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2017, Vol., No.41

  • 1.

    Marketplace as the Alternative Exhibition Site in the 1990s and the Chinese Contemporary Art World

    Dong-Yeon Koh | 2017, (41) | pp.7~35 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This essay examines how the younger generation of Chinese contemporary artists and collectives used the alternative exhibition sites outside of art museums and galleries in the 1990s, the decade known for the Government’s oppressive policies against experimental arts in China, particularly after the notorious China/Avant-garde in 1989 until Shanghai Biennial in 2000. It also pays special attention to the 1990s as popular culture and consumerism became rapidly expanded in China; subsequently, an array of marketplaces such as stores, restaurants, and shopping centers became appropriated as the sites for art exhibitions. New History 1993: Mass Consumption (1993) by the New History Group, the exhibition held at Mcdonald, Beijing, and Art For Sale (1999) led by Xu Zhen, will be closely examined as each representing the earlier and latter types of unconventional art exhibitions. The emphasis, thus, rests upon highlighting unique political, social, and cultural contexts in which alternative types of art exhibitions arose in China, distinct from its western counterparts. Furthermore, it also highlights creative solutions that Chinese performance, media, and installation artists had devised by using marketplaces in order to avoid censorships as well as to expand their audiences within Chinese society.
  • 2.

    Aesthetics of Surveillance and Control: from Cold War to Globalization

    Im Sue Lee | 2017, (41) | pp.37~65 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract
    Surveillance is a mode of visuality that is performed by the oppressive governing power. Globalization after the Cold War made a paradigm shift from panoptic surveillance to data surveillance. This study addresses artworks responsive to this shift. They resist state surveillance and focus on collection, record, and fabrication of data and information, rather than visual observation. In order to criticize the domestic surveillance during the Cold War, Margia Kramer dealt with the FBI secret file on Jean Seberg (1980), while Pam Skelton conducted Conspicuous Dwellings (2004-2007), a project on the Stasi file. Both are based on the disclosure of secret governmental documents on the domestic surveillance. Kramer exposed surveillance and character assassination of artists by the state institution in the 1960s and 1970s; Skelton revealed the network among places which had been established for surveillance on the populations. Laura Poitras, who worked on the problem of surveillance in the US after 9/11, reconstructs the panoptic surveillance within the context of data surveillance.
  • 3.

    Study on Art Administration of Earthworks: Land Reclamation as Sculpture (1979-1982) in King County

    Imshil Hong | 2017, (41) | pp.67~94 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    The thesis is a study about the project Earthworks: Land Reclamation as Sculpture (1979-1982) conducted in King County, Washington, USA. It was a public art project to transform the devastated site into Land Art, aiming to provide the selected artists with an opportunity to rehabilitate the technologically abused sites through art, while raising concerns over the local community environmental issues. The project consisted of 2 phases: Phase-1 was a Land Art to transform the damaged site into sculpture, and Phase-2 was designed to establish a mockup to showcase the theme of the Project. Robert Morris and Herbert Bayer were selected for Phase 1: Morris created the work Untitled to claim desolation caused by industrialization and Bayer designed the project Mill Creek Canyon Earthwork and established the Mill Creek Canyon Park that was used for an entertainment facility for local residents while taking a role of erosion control in the region. For Phase 2, six artists - Iain Baxter, Richard Fleischer, Lawrence Hanson, Mary Miss, Dennis Oppenheim, and Beverly Pepper - were chosen and their earthworks were contributed in the land rehabilitation project. Among the six artists, Beverly Pepper suggested a sculpture modeled after ancient monument “Tell” and Iain Baxter suggested a sculpture highlighting the function of art.
  • 4.

    Expression of Disappearing Faces: Deleuze’s becoming-animal and becoming-imperceptible

    HAN EUI JUNG | 2017, (41) | pp.95~117 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Traditionally, the face has been functioned as a place where the concept of self or identity is shown. The authors of modern physiognomy had written the ontology of rational subject by reading faces and expressions which show individual’s sprit and nature. But they didn’t deny the correlation between physiognomy and emotions. Then the emotion meant something irrational, and the human capacity de-formalized. Therefore, the physiognomy has included the inhuman form, especially the comparing image of animal and human. This study considers this aspect of the physiognomy as symptom of disappearing face of rational subject. Deleuze also reads the face as a place of subjectivation and signification, and criticizes the operational method of faciality that differences are integrated to identification. By deconstructing the human face, he establishes the strategy of ‘becoming-animal’. Becoming-animal is not an evolution by descent and filiation. It is always a different order by alliance, contagion and infection. Finally, Deleuze’s becoming-animal comes to ‘becoming-imperceptible’. This study proposes schizophrene’s expressions as an example of disappearing face. The becoming-animal in art brut artists’ expressions such as Auguste Forestier and Friedrich Schröder-Sonnenstern, and the becoming-imperceptible in self-taught artist’s expressions such as Scottie Wilson and Michel Nedjar, can verify the creative activity of face returning back to potentiality.
  • 5.

    The operation of Smart Shelters based on EEG data

    Ji Seung Yeul | KYONGHO KO | 2017, (41) | pp.119~138 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    As the paradigm of all industries changes, a new kind of research is being made through a process of convergence of ICT-based technologies. The era where architecture was considered to be separate from other fields of study is long past. A logical and ingenious creativity is obtained by integrating architecture with open-source based expertise from other fields through rapid developments in IT. Shortcomings in architectural environments are being compensated by use of sensors to realize smart environments. Inside these smart environments, as sensors become increasingly utilized in all kinds of convenience devices, humanity is facing the era of “Sensor Panopticon”. In this era, there are attempts to apply patterned data obtained from the life patterns of individuals and environmental information not only to architecture, but also to various fields. The purpose of this research is to study the operation of architectural technologies that apply the user’s mental state using brainwave sensors, breaking away from economical perspective of cost reduction and productivity improvement, which was the main topic of existing research on architectural technologies. In this research, the previouslystudied operation method of shelters is analyzed, and log data organization process that analyzed the properties of brainwave patterns considering contextual purpose is defined.
  • 6.

    Panoramic Vision in the Contemporary Art: Victor Burgin’s Panorama Works as a Critique of Totalized Space

    Inhye Kang | 2017, (41) | pp.139~161 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract
    While Stephan Oettermann explains the panoramas mainly in terms of the nineteenth century phenomenon, the ubiquity of the recent panoramas, thanks to the development of digital technology, could be, in fact, seen as ‘the Return of the Panorama,’ as Alexander Streitberger pointed out. In line with this, Victor Burgin, from the end of 1990s onwards, has experimented with the panoramas in his video/photographic works. This paper specifically focuses on his panoramic images shown in the exhibition entitled, “Victor Burgin: Voyage to Italy,” which was held in Canadian Centre for Architecture in Montreal, Canada in 2006. Panorama images are of importance not merely because they appear in many contemporary visual works including those of Andreas Gursky and Mikhael Subotzky, but also because they embody the desire for the totality or totalized vision, which has been reflected from the panoramas of the nineteenth century to the Google Earth views today. This essay therefore first examines panoramas appeared in the contemporary works as well as in the nineteenth century world, and then investigates Burgin’s video works along with his notion of ‘Sequence-image.’ In doing so, this paper aims to read the panorama of Burgin’s works as a critique both of the totalized vision and of the representation of the total reality through media.
  • 7.

    Debate on Impressionism in 1957 China

    Ha Yoon Jung | 2017, (41) | pp.163~185 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study closely examines the articles on Impressionism and reports of Impressionism seminars published in Meishu and Meishuyanjiu before and after 1957 in China. Such analysis is expected to refine our understanding of Chinese art during the Mao Zedong era often viewed one-dimensionally. Impressionism suddenly rose to a heated discussion in the Chinese art scene partly due to Mao’s “Hundred Flowers Campaign” and the exhibition of French art in the Soviet Union in 1956. While fundamentally asking if China ought to allow Impressionism, the leaders of Chinese art mainly focused on three questions: Is Impressionism realism? What are the achievements of Impressionism? How can one evaluate each artist based on accurate information?This paper ultimately suggests that it was possible, though limited, for Chinese people in the mid-1950s to think, discuss, and even create art other than “Red arts” by which the Chinese art during the Mao era is often defined as. The revelation of such possibilities calls for more comprehensive study on the art of this period and reexamination of historical materials previously understudied or neglected.
  • 8.

    From Seoul to the World: Minjung Art and Global Space During the 1988 Olympics

    Douglas Gabriel | 2017, (41) | pp.187~212 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    This essay is about the first major international exhibition of South Korean minjung art, which was held at New York’s Artists Space gallery in 1988, overlapping with the timeframe of the Seoul Olympics. In their supplementary texts for the exhibition, the South Korean curators emphasized the artists’ ostensible preoccupation with national identity. However, the artworks in the exhibition demonstrated the elasticity of minjung as a category of artistic practice, as the artists asked critical questions about the ability of minjung art to speak to audiences beyond the local South Korean context. Placing the works in the Artists Space exhibition within the context of contemporaneous exhibitions and artworks that focused on representations of global space, I demonstrate that minjung artists questioned how space was represented and experienced during the late Cold War period. I argue that artists such as Kim Dong-won and Kim Yong-tae challenged prominent tropes of spatial flattening and the notion that the Seoul Olympics would facilitate the dissolution of Cold War divisions. In contrast, minjung artists underscored how spectacles of the global at this historical moment were contingent on violent spatial transformations at localized sites.