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1999, Vol., No.9

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    A Study of Nine Triptychs of Max Beckmann

    Yoonhie Lee | 1999, (9) | pp.25~55 | number of Cited : 0
    This is a study of nine triptychs of Max Beckmann. The aim of this dissertation is analysis of the symbols of nine triptychs. Max Beckmann is made mention of the relation to Neue Sachlichkeit, but his uniqueness is an effort to symbolize all objects. This character appeared coherently from the early years to the last years. Specially in nine triptychs the symbols that appeared all those days integrated in the whole meeting and parting. The reason that Beckmann used symbolic images more in triptychs than in independent pictures is basically caused by the peculiarity of triptych itsel£ The role of the triptych is originally to show fundamental world by representation of religious episodes. So Beckmann used this character of triptych for his nine triptychs. Another peculiarity of triptych that Beckmann put to practical use is interaction of three panels. So Beckmann put use the structural character of triptych to opposite central panel to side panels. Art historical background that Beckmann accepts triptych form is influence of various experiments on triptych in the same period. After the end of the 19th century several artists rided the triptych form religious character. Beckmann accepted the result of these experiments of triptych form. The abstrude and complex images of nine triptychs is based on Christianity, myths, and hermetic traditions. This aspect is due to the concern of Beckmann. But his symbolic images are as ever vague because he used the symbols with personal intention. In spite of the vagueness of the images, there is coherent subjects pass through nine triptychs. In conformity to several subjects abstrude and complex symbols have some stories. The subjects of nine triptychs are the sufferings in difficult days, sexual discord, difficulties in artistic creation. These subjects offer interpretation of his personal symbols.
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    A Study on George Segal's Tableau Sculpture - In Relation with the Happenings

    Kyung-Ran Joo | 1999, (9) | pp.57~83 | number of Cited : 0
    This thesis is a study on the tableau sculpture of American sculptor George Segal, in relation with the Happenings. Segal's casts of humans and theatrical environments composed of daily objects take the nature of tableau sculpture, which are painterly, theatrical or frozen happening. What I am most concerned about is the meaning of time and space, when temporary situations are introduced in the happenings, by which frozen happening could be interpreted. The focus here is the viewer's time experience related to process art. Segal's life casts and tableaux environments composed with daily objects are made in context with the contemporary arts which introduced mediums of life and asked the question of reality. These new stream of novelties eliminate the boundaries between art and life, and expand the environrnents of spectators. Here Happenings play a great role in forming tableaux environments. Especially Segal was directly influenced by Allan Kaprow's aesthetics of the Happenings, where the experience of the viewers was important, with the principle extention of collage, assemblage, environments, and happenings. Segal's life casting which used the actual humans in plaster casts funtionate essentially in tableau sculpture. He casted familiar people and reveals their way of ordinary life experience in a natural way, and the element of change and chance that Segal adds to his works are very important, just as happenings involve the viewers as a creative process. Thus Segal's plaster casts construct the tableaux environments interrelately with common objects, and embody the daily experience. Thus unifying life and environment, Segal's works were translated as a subject matter of Pop art However, his tableaux are expressed urban life in a personal and poetic sense, and are distinguished from Pop art which is commercialized and popular. Assemblaged environments as a metaphor of life make viewers confront and accept the reality of their situations, and create a theatrical space where people undergo experience of duration. The viewers are more active participants and actors in a theatrical space of Segal's tableaux with painterly elements. Thus they become a part of works and, finally complete the total image of tableaux. Compared with Happenings, Segal's tableau sculpture freeze the temporariness of happenings into a sculptural environments. But they are frozen happening, and we can find there the viewers' participation by means of expanding space and their experience of time, which are connected to the process character of happenings. First of all, Segal's tableaux collected collages which repersent pieces of glimpses as an emblem of ordinary life, expanding the environments of the viewers and inducing their active participation. Thus they are carrying out the principle of extending space in the happenings. Segal's frozen happening differs from the other happening in the fact that they preserve the individual existence of materials unlike happenings which seek and convey experiences in the form of 'gossip' without artifact. They also include the specific experience of each models, and expand the experience of time of viewers differently. Therefore Segal's tableau sculpture aimimg at reality is not just the revival of traditional human sculptures, but a new flow of modern sculpture that extends the time span of spectator's experience, in terms of time experienced in the space of environments of viewers.
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    Land Art and the Tradition of Romanticism

    Ma SoonJa | 1999, (9) | pp.85~106 | number of Cited : 0
    This study deals with the Land Art in it's relation to the tradition of Romanticism with regard to the nature. Land Art is one of the new art tendencies inspired by nature in the 1960's. Many of its features show the taste of the 'return to nature', the main characteristic of Romanticism. In the Land Art, including the Earth Work and the Natural Environment Art, nature is not only a part of the art work. It can also be seen as the essence of art Land artists prefer the land and nature more to the culture, i.e. city, museum or the human beings as it's matter and background. They choose the vast waste land as art site, such as deserts, mountains, forests, great plains and seasides. Earth, land, stones, landscape, natural elements and often the process of nature becomes the material and source of their work. The reason, why has the 'taste of nature' recurred at the end of the 1960's, in an advanced technological age, might be understood, if we look back on the history of Europe. It shows that the taste of nature comes into being when man's rlation to the nature experiences drastic change on account of the fast development of technology and the enlargement of cities. Romanticism of the 18th century, just after the industrial revolution, is the best example of such a case. It becomes afterwards the paradigm case of the nature-loving art tendencies. Land Art and Romanticism, both deviates from the rigid formal principles of the current art and culture, and the reverence of the reason. The artists sought the way to reconciliate the art and nature, the two principally confronting elements. We know that many artists of Land Art are from North America and the northern part of the Europe, where romantic landscapes were most flourishing. In spite of their similarities in the attitude of these artists to nature it is not the same in all cases. The way how they make use of the nature and what they want to do with it differs not insignificantly. And these make differences of their art. Two distinct attitudes could be discerned; 1) the attitude of absorbing into art and assimilating to it, 2) the attitude of actively altering nature into art. The first case is found in Richard Long, Hamish Hulton and Alan Sonfist, the second in Robert Smithson, Michael Heizer, Walter de Maria, Christo, and many other american artists. Long and Hulton's Art works consist mainly of walking through the nature. They left only their footsteps as the anmimals or winds do. Sometimes Long realignes a part of land by stones and sticks from the site, but Hulton takes only photographs of it. Their intention is to become a part of nature by contemplating nature. On the other hand Heizer or Smithson uses vast parts of nature for their immense artificial work by the help of technology. The main characteristics of Land Art, the vastness, immensity, power and divinity of nature, give one special aesthetic experience both emotionally and spiritually. Just it is the aesthetic quality of the subline that the philosophers of the Romanticism in the 18th century investigated into.
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    Problems of the Experience of Modem Art through Internet and the Design of a New Prototype

    Oh, Jinkyung | Yongtae Shin | Gill-Chin Lim | 1999, (9) | pp.107~131 | number of Cited : 0
    Until recently, the interest in internet has mainly evolved around its technical development and efficiency of operation. Now it is time to examine synthetically the problems and the possibilities of its function in sociological, ethical and esthetic contexts. In the domain of art, through internet one can gain access easily to the works of art which are in the museum located far from spectators and receive various information and documents. For the experience of art works, the quality of 'presence' is very important and essential. However, the experience of viewing images through media is not concerned with ontological reality, but in a sort of programmed model and 'simulacrum'. The m血 purpose of this paper is to examine problems and possibilities of experiencing art works presented by museums and galleries through internet. We present an analysis of the composition, images, and texts of homepages of the museum web sites of "Arts: Museums and Galleries" collected through Yahoo, one of the major internet search engines. The total number of sites which were analyzed was 287. First, we applied 5 standards for rating the composition of the homepages, which are the effi ciency of offering information about the museum itself, the information of the exhibition, the information of the collection, the interactive quality between museums and viewers, and the re sources and advertisement about collections and museums. Among museum homepages, only 13% of them got a good review. Second, we have reviewed the texts with five standards for rating them. We examined both the quality and the q빽 city of texts. About 82.2% of museum homepages don't have sufficient infor mation in their texts. Some of them do not have any text information at all. During our study, we discovered a critical problem involving the predominant use of English in internet. As we are all aware of,English characters can not be written with accents.As a result some artists'names, counrnes, and titles written without proper accents are not recognizable. This problem greatly reduces the efficacy of internet and its ability to convey original information. Third,we valued images. A considerable number of homepages(92%)which we have investigated, give us only information about a list of art objects without images or fixed images with texts. Several homepages provide moving images like movies, but viewers are not able to control their movement The experience of art by visiting these sites is so simple and insufficient that it cannot be compared with the real one at all. In some sites, the size of images can be enlarged. Other sites make it possible for the viewers to simulate the real experience of art with available control mechanisms, which include control of distJIIlce, direction and speed of viewing. However, a critical shortcoming of all sites we examined is the absence of measurement for distJIIlce and direction. Viewers can control distJIIlce and direction, but they do not know exactly where they are. Many art musewns use internet to provide the public with their art collections with more vivid images and rich text information. The more advanced technical methods must be developed to increase the proportion of art works to be viewed, the visual quality of image and the amount of text information through internet. In case of art experience, it should be noted that this experience includes the significance of symbolic interchange. The internet user should not be a passive receiver of information codes, but an active respondent who can exercise his/her unique personality. With this consideration, internet can open a new road to a harmonious and hwnanistic society in which values of art are deeply and widely appreciated. We can also construct a more hwnanistic world,in which people are not isolated, by harmonizing artistic imagination and technolo항cal prowess. The use of internet to help and to educate viewers experiencing art works is one of the most valuable exemples for such an endeavor.
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