Journal of History of Modern Art 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 0.88

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2003, Vol., No.15

  • 1.

    Research on Korean Elementary Textbook Cover Pictures - Focused on the first curriculum period (1955-1963)

    Hea-Jong Koo | 2003, (15) | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 0
    The specific culture and political character of a society and the ideas of the authority that make the text is visualized into images described on the cover picture of textbooks. Pictures appeared in Korean textbooks published after Korea's liberation around 1946. The pupils 'Chulsoo' appeared in textbooks after liberation as symbolic figures receiving education and they also appeared in cover pictures since the first curriculum period (1955-1963), presenting standard images of children by describing them as main characters. These images of cover pictures describing children were examined after being classified into four types; 'working type', 'studying type', 'exploring type' and 'friendly type'. The child image presented in 'working type' is inside a typical agricultural household and village, where taking care of crops and keeping livestock is the life style of a common family. Smiling merrily in pictures of feeding the chicken and rabbits raised at home, pictures of raising flowers and crops in the garden at home, pictures of cleaning the house and park, pictures of working in the fields show that labor is enjoyable and emphasizes that children, as 'workers', are necessary beings in their households and villages. The 'studying type' shows the child image as a 'researcher' learning new technologies and knowledge by experimenting and using equipments. Experimentations are performed using microscopes, magnets and batteries, outdoor measurements are done with tapes, and observations are made through anemoscopes and anemometers. Also, studying at desks are often described and pictures using a set square or compass induces the practice of new knowledge and culture. Everyone looks down at their desks with serious expressions. These pictures reflect the school's curriculum that emphasizes the learning of new culture and knowledge and presents the education course which produces intellectuals equipped with scientific thinking and behavior. The 'exploring type' shows the image of a child as a member of our society who learns Korean history and knows how to accept new culture in pictures of surveying historic remains, public institutions, ports where ships come in and go out and pictures looking high up to express awe as a 'member' of the Republic of Korea are also shown. This reveals Korea's education idea to preserve it's traditional culture and advance it into a universal one. The 'friendly type' shows a child as a 'student' who participates as a member of a school. Pictures merrily associating with friends and attending school emphasizes that school is an enjoyable place and also tends to present the external image of a general boy student wearing a hat, long shirt and shorts and a girl student wearing a short skirt with bobbed hair. The cover pictures of the first curriculum period showed the child image reflected by the education idea, describing a proper figure for children. On the other hand, it displayed the modern instructional method of making children realize by themselves 'their' stature and importance in the family, district, society, school they belong to. Nevertheless, the external standard of children, girls frequently appearing with bobbed hair and short skirts and boys wearing uniform caps and shorts, was very similar to cover pictures of students in Japanese textbooks, where we can see that the formal aspect of pictures was still under the influence of Japanese textbook illustrations and cover pictures.
  • 2.

    Spatial Concept of Alberto Giacometti's composition with figures -In relation City Square (1948)

    Jaeeun Lee | 2003, (15) | pp.33~56 | number of Cited : 0
    This study examines Giacometti's spatial concept through 〈City Square〉(1948). In the mid'30s, Giacometti turned from a member of a Surrealist circle to a realism of his own definition. The change originated in his interests of the act of perception and how we see people across space. Therefore he had to express space surrounding figure. To do this, he made sculpture thin as a stick. To figure out really the shape of his sculpture, we ought not to miss his spatial conception. In this arguing point, this is divided into two branches which are a pictorial space and a space as situation. This is a stylistic aspect and that is what Giacometti want to say from his own work. Until 1947, Giacometti didn't arrive at thin figures, standing and full length. From 1937 to 45 every figure he made ended up an inch high more or less. For this period he used a big pedestal. It creates a perspective effect. But the scale revolted him. In order to put this matter, he needed a breakthrough towards a new way of seeing. It is not until he was watching a film in a Montparnasse cinema that he realized in real life how we see people across space. Later then, most of his sculptures after 1947 are of thin figures, standing and full length; women always hold their arms close to their bodies and stand still, while men are modelled in open stride. Here, the most important factor that affects a human figure is space between a sculptor and model. The space of Giacometti's sculpture is not a part of space occupied by the viewer but that by sculptor. The result was to bring sculpture closer to painting which always creates its own space. Therfore we can refer to it as 'pictorial space'. This long slender figures with broken surface clearly bears no relation to real volume of a human body. The shape is a suggestion of mass dissolving into space. Composition with figures such as 〈City square〉 creates another space. In this, figures are situated in Giacometti's own world. The world is what he saw or he experienced in City. He gived a pedestal standing slender figures a scenery. Their life is in city. Here 'standing woman' and 'man walking' are counterparts. While the frontal female figures could only be taken to extremes, 'walking man' allowed numerous variations, because his movements seemed to require that space around him be defined. In a note on 〈Man Walking in the rain〉, he remarked that he was this figure. Therefore four men, here, are his variations. For him, encounters between people were an essential part of his existence. From his Surrealist work, however, his figures failed encounters. It is city's life that he saw or experience. His 〈City square〉 exists only loneliness. No one overcome distance between people and people or artist and sitter in a series of his work. As the result to have studied like this, it can be said that every figures Giacometti made after 1935 did not start from a being of sitter but from an changeable figure's appearance across distance between sculptor and model. The space of his sculptures is based on his own personal experience.
  • 3.

    Anxious Bodies: Matthew Barney's Cremaster V

    Jieun Rhee | 2003, (15) | pp.57~82 | number of Cited : 0
    With an upsurge of criticism on Cartesian subjectivity and its foundation on logos, the discourse of body has emerged as an alternative focus in postmodern concerns. Although the mind has been previously privileged over, more recently body has become increasingly important as a locus of redefined subjectivity as well as a site of intersubjectivity. The notion of intersubjectivity is well traced from the phenomenological discourses of Merleau-Ponty. In his vigorous attack on the Cartesian subject, Merleau-Ponty criticizes vision-oriented theories that legitimate the rigid dichotomy of subject and object, which eventually engenders the binary opposition of mind and body. By using the term coexistence, Merleau-Ponty emphasizes the reciprocity of the subject/object relationship in which subject is contingent on 區 or her others. The discourse of body necessarily involves issues such as gender and race, but above all, it concerns 'others' and (re) defines the subject "always in relationship to others." This radical departure from the Cartesian transcendental (indeed, solipsistic) subject and the emergence of body have been witnessed in phenomenology and the artistic movements of the 1960s such as Minimalism and performance art. Especially in recent artistic practice and criticism, the discourse of body prevails as the focus of the strategies, which use psychoanalysis, queer theory, or the technological effects of new media (such as three-dimensional video) as their bases. Body, both as a subject of inquiry and an interpretative strategy, is also a crux in postmodern critique of ocularcentrism and logocentrism, which have been considered as the parallel terms of modernism. In this paper, I will delve into Matthew Barney's Cremaster V (1997), an approximately forty-five-minute film, which I believe, touches the recently-focused bodily issues including sexuality, and subject-object relationship. Matthew Barney entered the art scene in the early 1990s with series of physically challenging performances, which demand strength and endurance. Barney pursues discipline and self-absorption through trained bodily movements. His strictly choreographed actions are replete with sexual symbols and connotations. The rich iconography of sexuality most evidently appears in the Cremaster series. The cremaster is the suspensory muscle of the testes. Male reproductive organs located in the scrotum need a system for temperature control. The cremaster is a sort of thermostat in this system. When the outside temperature is cold or too hot for the testicles the cremaster pulls the testicles up into the body. Barney sees this inside-body state as a "pre-genital... possibly regressive state and a downright possibly more developmental state." The cremaster is the suspensory muscle of the testes. Male reproductive organs located in the scrotum need a system for temperature control. The cremaster is a sort of thermostat in this system. When the outside temperature is cold or too hot for the testicles the cremaster pulls the testicles up into the body. Barney sees this inside-body state as a "pre-genital... possibly regressive state and a downright possibly more developmental state." Even though he implies hierarchical binary opposition of the upright and downright movements that the cremaster generates, I argue that there is a yearning for the pre-genital state (which is supposedly considered as the primordial con ­ glomeration of male and female sex) in the Cremaster series. The series of films feature intricate symbolism and dense iconography drawn from psychology, mythology, and Christianity. Despite its primary theme of transgression of normative definitions of male and female sexuality (with its seemingly balanced gesture), the Cremaster series reveal the limitation of the male artist in his at­ tempts to achieve the pre-genital wholeness by subsuming the other (female) sexuality.
  • 4.

    The Problems of Sexual Identity in the Self-Portraits of Frida Kahlo

    Hea-Ok Cho | 2003, (15) | pp.83~110 | number of Cited : 1
    Frida Kahlo's self-portraits have been regarded as containing the life of a woman who has to fight against physical and mental pain during her lifetime. Her pain is attributable to the fact that her husband, Diego Rivera, has been constantly unfaithful and that she has been too ill to give birth. Yet her self-portraits do not only delineate a woman's suffering, but a victim's agony. And it cannot be appreciated at an angle of essentialist feminism only. I focused on the fact that Kahlo's self-portraits seemed to ridicule and reject the prescriptions of femininity and to represent the bisexuality in her works. And I also thought that the themes related to maternity should be reinterpreted from a new point of view. Julia Kristeva's theories on sexual identity appear to offer a framework for analyzing these problems. This study is designed to reexamine the established androcentric definition of femininity and to reread her self-portraits on the basis of Kristeva's theories. Chapter Ⅱ covers Kristeva's theories of identity and sexual identity. Kristeva insists that identity and sexual identity are not fixed. It is in the process of continuous 'signifiance' between 'the semiotic' and 'the symbolic'. The latter is related to social order, 'the Law of the father' and language inhibiting oedipal and incestuous desire for mother. On the other hand, the semiotic is related to marginal and oppressed feminine discourse, the pre-Oedipal phase, and the symbiotic relationship between the mother and child. Kristeva looks upon the subject as 'the subject in process/on trial', for the semiotic is not completely repressed by the symbolic, flowing over the boundary and challenging it. Chapter Ⅲ analyzes Kahlo's self-portraits according to Kristeva's theories. First, Kahlo's self-portraits have been read in accordance with conventional ideas on femininity in the androcentric society. But her self-portraits seem to challenge the prescriptions of femininity. For Kristeva, femininity is not inherent. I t is something only regarded as marginal in androcentric society, and it is equipped with 'negativity' and 'rejection', the attributes of the semiotic designed to subvert 'the Symbolic order'. Second, I looked into the expressions of bisexuality represented in Kahle's self-portraits. For Kristeva, the semiotic is bisexual. The semiotic is related to the mother at the pre-Oedipal phase, who cannot be reduced to an example of a biological femininity. The semiotic bears bisexulity, because the difference between femininity and masculinity doesn't exist at the pre-Oedipal phase. The semiotic challenging the authority of the patriarchal symbolic bears bisexulity Therefore, revealing bisexuality causes a crack in repressive gender ideologies dividing femininity and masculinity and imposing an unique identity on each gender. Third, Kahol's self-portraits reject and criticize oppressive ideologies instead of adhering to maternity in a compulsive manner. Images related to maternity can be newly understood through Kristeva's conception of 'abjection'. Kristeva puts much emphasis on the semiotic elements of motherhood. The maternal body is something horrible that threatens the boundaries and orders between the subject and the non-subject. As a result, the Symbolic order tries to suppress and accept the semiotic and abject mother. In spite of the operation of the patriarchal ideology, the maternal semiotic power is not completely repressed. Lastly, Kahle's self-portraits contain 'herethics', which is the ethics of the subject in process, and the characteristics of maternity accepting alterity. Her self-portraits should be not read as depicting women in pain sticking to repressive ideologies, but should shed light on it in terms of the fact that new sexual identity raises an objection to the dichotomy of distinguishing the superior from the inferior and the governing class from the governed class.
  • 5.

    'Art History in an Expanded Field' - Rosalind Krauss's theoretical development in the discourse of Art History

    Young-Paik Chun | 2003, (15) | pp.111~144 | number of Cited : 0
    Looking at an art historian's way of developing his/her reading of art history, one is allowed to see what is the most crucial thing about it; 'how to read' rather than 'what to see'. What is beneficial about tracking a trajectory of Krauss's theoretical concern is that we can get hold of some critical fluxes of the late 20th century western art. Most intriguing as it seems in dealing with Krauss is the fact that she started out as a Greenbergian formalist, but separated from him when she came to realise that what the period of the late 60s needed was a new kind of art which broke radically with tradition cherished by high Modernism. Krauss's way of seeing gradually transformed from her Passages in Modern Sculpturein the late 70s as a postformalist and still historical progression through The Originality of the Avant Garde and Other Modernist Myths in the middle of the 80s, which proposes her structuralist and post-structuralist perspective. In Passages she found an alternative way of describing a development of modernist sculpture. Then in Originality, she rejects narratives altogether in favor of a structuralist account of postmodernism. The latter's stance has been quite valued as anti-narrational as well as anti-formalist. Most recently, in Krauss's poststurcturalist discussions of cubism and surrealist photography she acknowledges the problems inherent in a structural account of art history. Her turn to semiotic analysis and the concept of the 'informal' endows her theoretical strength to deconstruct structuralism. Through such multi-layered trajectory of art history, Krauss examplifies a philosophical art criticism' as David Carrier calls it, expanding the conventional scope of the discourse of Western Art History. What I most highlight in this essay on Krauss's writing is her recent works such as The Optical Unconscious, The Formless and Bachelors. Through these books is seen her growing concern on Georges Bataille's notion of 'informe'. She uses Bataille to reread the history of modern art, especially aiming to critique Greenbergian formalism. Actually Krauss's early essays on Bataille were publicated in the mid-1980s (October 36) mainly with Annette Michelson. I pointed out that Bataille is referenced in Krauss's Originality, notably in her essays on Giacometti and Surrealists. Through tracing Krauss's progressive writings in 1990s, I attempt to reveal that Surrealism and Dada provide her with material through which she could undermine hegemonic modernism. It is because she recognised that these two art groups were repressed by Formalist's stress on rationality and logical relatedness. In other words, Krauss's logical strategy attempts to reveal the underside of Modernism, from which she finds a way leading to the postmodern discourse of art history. Putting an emphasis on her position as an ex-disciple of Greenberg, this essay tries to follow her ways of negotiating at first and deconstructing at last the powerful paradigm of Modernism. Surrealist photography in many forms is, in fact, what intrigues Krauss most recently. As is well known, Krauss with other contributors to October gave photography a privileged status over other mediums. Her theoretical concern on photography was encouraged by C.S.Peirce whose semiotic analysis has drawn its influence on Krauss's work from the 70s. It is, however, in quite recent works such as Bachelors that she resorts to psychoanalytic discourse - Lacan's theory in particular - as well as Peircean perspective. In addition to those perspectives, feminist insight is something that Krauss refers to, but certainly not identify with. In terms of the issue of sexual difference, she arouses quite a controversial argument on whether it could be an integral way of dealing women artists' work without standing on a undeniable position from a female spectator. Nonetheless, no matter how various layers of reading Krauss tries on, it is quite certain that she offers a challenging account of theoretical and historiographic problems of contemporary art.
  • 6.

    Kim Kulim's 'Deconstruction'

    Nan Ji Yun | 2003, (15) | pp.145~178 | number of Cited : 1
    Kim Kulim's artistic practice is a kind of deconstruction of meaning which 1s equivalent to Deconstructivism especially that of Jacques Derrida. The very ground on which he and Deconstructivists meet is that they question the method or process of signification. In other words, they negate the principle of 'identity' itself. They doubt the subject identified with the sign, the signifier identified with the signified, and the sample identified with the concept. As an artist, Kim Kulim performs multiple personas throughout his career. He denies the presence of unique and consistent artist by doing heterogenous works and by appropriating motifs and methods of other artists. That is, the link of identification between the artist-subject and the sign he makes gets loose in his work. The artist-subject is not the subject per se but the "subject-effect'' which floats from position to position in the context. He practices Derrida's concept of "nonpresence" or "the death of author" which Roland Barthes declared. In the textual space, not only the subject but also the sign he makes is not unique and consistent. In Kim Kulim's work, the link between image and its meaning, between the signifier and the signified is denied. That is, one signifier produces different signifieds and one signified is represented by many signifiers. The work and its process of signification could be called as "differance", the term Derrida made to designate the game of different signifiers, which is permanently deferred. Kim Kulim also loosen the link of identification between the concept of 'art' and its sample. He discloses and denies 'the myth of identification' not only artist-subject and artwork but also in the categorical concept of 'art'. He calls attention to the frame which defines art as art, and reveals its arbitrariness by blurring the boundary between artwork and ordinary thing, art and life. He works on the frame as a "parergon" which Derrida described as being attached to the "ergon" and also intervening to it If modernists give attention to "ergon", Kim Kulim turns his attention to "parergon" which has been marginalized by modernist concept of art. By that reason he could be called as postmodernist. In short, he has deconstructed the artist-subject, art work, and the concept of 'art' itself Ironically, this work of deconstruction is constructed and continued by that very act of deconstruction.
  • 7.

  • 8.

    Mechanical Man of the Bauhaus- The doubleness of Modernist Body

    Park Sohyun | 2003, (15) | pp.213~252 | number of Cited : 0
    This thesis started from the question of the exclusive boundary of Modernist Art. Modernism has been established on the basis of the opposites such as eyes and body, the spiritual and the material, art and non-art, avant-garde and kitsch, original and reproduction, maleness and femaleness, nature and technology, and then, arming with historical necessity, destined as unreversible law, universal moral, and fundamental essence through American theorists such like Alfred H. Barr,Jr., Clement Greenberg, and Michael Fried. It became a very meaningful turning point that in the sixties, the myth of Modernism was criticized and lost its validity, and reappreciated just like a historical happening by the stream of post-Modernism. But it leaves room for overlooking the discordance between American Modernist theories and historical modernists that we consider as though the myth of Modernism was destroyed just by the criticism and reflection of ex-post-facto. So this study focused on the fact that in the realm of Modernism there have been multiple discourses, which could not be unified as only one narrative, and also a lot of contradictions and ruptures threatening the purity of Modernism. This thesis selected two historical facts among them. One is that 'robot avant-garde', which overwhemed modern art in the early 20th century, was excluded as marginal stream in the American Modernist theories. Robot avant-garde ardently worshiped mechanical man as a new subject and object of modern art, and as a'New Man' of the new world of future. Therefore mechanical man was a symbol in which all the ideals of historical avant-gardes and Modernists were condensed. But the mechanical man, by taking both aspects of the hierarchical opposites premised in Modernist discourse, made the distinction between the pure and the impure invalid, and by revealing the points which that opposites were implicated with political, social, and cultural contexts, brought about the doubt of the purity and autonomy of Modernism itself. This doubleness of mechanical man made his existence invisible or marginal in the American Modernist theories. The other is a specific group which has been called as the Bauhaus. The experimentations of the Bauhaus were inclined to so-called 'unified art', and therefore expanded boundary of art included even daily life. To theorists who intended to give Modernism a rigid boundary, therefore, the existence of the Bauhaus was very troublesome. This troublesomeness was well expressed in the monumental lineage of modern art created by A. H. Barr, Jr.. The Bauhaus, which existed as a only cut-off in Barr's table, is a Modernist art and at the same time a non-Modernist art. It is boundary or joint itself between the visible lineage of art and non-artistic contexts existing as an empty blank in that table. For the project of the Bauhaus is the extension of art, with violating the boundary of art, and based on the autonomy of vision, with revealing mechanical body which that vision results from. Therefore, by re-locating robot avant-garde and the Bauhaus into the limited Modernist theories, this thesis intended to relativatize American Modernist dis course and to uncover the fact that Modernism itself was, having countless seams, heterogeneous and non-uniform tendency. The mechanical man of the Bauhaus was constructed through contemporary socio-political contexts and mass culture reversing the purity of Modernism, and the pure vision, accentuated in the field of Modernism, entered upon the stage with and as a part of mechanical body. Consequently, paradoxical aspects such like the mechanical man of the Bauhaus is not the others of Modernist art but one of various centers which made Modernism meaningful, and propose the possibility of multiple Modernism, overcoming singular Modernism which American Modernist theories and the criticism of post-Modernism to Modernism have approved as a premise.
  • 9.

    Homosexuality in Visual Studies and Art History - A Post-Queer (South) Korean View

    Chung-woo Lee | 2003, (15) | pp.253~279 | number of Cited : 0
    Part Ⅰ If you attempt to define identity of homosexual, and to examine its various ways of representation of desire, so-called "homosexuality", what are the consequences do you expect in result? Numerous recent writers have published lesbian, gay, bi-sexual and transgender(LGBT) - related theses as a service of traditional scholarship in art history. Are they all following the fashion of the day? Michel Foucault's Stultifera Navis is anchoring in the pier of NY? (In fact "the fools" have dominated a certain cultural realm of the city.) What? Also a ship of idiots is soon arriving at Inchon to invade Seoul? Is that so? Virtually the entire tradition of homosexuality studies in art history has been centered around conservative premises: 1) the subject should be oriented to the LGBT movements, 2) homosexuality has been summoned to refresh heterosexuality as a mirror of the otherness. One thing I'd like to point out is that even today - we are living in the first decade of 21 st century - few heterosexual scholars manage to handle issues of homosexuality openly in his/her academic practices, as if heterosexuals are not supposed to talk about homosexuality. Whether this circumspection might lie in old taboo of homophobia or new radical homosexualism, I don't think political correctness does matter in the realm of philosophy. Personally, as an openly homosexual in the socio-political position of post-queer, I am fed up with I-will-be-your-mirror strategy of a Nan Goldin type. Thus I am posing the following question: what are the governing principles of studies of homosexuality in art history, and how are they employed? (Katherine Hayles, one of the prominent proponents of post-human theory, mentioned that gay subject played a significant role in her journey of theoretical studies. Her self-explanations might account for the chief raison detre of the issue.) What kind of epistemological scenery do you see in this symposium of KAHOMA? Why are we discussing homosexuality in art? Part Ⅱ When I participated in the very first formation of Korean LGBT movement as an activist in 1995, I was confronted with problem of understanding homosexuality in Korean language. Accordingly, to rationalize homosexuality and to jargonize it in Korean language became a challenging task. Like other LGBT activists, at this initial stage, I invented our own term based upon sub-alternative speech manner of the Western LGBT society, thereby I could avoid wasting energy on rime-consuming project of translation. (i.e., "e-bahn", the most wellknown on-line related term of sexual minorities' identity belongs to this category. In 1995 I redefine "e-bahn", a gay-male-only-slang, and disseminate the term in order to substitute such foreign words as gay, lesbian, queer. As a result, I am certain that spiel-raum for sexual minorities in Korea has been provided.) But comprehending every meaning and nuance of LGBT terms in Korean language is still no easy job. We can try to borrow numerous old ideas from some film critics who dared to deal with LGBT issues in the middle of 1990s. Therefore, this symposium can be considered a belated but inevitable challenge for us to resume seemingly endless translation project. (I do not insist that discourse of vernacular LGBT and its activities are entirely imported.) And I do believe this unwillingly constituted project will eventually affect on the future of LGBT related art practices in Korea for a long rime, even if no one expects it at the moment. And yet, one question remains; why did Korean artists and critics in general ignored LGBT upspring in the realm of Western art in 1990s, while film directors and critics were facing the whole new reality? Unfortunately the early phase of celebration is now over. We missed all of it. In my thesis, I devote to a rough retrospect on Korean society after the advent of vernacular LGBT movements in 1995; I recall my memories on LGBT-related works of Korean artists (mostly gay-male) including some works of openly gay artists. But I do not offer an extended analysis. What follows is a brief history of Western LGBT studies as a new branch of liberal art (from Jonathan Katz to Alan Sinfield) that lead to the advances of studies of homo-sexuality in Western - mostly American art history (from Cecile Beurdeley to Richard Meyer or David Higgs). Finally, I explicate my own socio-political poison as a post-queer Asian man, and propose a new theory of visual art. In this process I use allegory of gay melancholia to expose the uncanny relation between gay subjects and modern metropolis. (For the whole theoretical perspective see The Design/Text #2.) I hope my work is useful for understanding and evaluating other presenters' theses in the 4th Symposium of KAHOMA. Audience/readers might be able to use my text as an introduction to appreciate each presenter's theoretical position. The map/gird is yet pretty simple. With a bit of knowledge, you can easily participate in on-gong edgy (also maybe gay) games out there. Thank you very much.
  • 10.

    Text and Auto-eroticism

    Shin bang-heun | 2003, (15) | pp.281~330 | number of Cited : 0
    This thesis forcus on the homosexual character of the textual production and modern culture in general. Especially I try to ascribe significant textual character or inscription to auto-eroticism, which means sexual gratification obtained solely through stimulation by oneself and one's own body. In this thesis the auto-eroticism also ascribed to the same meaning as philautia, auto-affection, mimetic double science, identificatory mimetism.etc. Especially I borrowed the concept of para-, orignianlly derived from the atomic theory of para-pathetic complementarity. Also the concept of para-is centended to the Wihelm Stekel's idioms of paraphilia, parapathia, paralogia. He uses the paralogical concept in order to call paraphilia, parapsthia, paralogia instead of perversion, phychosis, neurosis. Especially he mentioned the paraphilia whole through the concept of the feticism. Both para-and feticism preconceived the notion of substructural process of split and double. Those processes are also related to the fetishistic part-object. All those processes are intrinsic to the subversive repetition of the 'being-there-for other' and 'inside/outside' relations. This process is a kind of finding the 'self-difference' or 'self-same-difference' as the relation of 'the other to itself in itself. It is a self-differentiate or 'self-differing' in self-same-other, in which recourse the auto-affection of philautia. Thus I insist on this thesis both textual discourse (language) and the visual text (painting) reveal the retrospective auto-erotic feticism. Derrida's Glas is a good example of it. gl produces body(ε"λη), sex(Υ?ros), voice(λuρα), writing(λ?Yειυ), but at the same time gl stops the process of them in thoses words. Thus John Sallis defined those process of λ??οι(logos) а?δε?τερο?πλο??(recourse) and aμα(at the same time). This process is not a triangle of oedipal complex, but de-oediphalized dualistic mode of psychology. De-oediphalized structure is related to the self-castration according to Freud and Stekel, in which we also find the para-site of feticism. Self-castration and fetishtic remorsal are kinds of self-destructive process which in theory introduces father-killing and bell-ringing of father, other names of Glas. And the Glas is symbolized as a phallic-flower both contained male and female sex, in which we also find the auto-erotic recourse and self-differing self.
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    Mark Tobey and Morris Graves - More than Footnotes in American Modernism

    Eun-Young Cho | 2003, (15) | pp.351~382 | number of Cited : 0
    Mark Tobey and Morris Graves, two representative artists of the so-called, "Northwest School" or ''Pacific Northwest School", have not shared the glory and celebration which Abstract Expressionists of the ''New York School" have enjoyed in the canon of American art history. Tobey's "linear all-over abstraction" paintings dated from 1935, more than 10 years earlier than those of Jack­ son Pollock, which were wrongly claimed by Clement Greenberg and William Rubin as the first of their kind. Tobey achieved an international reputation as the first American since James McNeill Whistler (1895) to win a gold medal at the 1958 Venice Biennale, and, in 1961, as the first living non-French artist to have a retrospective organized by the Louvre. Up until the mid-1940s, Graves, along with Tobey, was widely acclaimed by New York's leading critics and dealers and considered to have deserved, in Greenberg's own words, " the most special notice." This article is the second part of my series examining the critical status of the Northwest School artists in the canon of American art history. The first one, 'Marginalizing Mark Tobey," deals with the issues of anti-Asian sentiments and cultural politics of New York critics and media during and after the World War II. The present article investigates the critical standing of Tobey and Graves in light of their homosexuality, as well as the sexual politics of the New York's influential art critics and media. This study examines the homosexuality of Tobey, Graves, and other North­ west School artists such as Guy Anderson and Leo Kenney; the revelation of their sexual orientation in the New York art world and the subsequent responses of leading art critics and media; and critical powers' sexual politics and the marginalization of Tobey and Graves. A close examination of relevant materials reveals that these artists' homosexuality, along with their ardent interest in Asian art and philosophy, led New York's leading figures to undervalue them in an effort to establish heroic and masculine “American Type Painting". In the process, the characteristics of the art of Tobey and Graves were read as "decorative," "elegant," "feminine," and thus, 'non-American type' art. As a result, both Tobey and Graves have remained little more than footnotes in the history of American art.
  • 13.

    Representations, Politics, Ethics - Rethinking Homo/eroticism in Contemporary Korean Cinema and Criticism

    Jin-Hyung Park | 2003, (15) | pp.383~418 | number of Cited : 1
    Introduction This essay doesn't have an aim for textual analysis or criticism of a particular, or more than two, contemporary Korean cinema in terms of homosexual representation. Rather, it aims to rethink queer criticism in cinematic discourse as a way of political, theoretical practice, and to speculate reflectively the matter of how queer theory can be 'placed' in Korea. Like other theories from the west, queer theory arrived at the discursive battlefield in Korea, and very soon, it has been rapidly spread and articulated in various discourses: feminism, which has been desperately seeking for alliance with other theories of the oppressed, and any political discourse of the minority. Queer theory and criticism are the most marginalized and the most potent one among the critical discourses, at least regarding their status in the Korean academic field. Meanwhile, queer theory is now facing new problems when its potential as the marginal is acknowledged without any questions. Not being fully discussed yet, differences in race, class, or socio-economical and geo-political states remain unexamined, while staying under the big umbrella of the queer. However, what really matter is that queer theory's potential as a marginal politics is at the danger of being located and re-registered at the center of academic markets in Korea. More importantly, this risk is resulted from queer theory's own practice to be recaptured at the center of academic discourses, as well as the dynamics of mainstream (heterosexual) intellectuals and academic discourses, which try to capture queer theory and recuperate it as the marginal-in-the-center. When queer subjects assume their own subjectivity and construct it just as mainstream intellectuals do, as Gayatri Spivak asserts in her essay 'Can subaltern can speak?', they will be remained as the Other and eventually adhered to the construction of colonial (and heterosexual) subject that interweaves the developments in knowledge and civilization with epistemic violence. Starting with acknowledging my position as a queer scholar in East Asia, I propose the readers to realize the importance of the risk of queer theory and its practice in Korean academic discourses. Some can think that the issue comes too early to be raised as the problematic, because matters of queer theory or queer subjectivity could not have chance to be fully discussed yet in Korean society in general, in Korean academic fields in particular. However, the problematic of theory - any theory - we can pose is always related to ceaseless questions about what particular practices the theory leads and how the theory becomes re-located by the practices it leads. Relating this question with matters of queer theory and criticism, I dare to assert it can never be overemphasized that one can, however, given the play of power and resistance, resist the continuing practices of (heterosexual) subject formation and attempt to discover ways of being that might thwart and transgress such practices. The Other should represents a location from which it might be possible to work strategically towards a freeing of subject from subjectivity, rather than tries to be freed from its marginalized place. In short, I would like to stress the importance of Foucauldian notion of ethics in considering queer theory and its practice. Given this, I would like to speculate the dynamics of heterosexual dominant discourse that always tries to recuperate queer subjectivity and queer theory as the marginal in its circuit At the very moment when marginality becomes normalized and universalized by western heterosexual discourse, it is soon interpolated as the-Other-for-the-subject. In this dynamics of dominant discourse, any theory of the marginal - cultural, economical, and sexual - loses its potential as transgression or counter-force and becomes serving the rigid structure of center-margin/subject-other binary system. Rethinking of this recuperating process between center-margin/subject-other, I will suggest that queer theory as one of theories of the marginal is at the very risk to be interpolated in dominant heterosexual discourse, in terms of the problems in dominant discourses technique of appropriation and queer discourses politics of identity. Two aspects of representation that Spivak suggests can be the critical concept helping us avoid from this risk. Spivak suggests that representation has two meanings: representation as portrait (as in the aesthetics) and representation as proxy or agency (as in the politics). As one of the intellectual from the margins (or the third world), Spivak stresses that the third world intellectuals should always shift themselves in differences and distinctions between the two meanings of representation. Undoubtedly, it can also be stressed for queer intellectuals in general and queer film theorists in particular because this continual self-shifting in the two meanings of representation can do a critical role in rethinking of non-dominant discourses linked - directly and indirectly - with queer theory such as feminism (that often appropriates queer positions), aesthetic-interested film scholars of artistic representation (that often focuses only on reality of queer representation) or queer film theorists based on politics of identity (that often assert the primacy of queer identity and tokenism). I would like to stress the importance of the concepts from the post-colonial thoughts in my essay for revealing the moments when queer theory and criticism meets epistemic violence of dominant (heterosexual) discourse. My focus is also focused on raising questions of cinematic discourse and film criticism in Korea, regarding its critical attitude toward queer cinema: What do Korean cinema talk about queer desire, queer subjectivity? In this regard, what can be told and what cannot in Korea cinema? I will deploy my thoughts and answers for these questions in the last-half of my essay by analyzing 〈Road Movie〉 (2002, dir. Kim In-sick), a controversial Korean queer film. Through re-reading this film, I will address that the queer as the transgressive marginal is being recuperated in dominant heterosexual discourse and this recuperating process requires the film erase of erotic desire between two guys. My intention is not only analyzing the textual dynamics of 〈Road Movie〉 to activate humanism for interpolation queer subjectivity and queer desire in heterosexual discourse, but also revealing the operation of discursive dynamics in Korean film criticisms to valorize and tolerate threatening homosexuality and homoeroticism in dominant cine-historical and aesthetic discourse by stressing aesthetic category of road movie. In conclusion, the practice of queer theory and criticism cannot be fully productive when it is based on politics of identity: the subjectivity produced as the Other by dominant heterosexual discourse. Rather, it can have true counterforce when it starts from the acknowledging of instability of subject-other/center-margin distinctions, and from elaborate questioning of the dynamics operating on the contact zones of the two. In addition, we need to rethink the queer theory from the west and observing various differences remained even on queer planet. By doing so, we can imagine the politics, ethics, and political practices of queer theory and criticism in Korea.
  • 14.

    Homosexuality and Self -Representation- Larry Rivers and Frank O'Hara

    Dong-Yeon Koh | 2003, (15) | pp.419~451 | number of Cited : 0
    Not many contemporary artists as Larry Rivers demonstrated an ambivalent view about artists' self in the 1950s art. On the one hand, Rivers appropriated the images drawn from either high art or popular culture throughout the 1950s, instead of developing his individual and original artistic style and vision. On the other hand, in his biography what Did I IDo published in 1992, Rivers wrote that the primary concern in his art was the artist himself-to investigate and search his identity. Then what kind of identity, either personally and artistically, does Rivers talk about or intend to represent in his work? This study examining Rivers's self-images will concentrate on his art and col­ laborative works in the 1950s when he was in close contact with the New York School of Poets, the group known for its germinating role for camp attitudes in literature, later defined by Susan Sontag in her famous article, ''Notes on Camp" in 1964. The group included Frank O'Hara. a homosexual poet, who became notorious for his essay 'Personism' in the late 1950s. This study will investigate Rivers's and O'Hara's parallel attempts to question, challenge, and reconfigure the traditional concept of self and artistic originality. As I will argue the case of Rivers and O'Hara remains a significant example in re-considering not only the development of camp aesthetics in the 1950s art and literature, but also the deeper connection between homosexuality and campy art of parody-or, of self­ parody.