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2000, Vol., No.10

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    The Public Artistic Characteristics in Christo's Projects

    Hee Seung Kim | 2000, (10) | pp.27~55 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This is the study on the Christo (1935~)'s large scale projects which have the characters of public art. This study is the try of synthetic analysis that includes the content, form and the way to make a work. Christo paid his attention to the project that would wrap the public building in 1961. Since he realized one of the project for the wrapping of public building, he keft up doing the public works like wrapping of public buildings or the installing of large scale construction in the envirorunent. That was the result from Christo's outlook on the art. He has had the belief that the works of art should be beyond the formalistic aesthetics or personal expression to link to the contemporary social reality. Therefore Christo has cho­ sen and wrapped the object which reflected the contemporary public concerns, then he has made the works that included the social reality. He has wrapped the traditional museum, the historical monuments, the politi­ cal symbolic building or installed the construction at the politically symbolic place. These works brought in the doubt about the traditional concept of art, provoked the people to exam the modern life through the lesson from history and evoked the public attention to the political situation. The installing the construction like curtain, fence, umbrella in the natural envirorunent was to reflect the increasing concern about the ecology and natural envirorunent in the society and art world. And these were the metaphors of the nature and the !ifestyle of the people in it. That content is not the only element to make Christo's works public art, however. The way to make the work that use the social system is another element to make Christo's works public art. His process of making art has been far from the traditional way of making artworks which was the specialized work in the per­ sonal studio. Christo's process has consisted of administrative procedure like envirorunental survey, various contracts, legal conflicts, the factory production of materials and management of labor. The funds for that procedure has been supplied by Christo himself through the CVJ coporation, this is to induce an enterprise managing system to the creation of artworks. Through this procedure, Christo has used the facilities and labors of that community, and through the fact the artwork has attracted the audience, the realized project has made secondary effect which returned economical profits to the community. 54 Like this, for using the social resouse for artmaking, Christo extended the con­ cept of artmaking to the social production. That aspect has been the essential element that has made Christo's works to relate to the non-artistic public and to be a part of real life. Most of all, most important element is that the public participation is the ne­ cessit:y for the procedure. The communication with the public and their physical participation are the most 血portant part for the public art. In Christo's project, the public became the spontaneous participant to lead artmaking sharing the aesthetic experience with artist, instead to be a passive consumer. In Christo's projects, the procedure related to the contemporary social, political, economical structure, and the reality of works linked to the current reality. Christo,s projects were public not because that works were in the public place but because those were based on the context of public life and social structure. Christo's projects provided new concept for the condition of making art public. Therefore, Christo's public art projects can be evaluated as an alternative proposal for the contemporary situation that the doubt about the established public art brings m, and the new groping is requested.
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    Art, Business, Magic; Abmythologization and Remythologization of Art

    SangYong Sim | 2000, (10) | pp.57~76 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    The statement is true that it is quite a long time ago that the majority of art viewers came to enjoy biography of artists more than works of art itself difficult to understand, the times of such a new spectacle was substituted to take the life of artists as an object of interest instead of the communication of artworks. Even so, artists and poets are no longer prima donna in art history. The thesis of 'excellence' to give backing to genius seems to be anachronistic in terms of the progress of history. In modern history of art, the main constituent just having a weak base in the structure or system, namely unconsciousness, ideology)', or code has to be necessarily referred. Artists in the present are also experiencing the isolation out of the lamplight of ego that led the past ancestors, (paradoxically) in that way they come to take after poor politicians who have nothing but himself as an object of an exaggerated public pledge. But the mythology of a genius is recharged by a pragmatic genius to begin to treat the life hospitably without escaping from it in the late of this century. The mythology originating from a transcendental dimension is supported by the trend not irrelevant to turning a ten-aged girl into an attention-attracted artist. Such paradox is demonstrated by the example that New York and Paris in the 20th century accepted the Alps and the Scandinavian Peninsula thirty five thou­ sand years old and by the success in an absurd try to suture 'art gallery' and 'cave' in Dodrgne in the present day. We tried to understand the process to lose the meaning of art as guarantee of theprominent minority into haggard existence and the series of process to be rebuilt as a star by markets in the viewpoint of abmythologization and remythologization of a genius. We tried to notice the cross point of the times for mythological economy, or economic mythology to newly emerge, after mythology, originating from the spirit of excellence, was rejected in the times of technology and rationality. And I tried to expl血 about exotic sight and yet growing up healthily in the crevice betw liefs and religion regardless of the real existence, on the other hand, today's stars and magicians are apparently material entity. In addition, this thesis is to hold in check excessively materialistically catego­rized methodology of art history, and at the same time, I hope this study will help prepare for the mecting point of art history and criticism.
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    Richard Serra's Public Sculptures and Site-Specificity

    Hyesook Jeon | 2000, (10) | pp.77~95 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract
    This study is on Richard Serra's public sculptures and their 'Site-Specificity'. He wants his sculpture to become public by taking the spatial experience of its audience as a subject. But there is a gap between art and audience. It may be closed by bringing the audience into the art, by making spatial experience the very subject of the art. In this way, contemporary sculpture promise to overcome the conflicts that have jeopardized the very idea of public art, and yet the old controversies over public sculpture continue to be replayed. Even though the motive of contemporary sculpture is that of "actively bringing people into a sculptural context", as Serra says of <Tilted Arc〉, people still feel walled out to his sculpture so much. Serra maintained that the site-specificity of his work was determined as much by material social conditions as by aesthetic exigency. His stress on the site-spec1- ficity might be diluted by relocating or moving sculpture to another site which was not original place. In his sculptures, he hoped that they would redefined the space in terms of itself; and so they did - even beyond his expectation. He meant to confront the public in behavioral space' "in which the viewer interacts with the sculpture in its context" But, for example, his <Tilted Arc> would not literally interdict movement, but it would cause the viewer to feel blocked. The experience of oppression was real enough, but Serra wanted it to redirect attention to its actual source in the mechanisms of state power. His sculpture was merely a private sculpture located in a public space, rather than a work of public art specific to a particular public site; that is, Serra privatized a public space instead of creation a public sculpture in it. Since <Tilted Arc> was not site-specific, the court judged that the public was not destroying it by removing it; rather, the public was merely reclaiming a site for its own purposes. In this study, I would like to make clear of the self-contradiction in his concept of site-specificity, and to find out the hint of power in his execution of public sculpture. An important weakness of Serra's understanding of site-specificity concerns his view of the process for making decisions about public art. He did not regard the public who experienced his sculpture as people who had legitimate, aesthetic and other claims of the site. He was actually rather candid on this issue:
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    Lee Ufan's Body

    Kang Tae Hee | 2000, (10) | pp.97~114 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract
    It is hard to define Lee Ufan's position in Korean modern art. That is because while his works have been very influential to many artists in Korea, they are ambiguous and not easy to understand or to have access. What we need to do is to figure out the cause and boundary of this ambiguity and for the purpose, the 'body' is chosen as an analytical frame. Discourse on body has been the central theme in contemporary art and phi­losophy and body was one of the main themes for the Japanese philosopher Nishida Kitaro and phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Lee was heavily influenced by the ideas of both. Lee has made both sculpture and painting but the role and meaning of the body are different in each medium. The characteris­tics of his sculpture can be summarized as non-representation, non-transformation, and the juxtaposition of stone and iron plate, and with these elements he tries to maximize the bodiness of the things and to achieve the consciousness of nothingness, which was also the goal of Nishida. In painting, by controlling his mind and body through the act of drawing dots and lines repeatedly, he tries to meet the world and to reach the infinity. As time went by, his brushworks became more irregular and freer and the movement and energy of his body are transferred to the canvas more directly. Lee's body in sculpture is the minimized body participated in the spatical movement of materials and unfamiliar juxtaposition of different materials. In painting, however, the body is in action and process recording the meeting with the world. His body is dedicated to the operation of meetings, not to the describing things or representing concepts. Thus we witness the meeting but we do not know whether it is successful or not. That is because we lack the code to interprete his works, and as far as he denies the possibility of representing concepts through the medium of thing or language, his works remain ambiguous.
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