Journal of History of Modern Art 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.88

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pISSN : 1598-7728 / eISSN : 2733-9793
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2018, Vol., No.44

  • 1.

    Reconsidering American Photorealism of the 1970s

    Chaeki F Synn | 2018, (44) | pp.7~37 | number of Cited : 1
    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, an extremely realistic paintings resembling photographs emerged. The trend was called with various names, including Photorealism, which eventually became one of the most widely used. Despite its fast growing popularity among the collectors and the general public, the art critics dismissed Photorealism as paintings inhabited by a singular lack of meaningful content. The paintings were considered to be mindless copy of the mechanical eye, transparent in its meaning, not leaving much to be discussed. Such misunderstanding served as a stumbling block in furthering art historical scholarship not only during the time, but also in the following years. This paper intends to bring back the issues to reexamine and analyze the Photo-realist paintings. The paper will argue against the widespread misconceptions to prove the artistic intent and the political content embedded in the works. By situating Photorealism in the context of the 1970s American art world, the paper intends to discuss how Photorealism was not considered to be the best option to represent America at the time.
  • 2.

    Robert Irwin’s Installation Art: A Dialectical Understanding of the Semantics of Plural Boundary Deconstruction

    Shin Young Sung | 2018, (44) | pp.39~67 | number of Cited : 0
    This study aims to understand the meaning of plural ‘boundary deconstruction’ as seen in Robert Irwin’s installation art from a dialectical perspective, which translates this world’s various phenomena into an artistic context. In particular, it focuses on boundaries between artworks and surroundings as well as the audience’s interactions among their circumstances. By doing so, it helps understand the meaning of collapse of conflicts in his artworks where we can rediscover the beauty of the world through our own sensory experience. In his works, object and environment create one united artistic context with their mutual relationship. The deconstruction of the physical boundary confuses the complex sensory experience of the audience by making possible the simultaneous existence of conflicting aesthetic concepts such as insideand outside, order and disorder, as well as contradicting situations such as everyday life and art. Through this, the audience can not only achieve a sensory experience but also understand and become aware of its meaning of existence as subjects of senses that are connected to the world. This leads to a sense of awareness of other people. The audience can then feel the consciousness of kind as a community that shares thisworld through implicit sensory interactions that Irwin referred to as ‘the dialogue of immanence.’
  • 3.

    Gérard Fromanger, Gilles Deleuze and Michel Foucault: Connection and Flight

    Eui-Jung Han | 2018, (44) | pp.69~92 | number of Cited : 1
    Gérard Fromanger is an artist who is mentioned in the flow of Nouvelle Figuration or Figuration Narrative in art history. The works and activities presented by Fromanger during the 68 Revolution were a clear manifestation of his political character. However, Gilles Deleuze and Michel Foucault focused on his aesthetics rather than his critical mind in their reviews. In “Cold and Heat”(1973), Deleuze deals with the function of the color in Fromanger’s works. Fromanger shows connection, disjunction, and conjunction of cold and warm colors on canvas, and crosses the cycle of life and death. Fromanger’s work is hyperrealism because it does not reflect reality as it is, but it extracts coolness and warmth from reality and creates heightened reality. In “Photogenic Painting”(1975), Foucault follows the play between photography and painting in the 1880s and 1900s, concentrating on the image itself from the crossing of both arts. It is pop art, hyperrealism, and Fromanger’s works, which restarted the “connection to infinite circulation of images” that had disappeared with the emergence of aesthetics emphasizing the media in the 20th century. Fromanger projects a photo in the dark and paints the events that occur here. In the series of “photo-slide-projection-painting” by Fromanger, the image is not fixed, passes through the series, and generates a new series. The flight and connection of the image described by Foucault resembles Deleuze’s thought. In other words, connected to Fromanger’s paintings, the ideas of the two philosophers add coldness and warmth to each other and create another series.
  • 4.

    Dystopia and Utopia in the Art of Kenny Scharf

    Eunyoung Cho | 2018, (44) | pp.93~118 | number of Cited : 1
    With the ongoing re-examination of late 20th century art, Kenny Scharf ’s role is also being reevaluated. Starting in his early twenties during the late 1970s, Scharf has utilized a wide array of contemporary elements and references from consumer culture, television animation, street art, hip-hop, and punk in his paintings, sculptures, installations, fashion, and performance art. As a leader in the East Village art movement in New York, Scharf strived to showcase his groundbreaking work at Club 57 and otherdowntown venues, where his friends, including Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat, experimented with their collaborative works across diverse art forms. Scharf began customizing work by turning mass-produced ready-mades into unique works of art to suit the customer’s individual needs and tastes. It has evolved into his ‘closet’ projects as seen in the Cosmic Cavern series, which played a role as a new influential form of installation art. Scharf’s painting career likewise began primarily featuring works that utilize television cartoons, notably The Flintstones and TheJetsons, and his own fusion of the two, The Jetstones. As the inventor of “Super Pop,” he continued on unique projects, combining ludicrous facial images with symbols of pop culture and diverse biomorphic forms, and also his Jungle series featuring anthropomorphic trees that warn viewers of the destruction of the environment and the ecosystem committed by commercialism. Scharf’s works abound in paradox, as the artist employs a pleasurable imagery and a humorous mode of expression to address such grave issues of mankind as environmental degradation, drug addiction, the AIDS epidemic, the fear of world war and nuclear holocaust, and the apocalypse. Scharf’s art presents a dystopia masquerading as a fun and lively place full of garish neon colors and envisions a transformation/migration from dystopia to a space-age utopia.
  • 5.

    The Realationship between New Wave SF’s Landscape and Robert Smithson’s film Spiral Jetty

    Jaeeun Lee | 2018, (44) | pp.119~145 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper, I examine the meaning of film Spiral Jetty in 1970 concerning Sci-Fi New Wave which is a movement in science fiction produced in the 1960s and 1970s. Robert Smithson’s earthwork Spiral Jetty , as well is known, is considered to be most important artwork in land art history. Concurrently with the earthwork he made a film which shows its construction and after completion. This film seems like a record of the earthwork. However, it creates a space of illusion which is made by jump cut, close-up,filter and so on, which filmmakers use to consist of a theme of film. The film Spiral Jetty itself is crammed with bits from science fiction novels. Thus, this film gives us the opportunity to think about his entropic landscape based on the Ballard’s ‘inner space’. By exploring from the perspective, this essay can sum up the following facts. Firstly, the entropic landscape of the film Spiral Jetty consists in the embodiment of Smithson or human's ‘inner space’ in science-technology’s era. Secondly, this film shows his earthwork, Spiral Jetty is the system of megalith that possesses the memories of mankind which time has piled up.
  • 6.

    Machine Vision and Posthuman Subject: New Visibility and Cameras of Kelvin Kyung Kun Park, Vertov and Snow

    Hye Jin Mun | 2018, (44) | pp.147~178 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper started with interest in heterogeneous images and senses produced by machine vision. Since the invention of the camera, human vision has already been encroached by machines as it relies on machines to create and view images. However, the intervention of machines differing from the human eyes alters everything related to the visual system, including the nature of vision, the way of cognition, the attributes of the produced images, the observer's status, and the concept of subject. As a starting point for approaching this huge research topic, this paper cross-compares three film and video works dealing with machine vision based on camera, i.e. 1.6 sec(2016) by Kelvin Kyung Kun Park, La Région Centrale (1971) by Michael Snow and The Man with a Movie Camera (1929) by Dziga Vertov, and analyzes the heterogeneity of images, the relationship between human and machine, the possibility of new visibility and subject in these works. All of these works presents new perspectives that can not be grasped by the naked eye, which breaks the classical visual field and the humanistic visual system. Especially, the way that human factor is mixed with the production and appreciation of machine vision poses various issues about posthuman subject. Other visual machines including CCTV, smart phone, game and social media scattered everywhere are also changing current images and visual experiences. Changing visual perception and the development of alternative visual system depending on the varying concepts of machine will be left as a future research project.
  • 7.

    An Ecology of Technology and the Arts Through a Discussion of “Symmetric Anthropology” and “Soundscape”

    Joo-Ok Kim | 2018, (44) | pp.179~200 | number of Cited : 3
    The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the humanistic attitude by discovering problems in the modern anthropocentric view of the world based on a discussion of ‘symmetric anthropology’, a term proposed by Bruno Latour(1947-) in his book, We Have Never Been Modern. The Great Animal Orchestra, written by Bernie Krause, and which is analyzed in this paper, presents an auditory landscape using ‘soundscape’, which is a compound word made up of ‘sound-landscape’. This soundscape reveals the actual conditions of environmental pollution that cannot be easily recognized by just using our ordinary senses. NEUROSCAPE, a soundscape design system of RETRIEVER that uses deep learning AI technology, shows how sound, image and text information, using the multi-modal method based on meta data search, is restructured into a soundscape collage. By presenting such an example, this paper aims to ecologically look at nature and the environment, which human beings can not see, from an egocentric view of the world and to explore the possibility of reestablishing the host-guest relationship between the subject and others, which had been recognized by separating that dualistic existence from the human environment which surrounds technology, media and the arts.
  • 8.

    Opening and Closing, Body Subject: A Study on the Change of the Concept of Subject in the Post-Humanism Era

    Lee, Ji Hyun | 2018, (44) | pp.201~228 | number of Cited : 1
    This paper aims to explain the body subject and the community within a dialectic transition. In affirmative dialectics, the body subject discloses the dual structure of existence: opening and disappearing. As a site that reveals the truth of the subject’s self belonging and self negation, the body subject is a disclosed other. The body subject transitions into the other by deconstructing a complete, ideal and natural body and abandoning its own privilege. For instance, today’s experimental artists embrace the otherness by using their body to the extent that it is almost not acceptable. This body subject contrasts with humanism’s perception subject, and it is a subject that is distributive, collective and heterogeneous, not autonomous, individual, and exclusive. For this reason, the body subject in post-humanism serves as a site for ethical problems. The body subject it self is a temporary site and an ethical site. The transition to the other itself is an ethical act, and the body subject that converges human, animal and machine reinvents itself as the truth body through such convergence. This truth body is trying to create some truthful change by disclosing the situation where there exist separated views.
  • 9.

    Hallyu Images, Subversive Pleasures and Female Fandom in Cyberspace: Sunhee Lim and Sylbee Kim

    Dong-Yeon Koh | 2018, (44) | pp.229~252 | number of Cited : 0
    The paper examines the two female media artists Sunhee Lim and Sylbee Kim with an aim of exploring how the digital environment has shifted the relationship among South Korean popular culture, known as Hallyu, online community, and contemporary media arts. Lim’s and Kim’s artistic production, comprise of fan cams, clips of melodramas circulated on the Internet, reveal their shared approach toward online community, in which female fans can explore their passion toward the alternative fictional reality of female protagonist as well as toward male idols, also known as “Kkotminam.” Thus, using theories on melodrama, gender dynamics in voyeurism, this essay further purports to explain participatory and even critical nature of (mostly female) fan culture in cyberspace, as best reflected and investigated in Lim’s Landscape in My Room (2011) and Kim’s Lover Boys (2009).
  • 10.

    How did Korean performance art secure publicness?: Daehangno in 1986 as ‘Nori Madang’, and the Korea Performance Art Association

    Cho Soojin | 2018, (44) | pp.253~284 | number of Cited : 1
    This research attempts to explore the full account of Korean performance art in the late 1980s, which is often considered to be the starting point of the third period in the history of Korean performance art. The period also left an important legacy in the scene that still characterizes Korean performance art today. This research investigates the influence of Korean politics and social climate around 1986 on Korean performance art, and the problematic events that the art scene faced during those times, in order to signify the characteristics of performance art in the 80s that makes it so fundamentally different from those in the 60s and 70s. The 1980s was a turbulent era for Korea in all aspects including politics, economics and culture. The Korean art scene also experienced a series of transformations, where all parties involved seeked to fight for dominance through symbolic and stylistic struggles, amidst the quantitative expansion in the art institutions and market. The Seoul Asian Games in 1986 and the Olympics in 1988 were especially significant in their impact on the art scene. The historical current of such national events reached the very artistic core of Korean contemporary art and transformed its direction. Out of all characteristics of performance art that were born out of those times, the ‘publicness’ is by far the most important factor that continues to be prevalent in the Korean performance art to this day. “Publicness” enables the intersubjectivity between the artist and the audience in ‘public’ spaces; the times of the 80s allowed such performance art to start emerging around public areas in Korean cities. As a result, Korean performance art was able to become a public asset as opposed to a private one, and an open space where conversations between the artist and the audience on artistic and political issues could take place.
  • 11.

    Critical Aspects of Kang Kukjin’s Early Avant-Garde Experiments: 1964-1974

    Chung Yeon Shim | 2018, (44) | pp.285~311 | number of Cited : 4
    This essay explores Kang Kukjin’s early experiments with both sculptures and installation art. Although there have been numerous critical studies of the artist, only a few monographs have been published since his death. To reevaluate his early works, this paper examines the artistic formation of “Nonggol” in which six young and emerging artists of the 1960s participated. Although their works still represented the spirits of Informel abstract idioms, their manifestos and critical writings nevertheless are noteworthy. The next chapter looks at Kang’s participation in the “New Exhibition Group” and the formation of “the Union Exhibition of Korean Young Artists” in December of 1967. The last chapter examines the very indeterminacy of the sculptural language of his works in his first exhibition which took place at the Myungdong Gallery in 1973. Analyzing contemporary primary sources and material culture, this paper discusses Kang’s short-lived experiments in early sculptures and the formation of collective artistic groups.