studies the phenomenon of art work topicalizating or visualizating socio-political issues within contemporary art’s second development in today’s Indonesia. Jim Supangkat claims that the phenomenon occurs because these Indonesian artists are of the generation that went through a turbulent period time in the region. However, this attribute is not limited to the present but seen as a characteristic of Indonesia’s modernization process in general. Through the activities of PERSAGI and GSRB, important New Art Movements in the modernization of the country, this essay will tell that such attribute is a regional quality prevalent in all modern art of Indonesia.
  • 2.

    The Korean Monotone Painting of the 1970s: Methodology of Indefinitely Repetitive Actions

    Kwon Young-jin | 2014, (36) | pp.37~64 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    The Korean Monotone Painting is one of the major achievements of contemporary Korean art of the 1970s. Its monotone canvas stripped of figurative forms has been regarded as a unique manifestation of ‘Korean Modernism’ which applied Korean identity to Western abstraction. This paper aims to critically review the meaning of ‘Korean Modernism,’ a term that is used almost without exception in the discourse on Monotone Painting. It focused on how this painting style was developed in relation with the social context of the 1970’s. The emphasis on ‘action’ in abstract art of the West offered an opportunity for the artists of Monotone Painting to reconsider their method of production. However, in Monotone Painting the action was interpreted, differently from that in Western abstract art, as a tool for practice of achieving unity between the materiality and the subject as well as that between the canvas and the self, and therefore was viewed in association with East Asian tradition. Production by repetitive actions, which served as a metaphysical tool to overcome material civilization of the West, conferred the status of ‘High Art’ to Monotone Painting, guaranteeing trades at high prices in the art market. This paper revealed that Monotone Painting and its aesthetic did not merely seek pure abstract art, but also weaved a multi-layered hybrid structure where different interests clashed and contradicting values coexisted.
  • 3.

    Artistic Responses in the Age of Mass Media: Theory of Media and Discourse on Kitsch in Early 1990s in Korea

    기혜경 | 2014, (36) | pp.65~93 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The democracy resistance in 1986 suddenly uplifted the social repression in Korea, welcoming the golden days of popular culture. The visual images produced by mass media of this period took the lead in everyday life, and started to substitute the traditional role of art. Through various means, the art world tried to respond to such trends of the time, and the discourse on media, intensified as a result, captures the social cultural context of the time. The Minjung Misul side, which aimed for political avant-gardism through such discourse on medium, not only maintained a flexible and open attitude towards medium through its reflection on instrumental literary thought, but also sought to eliminate the formal conservatism of art work. On the other hand, modernism group rejected the purity of Greenberg formalities and art for elites, accepting the art work’s narrative element which reflected its time and favoring the present relativity of art which integrated art with life. Such discourse on the medium made way for real criticism on the New Generation Art which embraced the idea of kitsch and collapsed the boundary between popular culture and fine art. The medium in kitsch art of New Generation where contradictory qualities intersect is read as an element of resistance defying the existing art world. Not only so, kitsch art demonstrates the social structural contradictions described in the theory of media, a tool of communication, in the sense that the context proposed by such medium of kitsch reveals the shallowness, meagerness and weakness of social structure in Korea, a country which has gone through a third world modernization of compressed growth. Such changes marking the Korean art world in 1990s signifies artistic means of reaction against the changes that took place in Korea, as the country entered the age of popular culture.
  • 4.

    Vatican Joining in the 55th Venice Biennale: Beginning of a New Interaction between Contemporary Art and the Catholic Church?

    Jea-Won Kim | 2014, (36) | pp.95~123 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    In 2012, the Pontifical Council for Culture of the Vatican City officially declared its first ever participation in the 55th Venice Biennale. It was very significant that the Vatican independently took part in the exhibition of the de facto contemporary fine arts. This reformative action of the Vatican was originated from the spirits of the 2. Vatican Council. The Vatican pavilion showed the three separate spaces that each signify three sub-themes; creation-uncreation-recreation. The three sub-themes were expressed by three variations to interpret a overhead theme represented in the Genesis Book 1 to 11 of the Old Testament. The preparatory committee commissioned the media art group “Studio Azzuro”, photo-artist “Josef Koudelka”, and installation artist “Lawrence Carroll” to work for the exhibition. Now the Vatican have to confront the Anti-Christian art which are maybe easily seen in modern and contemporary arts. Does the Vatican only want to enhance the cultural interactions with the public like all other contemporary arts strive for? Or does the Vatican only try to dictate the theological Catholic dogma to the public through modern visual languages in outside of Church? As the Vatican continues to emphasize, the former case would magnify the dynamism and varieties of the Biennale and extend the public’s understanding for the Catholic Church. But if the case were the latter, positive consequences would not be expected. The latter case could not sincerely mean a true reformation or change of the Church, but only a highly manipulated modification of approaching methods.
  • 5.

    A Media Archaeology of the Dimensional Image: Pre-cinematic Technology, Video and Digital

    Jihoon KIM | 2014, (36) | pp.125~152 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper establishes a genealogy of the dimensional image, a variety of images that encompass both the viewer’s perceptual experience of three-dimensionality and the construction of the image space for the volumetric representation of an object, from the 19th century to the digital age. Taking a media-archaeological approach as its methdological framework, this paper argues that a variety of three-dimensional images in the digital age are grounded in the cyclical repetition and overlapping of the two techniques developed by the pre-cinematic technology and the early computer and video arts respectively: first, the mechanical transformation of spatially and temporally discrete images into a three-dimensional image in the panorama, stereoscopy and chronophotography, and second, the creation of the synthetic space and the postfilmic transformation of an object into a three-dimensional hyperobject in video and computer, as illusrated in the artworks of early computer animation and image-processing video. Taking the works of Michael Naimark, Camille Utterback, and Ken Jacobs as well as the digital panoramic photography of Microsoft Photosynth as examples, I demonstrate that the various dimensional images in the digitial age adopt and complicate these two techniques in its predecessors and are classified into three aesthetic and technical categories: first, remediating the panoramic image in the computer-based synthetic space, second, the fluid coexistence of two-dimensionality and three-dimensionality in digital slit-scan videos, and finally, the three-dimensional recombination of discrete frames in stereoscopy and chronophotography.
  • 6.

    Avant-garde Art and Moholy-Nagy’s Media Aesthetics

    박상우 | 2014, (36) | pp.153~181 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This paper studies the sense of media in the works of Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, a key fi gure in the art history of avant-garde. By doing so, it aims to reveal the relationship between old media and new media. Moholy-Nagy is known for his work in traditional media such as sculpture and painting, but also in new media such as photography and fi lm, as well as typography, design, advertising. But the most original contributions of Moholy-Nagy in art history are his experimentation in light art, kinetic art, experimental film, installations. He stresses on all of these art practices and art education by which he tries to cultivate the new man. For Moholy-Nagy this man means the whole man who can prepare for the complex situation of the future society. His media aesthetics are comprised of three elements which are machine, light, dynamism. Moholy-Nagy tries to break with the past, old media esthetics which are the hand, pigment, static. Moholy Nagy takes interest in such new media because he understood by the early 1920s that the reproducibility of technically based media such as photography and fi lm, the proliferation of image through mass media, and an increasingly urbanized world have placed us into a fundamentally new situation. The Futurists wrote of simultaneity, the parallel stimulation of our senses from multiple sources. Moholy-Nagy felt that people needed guidance to cope with this simultaneous environment. At the heart of his project was teaching and education by which he tries to make a new kind of man, a new kind of society.
  • 7.

    The Work of Nam June Paik from the Perspective of Remediation

    이수연 | 2014, (36) | pp.183~209 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    Nam June Paik, an early pioneer of television and video art, drew the new media into the artistic methodology of modern art through the strategy of remediation. In his hands the new technological medium of the television was used to remediate the existing social and cultural context. The relationship between television and the social and cultural contexts of older media influenced not only the content of the new medium but its evolution as well. Paik applied the medium of television to older art and ways of life, and used them as a springboard for new possibilities. Television became part of the challenge of modern music to traditional Western music through its use in remediating musical instruments like the piano, while the Fluxus intermedia method of mixed senses and interactivity set the direction for the form and substance of experimental television art. Fluxus concepts and the tradition of painting also led the process of designing the synthesizer, along with the available technology and the development of the television industry. After Paik’s television media experiments of the 1960s and 70s, the medium has maintained its experimental artistry in contemporary art as a catalyst for remediation through constant shifts in content and form. The strategy of remediation, presented by an early pioneer, became a crucial force for television to evolve and adapt in the complex world of contemporary art.
  • 8.

    Art and Nanotechnology: Haptic Mimesis of Reality

    Cheon Heahyun | 2014, (36) | pp.211~231 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract
    Images of nanoscale objects, such as an atom or a molecule, in NanoArt, are changing both the way we see and what it means to see, raising a question about our knowledge of reality at the nanoscale. Seeing is typically regarded as an optical process, but nanoscale images actually originate from a space far smaller than the wavelengths of visible light, so cannot be viewed with the unaided eye, or even with the assistance of any optical instruments. The images of atoms and molecules need to be viewed through nanotechnology instruments such as a scanning probe microscope, that is, a scanning tunneling microscope and an atomic force microscope. None of these images, however, are equivalent to a photograph of an object at the human scale. The images with precise details of shapes and colors made by scanning probe microscopy are obviously representational, but artificial at the same time, for the objects smaller than the wavelength of light have no colors and shadows to make them look three-dimensional. Images of atoms and molecules look solid, but indeed, atoms and molecules consist of clouds of electrons in motion around nuclei. Once again, images of an atom cannot possibly look like an atom itself. This paradox of nanoscale images originates from the process of nano-watching as follows. Ultrafine metal probe or tip of the scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy is brought to within less than a nanometer from an atomic surface, and uses nanoscale forces to feel an atomic surface. During this process, software program collects continuous data about topographical variations of the surface in three dimensions, and then converts them into the codes of visual sensations with colors and shadows. In other words, nanoscale images are the result of a process of touching an object at the nanoscale and ultimately visualizing the haptic sensations. Thus it can be said that to touch is to know, and the images created by scanning probe microscopy imply a mathematical reconstruction of reality ― that is a haptic mimesis of reality.
  • 9.

    Korean Media Installation in Relation to “Cultural Translation”: Park Hyun-Ki, the First Generation of Korean Video Art

    Chung Yeon Shim | 2014, (36) | pp.233~255 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract
    This paper examines the identity of Korean video art in the late 1970s and 1980s in light of the “cultural translation” theory raised by Lydia Liu, Rey Chow, and others. Liu’s “translingual practice” discusses the way non-Western regions translate Western language and mediums. In the genealogy of video art, Nam June Paik has his authority as the founder of video art, but his Korean counterpart, Park Hyun-Ki, has established as the first generation of Korean video art. Park, eclectically relying on performance art, conceptual art, and Arte Povera style process art, established his video art in the context of an architectural media installation. After raising theoretical issues concerning the translation of mediums from one culture to another, chapter two discusses the “translingual practice” of video from Paik (United States) to Park (Korea). Chapter three queries the vernacular medium situation of Park’s video installation by looking at his significant works of art in detail. My paper discusses the way architecture plays a mediatory role connecting humans, environments, and artistic mediums such as video or video installation. Whereas Western video artists such as Bruce Nauman, Vito Acconci, Joan Jonas, and others explored the medium specificities of video screens, Park dealt with video as the medium of “translatability” in accepting the new medium in the mid-1970s. Park’s video installation was exhibited in the 1979 San Paolo Biennale and the 1980 Paris Biennale, the latter showing the first video art in its exhibition history.
  • 10.

    Historicity of “The Great Wall” of China in Contemporary Chinese Art: In the Case of Installation and Performance Art after the 1980s

    chung changmi | 2014, (36) | pp.257~284 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    This paper investigates features of Chinese installation and performance art practices which have revolved around the theme of the Great Wall of China since the 1980s, thereby revealing the symbolism of the relic in contemporary Chinese art. To the Chinese, the Great Wall means more than fortifications; they have projected their philosophy and ideology onto the wall in every moment of history. In contemporary Chinese art―whose full development was spurred by the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976―the Great Wall has not only served as a site to practice art embodying the history, culture and ideology of the contemporary Chinese citizens, but also constituted the artworks themselves. In this paper, Chinese installation and performance art practices from the 1980s are classified into three periods, with the ground-breaking exhibition titled The China/Avant-Garde Exhibition (1989) bifurcating the first two. The third period begins in the 2000s when China consolidated its status in the international scene, keeping up with the rest of the world. Artworks of each period reflected different aspects of the Great Wall; the wall was an organism bearing the scars of modern history, or a metaphor for a materialistic society. Art practices staged in a specific site tend to build close relationships with the historicity of the site. Just as the same historic event is interpreted differently in every period, so varies the significance of the site. In this sense, diverse approaches to interpreting a specific historical heritage may open up possibilities for novel artistic attempts.
  • 11.

    Resistance Transnationalism and Anti-Racism: Documenta 11’s Political and Aesthetic Repurposing of Black Audio Film Collective’s Handsworth Songs

    Keith B. Wagner | 2014, (36) | pp.285~304 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    Art traverses borders and nowhere is this more apparent than on the mega exhibition from Germany known as Documenta. By repurposing the Black Audio Film Collective’s essay film Handsworth Songs (dir. John Akomfrah, 1986) to installation art in the 2002 Documenta 11 series, I argue that notions of transnationalism uproots meaning and discourse about racial discrimination for future retrospection in our racialized global society, sparking a cross-continental dialogue in the process. A second concern in this essay is the “trans-media” modulations of BAFC’s essay film format ― an elastic mode of filmmaking and storytelling ― particularly in its “rethinking” of politico-aesthetic content. My ultimate contention is that the transformation of the essay film to that of installation art in Documenta 11 is still irrevocably indexical, precisely because it occupies a new but stable role: “transmitter” of mixed culture and mixed history in gallery rather than theatrical (or television) exhibition.