Journal of History of Modern Art 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.88

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2016, Vol., No.40

  • 1.

    Beyond the Modernist Space and the Post-modernist Space

    Youngwook Park | 2016, (40) | pp.7~33 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Post-modernist space pursues the multiplicity and heterogeneity beyond the homogeneity in the modernist space. The modernist space, as shown in the modernist architecture, is a space that pursues ‘transparency’. ‘Transparency’ means functional transparency and visual transparency simultaneously. It is revealed in Le Corbusier’s belief that the aesthetic elements correspond to their functions. But to the eyes of post-modernist architects, modernist architecture gives up on decoration as a matter of fact for its functions and bound to fall in the trap of uniformity. In opposition to the modernist architects, the post-modernist architects deliberately focuses on the disjunction, asymmetry and wasteful decorations. But ironically the post-modernist architects pursuing multiplicity and heterogeneity produce homogenous space such as post-modern cities all over the world. It is because the post-modernist architects just like the modernist architects understand the space simply as an abstract space deprived of the anthropological dimensions. As a result, post-modern space appears as an ‘uncanny’ space.
  • 2.

    Video Performance and the Affectivity of the Contemporary City: On the Video Work of Park June-bum

    Seunghan Paek | 2016, (40) | pp.35~63 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This article explores the affectivity of the contemporary city through the analysis of the work of video performance by Korean artist Park June-bum. In doing so, it focuses on discussing three of his works: <3 Crossing>(2002), <1 Parking>(2001), and <The Advertisement>(2004). Oversized hands appearing in the video screens, and the dynamic moods and the network of forces generated by the entanglement of ordinary urban fabrics are the characteristics of his works. What these videos mediate are instances of daily cityscapes such as crossroads, outdoor parking lots, and roadside commercial buildings. Park considers these seemingly banal strata of everyday life to be objects of curiosity, from which to generate a set of new relations by re-mediating and recomposing the given strata in various ways. What move forwards the narratives of Park’s videos are undoubtedly two hands, which are fragmented parts of certain bodies that do not further provide details regarding to which bodies those hands are related. The ostensibly threatening and omnipresent hands in his videos do not impose power onto the everyday in a top-down manner. Instead, those hands become part of the existing network of disparate forces within given environments. In other words, those hands as fragmented body parts prominent in Park’s videos are in resonance to the changing speeds and rhythms of given milieus, unfold new moods, and ultimately instigate a myriad of affective instances that reflect the infinity of everyday life.
  • 3.

    Trace and Mediation: The Portraiture without Face in the Era of Biotech

    Seung-Chol Shin | 2016, (40) | pp.65~95 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This paper critically examines a style of contemporary portraiture. ‘The portrait without face’ is borrowed from the last century as an appropriate form of modern biological portraiture. The portraiture in the era of biotech bears the biological trace, and builds the visual form, which refers to the subject symbolically as well as realistically. The portrait without face caused the crisis of representation in the last century, whereas the biological portraiture strengthens the relation between sitter and image. The activity of image, which bears the biological trace, forms an occasionality. The genetic trace performs a function of portrait conforming to index paradigm. It supports the return of print image in the anachronism, which refers to old faith of image, and tries to use this trace as an index, which humans have been using for years. The portraiture without face opens the space for difference, movement, and alteration. It refers to the reality of subject, which couldn’t be experienced without the image, and leads to an increase of being in the new representational forms. The modern subject emerges from the form of indexicality. It consists in the order of image, which is based on genetics.
  • 4.

    Curators as Cultural Mediators: the Gwangju Biennial in the Context of Globalization of Korean Art Since the 1990s

    Eunhee Yang | 2016, (40) | pp.97~128 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The Gwangju Biennial, initiated in 1995 and grown as the fifth major biennial in the world, is one of the significant sites of globalization in Korea. Since its conception, the biennial has been strategically sponsored by the central government at times even showing conflicting interests between art and political communities. As a result, it has been difficult to establish a system allowing autonomy for commissioners and curators apart from the powerful bureaucratic culture and the influence of local artists. Before the biennial, the concept of curatorship was not a commonly accepted one in Korea. Government-sponsored exhibitions were realized by artists and art critics who conventionally formed a hierarchical structure including numerous committees. Thus the Gwangju Biennial became a testing site for implementing Euro-American standards of exhibition culture and the concept of independent curatorship. This paper examines how invited national and international art critics and curators impacted the newly-born biennial influencing a global audience and establishing an artistic directorship similar to the counterparts of Venice Biennale or Kassel Documenta. Among those discussed are Harald Szeemann who as one of the commissioners propagandized ‘creative curating’ for the second Gwangju Biennial and Okwui Enwezor who became the first international artistic director in 2008.
  • 5.

    Nanoart: Artistic Research and Ethics in Laboratory of Science

    Cheon Heahyun | 2016, (40) | pp.129~149 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    The projects of artistic research, dealing with organisms through converging technologies such as nanotechnology and biotechnology in the ‘science laboratory,’ are intervened by ‘ethics committee’ related to the health and safety issues, environmental, and ethical problems. At this time, though art may object to the deliberation of the ethics committee or deliberately reveal the hypocrisy and contradiction of science, the main basis for the ethics committee to evaluate and determine the value of such artistic trials is not by the experimental or aesthetic aspects of art, but by the practical and utilitarian analysis of art projects. Therefore, there are inevitable tensions between art and ethics committees. This paper suggests an ‘interdisciplinary criticism’ proposed by Stefan Herbrechter as a methodology for this problem, which is not a trans-boundaries or a dialectical transcendence of disciplines, but a creation of ‘third space’ between the disciplines. In addition, the concept of ‘second order observation’ in Niklas Luhmann’s systems theory is introduced as a way to sustain the third space. Art criticizing science does not see its own blind spot. In order to see art that can not see its own blind spot, it should lead to a criticism of art criticizing science, that is, second order observation. In this way, art can reflect on the blind spot of art, and the same goes for science and ethics. It will be the ethical practice of art in the scientific laboratory to discover the conflicts and differences in ethics through the interdisciplinary criticism including such a series of second order observations, that is, a criticism of oneself criticizing the other.
  • 6.

    The Dreams and Mobility of Urbantopia: “Shelter Space” in Contemporary Art

    Chung Yeon Shim | 2016, (40) | pp.151~175 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This article examines the yearning for mobility and the “inflatable” projects in the works of Buckminster Fuller in order to find specific case studies in which architects attempted to find better solutions for dwellings in contemporary society. By looking at Buckminster Fuller’s “4 D” space and the journal called Shelter for which he worked as an editor, I analyze his concepts of “comprehensive design” and “autonomous 4D dwelling,” which are by themselves sustainable. Since these examples were realized around 1929, during the Great Depression, we find Fuller’s contribution to the communal purpose of housing of the era. The second chapter looks at counter-cultural actions and criticism initiated by the Ant Farm Group on the West Coast of the United States. Although the members created “inflatable dwellings” in which events, lectures, and other social activities took place, these shelters were easy to build and demolish. The third chapter explores the return of the social in contemporary art, by examining Tomas Saraceno, Oscar Tuazon, Michael Rakowitz, Andrea Zittel, and so on. This article, in particular, traces the historical references in the development of “smart shelter” in which I am working as one of the researchers, and this paper constructs the historical references in relation to “shelter” space as a site of human dwelling, a site of mobility and homelessness, a site of interpersonal communication, and a site of humanitarian healing space in the twentieth century.
  • 7.

    The Cultural Politics of Variété and Cabaret in Futurism and Dada Performance

    Cho Soojin | 2016, (40) | pp.177~208 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    This study examines futurism and dada performances as unique forms of “theater”. Futurist and Dadaist had long been paying attention to the role of variété and cabaret shows as “theatrical entertainment for the public,” and subsequently adopted those as their own medium of performance. To them, variété and cabaret of the modern era not only opened up a new space for communication between classes, but was also an effective strategy of cultural politics to fight against elite art. Futurists and Dadaists were avant-garde artists challenging pre-existing notions of art through popular culture, with each recognizing that the essence of the modern life lies in the enjoyment of preestablished entertainment. Consequently, futurism and dada performances were some of the most symbolically political art movements of the modern era to have a “popular”characteristic both in their ideas and practice. They were art forms that practiced “politics of medium” that facilitated connections between art and life, paintings and other art genres, elite and popular culture, and the bourgeois and the working class.
  • 8.

    “Post-Medium” and Experimental Film As “Expanded Cinema”: A Case of <The Clock> of Christian Marclay

    Jeong Eun Choi | 2016, (40) | pp.209~242 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    In this paper, I examined Christian Marclay’s intermedial works including <The Clock> and its relation to experimental films. After Neo Avant-garde movement in 1960-1970s, many “Structural Films” were produced. These Structural Films had common features with Minimalism, such as investigation into “form” & materiality. Marclay’s works repeat these Structural Films’ experimental form & contemporary films’ grammar of practice. However, Marclay’s works also have the features of Post-Minimalism. Even though maintaining Minimalism’s approach to form, his works are the results of a translation of Minimalism’s form into bodily experience & synaesthetic experiment. Marclay’s works, especially <the Clock>, could be evaluated as “tour de force” among so many contemporary post-medium intermedia works. In <the Clock>, Marclay uses sounds and moving images as technical support, also synchronicity with real time as abstractional technical support. Archive of found footage is used as conventional medium, through which technical supports are unfolded. As a response to the phenomena of real time archive in everyday life, Marclay’s <The Clock> works as a radical criticism on the situation of post-modern society.
  • 9.

    Redefining Collaborative Art: Textual Production in Gimhongsok’s Work

    박은영 | 2016, (40) | pp.243~262 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    With the increased exchange of product, capital, and labor, contemporary artists have explored ways of working with different subjects and techniques, and collaborative art is accepted as one of the major artistic practices. Gimhongsok creates his works based on collaborative practices with different subjects, including actors, museum docents, laborers, art critics, viewers, and fictional immigrant workers, and also explores issues of authorship, copyright, financial compensation, and the moral and ethical problems that occur within collaborative artistic production. This paper investigates Gim’s collaborative projects focusing on his use of texts and textual production within his works. Gim’s use of text has been discussed frequently in relation to his works on the serial translation, but text also plays a significant role in his collaborative works. Gim not only creates the exchange of artistic, social, and intellectual labor within his collaborative projects, but also redefines the relationships among the artist, participants, and viewers and mediates their communications through the use of texts. By transforming a gallery into part of a social communication space, Gim’s collaborative practices not only creates an opportunity to rethink the methodologies of collaborative art, but also to expand discourse on the production, circulation, and reception of art in the global art world.
  • 10.

    Negotiating Urban Identities: Spectacles and Conflicts in the 1995 Gwangju Biennale

    Yuri Chang | 2016, (40) | pp.263~283 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The 1995 Gwangju Biennale was a mega-scale international art show, planned as one of the civilian government’s commemoration projects of the May 18th Gwangju democratization movement in 1980. The main exhibition of the biennale, “Beyond the Borders,” expanded the meaning of the pro-democracy movement’s resistant spirit to the artistic progress, which overcome borders of nations, races, ideologies and religions. The event demonstrated the ambition to construct the Gwangju image as not only the city of democracy but also the world-leading cultural arena. Some members of the Minjung art group and the Gwangju local artists, however, asserted that the Biennale failed to represent Gwangju because it mostly celebrated the globalized cultures of the world, while lacking the locality of the city. During the Biennale period, they held a separate event named The 1995 Gwangju Unification Art Festival at Mangwol Cemetery as a way of opposing the state-sponsored biennale and restoring May 18th spirit as the core identity of the city. Such disparity between the state-run biennale and the unofficial art festival shows the conflicting urban identities of the new Gwangju - a city of art versus a mecca of democracy. The conflict between the Biennale and the local art group can be read as a struggle on choosing what should be the collective memories of Gwangju and what kind of aesthetics can describe image of Gwangju. In addition, this controversy illustrates the diverse interest groups’ discussions on who can create the common memory and the frame of history of Gwangju.