Journal of History of Modern Art 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.88

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pISSN : 1598-7728 / eISSN : 2733-9793
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2019, Vol., No.46

  • 1.

    Museum of Obsessions: Harald Szeemann and Outsider Art

    HAN EUI JUNG | 2019, (46) | pp.7~35 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines Harald Szeemann’s art exhibitions which introduce outsider art to the center of official art. Harald Szeemann did not treat outsider art as a ghetto far from social and cultural institutions, like Jean Dubuffet, but rather as a trend toward Gesamtkunstwerk, in which arts, documents and objects create a utopian world beyond the borders between insider and outsider. In his slogan ‘Museum of Obsessions’, obsession becomes an intense energy driving vision and free expression. Among the exhibitions that show the ‘museum of obsessions’, this study deals with those that are deeply connected with outsider art. The first period is from the years of Kunsthalle Bern (1961-1969) to the famous Documenta 5 (1972), with the theme of ‘Artistic activities of the mentally ill.’ The second period deals with ‘An archive impulse’ in the exhibition Grandfather (1974), which dealt with the artist’s grandfather’s belongings, and The Bachelor Machines (1975), which deals with the artists’ obsessions with machines. Third, in the exhibitions Monte Verità (1978) and Tendency toward the Gesamtkunstwerk (1983), which show ‘the aspiration for Utopia’, Szeemann shows both the totality and the originality of outsider art. And fourth, the series of exhibitions about the visionary artists of Switzerland (1992), Austria (1996) and Belgium (2005) help us to experience the various scenographies of his ‘museum of obsessions’ project.
  • 2.

    A Phenomenological Study on the Recipient of Virtual Reality: Centering on Merleau-Ponty’s Theory of Perception and Hansen’s Concept of ‘Body in Code’

    So La JUNG | 2019, (46) | pp.37~61 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Virtual reality works, which we see in contemporary art, typically use digital images to lead and immerse viewers into spaces that are similar to reality. However, some cyberculture theorists have a tendency to exclude the biological body of the viewer in the discussion of virtual reality. Do we really become disembodied whilst absorbing virtual images, as they claim? Through the concept of ‘body in code,’ this paper analyzes the view of media theorist Mark B. N. Hansen, who has been advocating the expansion of the body based on embodiment in the technological environment. Among the many works given by Hanson as examples, I will particularly be looking into the works of Myron Krueger, Simon Penny, and Agnes Hegedus to investigate the characteristics of the body that combines technology with virtual reality. I will also try to understand Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s perception theory, which serves as a foundation and basis for his argument, by focusing on the concept of ‘body schema’ and the ‘reversibility’ of flesh, which reveals the motility and spatiality of the body-subject. Through this research, I seek to explain that our bodies are actively involved in the union with the world by means of technological mediums such as coded programs, and recognize that they dynamically transform by exchanging their structures with each other and expanding.
  • 3.

    A Study on the Expressive Form of the Sublime: Focusing on the Temporality of Media Art

    Yoo Won Joon | 2019, (46) | pp.63~84 | number of Cited : 0
    This study approaches the concept of the sublime, which has been raised in various ways since the twentieth century through the expressive methods in the form of art combined with technical media. In particular, analyzing the concept of the sublime around the temporal characteristics observed in media art is a major objective. (New) Media arts such as photography and film, which can directly present time based on the characteristics of the technological medium, have been able to express the flow of time, which has been only indirectly expressed in the art of the past. For example, in the case of art using images or moving images, the nature of the media can present directly or indirectly the trajectory of time experienced in reality, arising from the point at which this time of reality is twisted and dislodged, revealing areas of unrecognizable time. This study is intended to describe how the impression of the present point of time, which cannot be composed of the realm of consciousness, is presented in the manner of the expression of art, and how the concept of the sublime can arise from this expression.
  • 4.

    The Origins and Differences of Dansaekhwa by Matter and Gesture

    Seunghyun Lee | 2019, (46) | pp.85~110 | number of Cited : 3
    This paper tries to locate Korean art within world art history by revealing the similarities and differences between Dansaekhwa and contemporary Western art. While objects and performances have become mainstream art, with matter and gesture, which are the main characteristics of postwar art, becoming a theme in the West and Japan, in Korea, matter and gesture were being done on the picture plane. Confirming the similarities between Dansaekhwa and contemporary Western art in terms of the theme of matter and gesture, this paper clarifies the differences while identifying why Dansaekhwa is still staying as a painting. To reveal the contemporariness of Dansaekhwa, the study further considers not only Lee Ufan but also Kim Whanki and the influence of Infomel. The gesture shown in Dansaekhwa is largely different from that of Japan as a rough action in Gutai or Monoha, and this is due to historical and cultural differences. And the cultural difference is not Taoism, which has been defined as the Korean character of Dansaekhwa, but rather the aesthetic taste of Korean Neo-Confucians, which is unique to Korea and contrasted with Japanese art, and the tradition of literati painting.
  • 5.

    Ancient Futures of The More, the Better: Obsolete New Media’s ‘Parallax Contemporaneity’

    Yung Bin Kwak | 2019, (46) | pp.111~142 | number of Cited : 0
    "What should we do about defunct or ‘aging new media’ artworks by a now deceased artist when there is no specific manual or artist’s statement to consult? Taking Nam June Paik’s dysfunctional multi-media artwork The More, the Better (1988) as an ‘exemplary symptom,’ this paper seeks to offer an answer. Focusing on the relationship between ‘Time’, ‘Nature’ and ‘Technology’ in Paik’s oeuvre in terms of ‘entropy,’ we will see how they serve to illuminate contemporary discussions of preservation and conservation of so-called ‘time-based media’ as ‘performance.’ To that end, we will critically engage with the humanist take on Paik’s artworks as well as confusion about seemingly interchangeable concepts such as ‘entropy,’ ‘indeterminacy,’ and ‘chance.’ By re-reading Paik’s crucial statements, writings, artworks including performances such as “Norbert Wiener and Marshall McLuhan,” Confused Rain, and his 1997 performance in a wheelchair at the Walker Art Center, we will see how The More, the Better as an ‘obsolete new media’ showcases what I call ‘parallax contemporaneity.’ In so doing, we will provide a necessary, if not exhaustive corrective to the extant scholarship on Nam June Paik’s art, and by extension, suggestive stimulants to contemporary reflections on new media, post-medium/media, and media archeology."
  • 6.

    Change in North Korea’s Concepts of Realism and Exemplarity

    Park Carey | 2019, (46) | pp.143~164 | number of Cited : 3
    In North Korean art, the concept of realism has changed from a social-realist perspective into that of Juche realism. In this process, the idea of North Korea’s sublime elite, known as the Suryong , was incorporated in to this realism, and eventually, the idea of eternal life was incorporated as well. Though these two concepts appear to be in opposition to the concept of “realism,” North Korean artists combined concepts of socio-political livelihood, the essence of the Suryong , and Suryong immortality vis-avis changes in exemplarity, so that these contrary ideas may coexist. What did not change in this process is that North Korean works of realism maintain the system of control, and that the role served by this art is to create the future desired by the system. Thus, the fate of realism appears to be intertwined with change in the national system, as opposed to conventional realism, which criticizes the contradictions of the system. We can thus confirm that the concept of realism in North Korean art is sensitive to changes in the North Korean system of control, while simultaneously being manipulated by those in power to maintain that system.
  • 7.

    Race, Nation, and Exoticism in Pai Un-soung's Self-Portraits

    Chaeki F Synn | 2019, (46) | pp.165~190 | number of Cited : 2
    This paper intends to discuss Pai Un-Soung’s self-portraits of his European period (1923-1940) in the context of the complex socio-political background involving two colonial/imperial powers: Japan and the Nazis. Focusing particularly on early 1930s Berlin cabaret culture, the paper situates and discusses Pai along with cabaret performer Mary Wigman. I compare Wigman’s interpretation and understanding of the East and the exotic with Pai’s experiences, and how they are expressed in his paintings. The paper also deals with the late 1930s racial policy of Nazi Germany, which shed light on some of Pai’s self-portraits incorporating Japanese iconography. Here, Hitler’s personal view of the Chinese and the Japanese races becomes an integral part of Pai’s way of communicating his own racial identity under the Nazi regime. The artist also actively borrows and appropriates iconography from traditional European paintings in order to reveal and communicate pride in his own “racial purity” as a Korean. As opposed to some previous scholarship framing Pai’s works under the East/West, Japan/Korea dichotomy, the paper situates the artist in the gap between multiple colonial powers where race and the exotic function as the central means of communication regarding self-expression.
  • 8.

    Debbie Han’s Graces: Hybridity and Universality

    Kyunghee Pyun | 2019, (46) | pp.191~212 | number of Cited : 0
    Debbie Han is a contemporary artist based in Los Angeles. In this essay, I would like to elucidate the meaning of her photo series Graces , created in 2004, in the context of the hybridity and multiculturalism of contemporary art. In my reading, Han’s own life experience as a “1.5-generation” Korean-American growing up in Los Angeles in the 1980s and 1990s plays a crucial role when comparing her works with those of other immigrant women artists in the U.S. Her Graces series can be read as cultural icons of contemporary Asian societies’ predilection for the Western standard of beauty forcefully imposed on Asian women—and gradually accepted as desirable values internalized by women themselves. By contextualizing Han’s works in the tradition of Korean avantgarde art, concepts of manipulated beauty and conformity, and Korean feminist art, this paper posits that Han’s works tactfully–or sometimes humorously–comment on this pan-Asian phenomenon of corrected beauty, by means of surgical interventions on the one hand, and by the visual language of her rediscovered heritage of the homeland on the other.