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2008, Vol.14, No.2

  • 1.

    Globalization, Democratization, and the Restructuring of Production and Welfare Regimes in Korea

    정무권 | 2008, 14(2) | pp.6~79 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at explaining how the Korean production and welfare regimes have changed as a result of the Kim Dae Jung government's economic and welfare reforms since the financial crisis in 1997. From the theoretical perspective this study takes up globalization and democratization as main variables with the varieties of capitalism in which the reciprocal relationship between the production and welfare regimes are elaborated. As a methodological tool to explain these changes, it uses the logic of 'idea' recently developed in the new institutionalism.
  • 2.

    Devolution and Welfare Policy Choices of Local Governments;Evaluating the Effect of the TANF Devolution on the State Policy Choices in the U.S.

    이상록 | 2008, 14(2) | pp.80~125 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Recently the Korean Government have made an effort to introducing the devolution. However it raises the controversy about the consequences of the devolution in the social welfare arena. Proponents argue that the devolution promote the creation of better welfare policies which fit local needs and preferences. But Opponents insist that the devolution exacerbates inequalities between the local governments and deteriorates welfare policies through provoking "the race to the bottom". While contradictory predictions toward the devolution are conflicting, there are no answers to the local government's welfare policy choices after the devolution in Korea. This paper analyzes the welfare policy(TANF) devolution in the U.S. and evaluates the effect of the devolution on the local government's policy choices. Using aggregate data about the 51 states' TANF policy data, we measure variations or conformities of the state policy choices after the welfare devolution. And then, we analyzes effects of state's major characteristics on the welfare policy choice after the devolution. The results suggest that welfare policy choices are very different between the states after the TANF devolution. However as years passed away, states' policy choices converge toward lowering the generosity, restricting the access to the welfare, and strengthening sanction rules. The results of the regression models suggest that state welfare policy choices are more strongly determined by state's political, economy conditions rather than the seriousness of the welfare problems. Experiences of the U.S. imply that the positive or negative effects of the devolution might be depended upon the local government's policy choices. In order to make good use of the devolution, blue-print and road map about the devolution should be made more concretely in Korea. And local government's policy making capacity should be raised up as soon as possible.
  • 3.

    A Proposal for Need-based Service Delivery System of Long-term Care Insurance for the Elderly: Focusing on Nursing-home Allowance

    Chulsoo Kim | 2008, 14(2) | pp.126~156 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to propose supplementary policy for the successful enactment of the long-term care insurance, particularly focusing on the allowance in nursing-home. Our present long-term care service system is very poor and the service has been provided mainly to people in the low-income brackets. Accordingly, for the elderly over the middle class, there are not sufficient accommodations in nursing home. If the long-term care insurance is to be enacted, we can expect several serious problems: insufficient number of nursing home, regional imbalance, low level of service quality, and difficulty of meeting various needs of people from different socio-economic background. The role of government is the most crucial in procuring the facilities to provide the service. Considering the difficulty of government's financing such facilities, however, this study suggests two supplementary policies: First one proposes to procure and improve the nursing home through urban redevelopment projects and old apartment reconstruction projects. It also suggests that the government should provide some type of incentive for the participation of private sector. Service for profit should be allowed to improve the employee's salary and their specialization. For the caregivers' family, the co-op model is suggested to reduce the burden, split the cost, and to get the mutual assistance. It is also expected that this co-op model is helpful to preserve the traditional family ethics.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Policy Network Analysis of the National Pension Fund Management Governance Process in Korea

    이동호 | Soon-Tak Suh | 2008, 14(2) | pp.157~205 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines a few questions on the causes and backgrounds of the reform in the fund management governance of the National Pension, the response and role of each organization in that, and the relationship between the policy goals and policy outputs. To answer this question, I have categorized the policy processes of the fund management governance reform of the National Pension into three categories according to past administrations, and then compared the unique characteristics of each government's policy network as well as its policy outputs through analyzing the interaction among the policy making systems, policy processes and policy actors. In addition, in this paper, I have tried to find a direction for the development of the fund management governance reform by highlighting the role and function of the government and various interested organizations. Based on the result of the above analysis, the policy network, the key part of the fund management governance reform which has brought on discussion whenever political power was transferred, has evolved from a closed and vertical to an open and horizontal structure, while a system based on elitism has been changed into one based on a combination of policy communities and issue networks. In other words, I found that the expansion of policy participation of various non-government organizations led to an increase in the number and scale of policy making participants, and the type of policy making has been institutionalized towards emphasizing democracy and representation. How the government control system should be established at the time of fund management governance reform is the core analysis of this paper. I have concluded that the desirable direction for fund management governance reform is as follows; First of all, government intervention should be minimized; the independence of fund management should be secured; Secondly policy actors in the non-government organizations should promote their specialty and responsibility; Finally the Fund Operation Committee should be maintained as an ad-hoc committee, which allows representatives of insured persons to directly participate in it as at present, rather than as a specialist-centered standing committee.
  • 5.

    The impact of the type of private health insurance on equity in health care: Drawing on policy implications through the experience of developed countries

    Bae, Jiyoung | 2008, 14(2) | pp.206~241 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempts to analysis the impact of private health insurance on equity in health care system. In this study, equity in health care system has two dimensions. One is equity in health care financing, the other is equity in health care utilization. The types of private health insurance can be classified complementary type, supplementary type, substitute type and duplicate type. This study expects that each type of private health insurance has different effect on equity in health care system. Through reviewing the experience of developed countries, I draw upon some policy implications about the relationship of private insurance type and equity in health care system. First, the expansion of complementary private insurance could make more regressive health care financing system in Korea. Second, in Korea, there is the bundle of the sector of National Health Insurance coverage and non-coverage. Therefore complementary/ supplementary type insurance can similar function that those who purchase the private insurance use more health care services.
  • 6.

    Evaluation on the Three Year Implementation of Korea's Employment Permit System(EPS)

    유길상 | 2008, 14(2) | pp.242~279 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper shows that Korea's EPS for foreign labor has improved in transparency and fairness in recruiting migrant workers and their immigration process. The fee for coming into Korea under EPS has reduced to one third compared with former industrial training system. There is almost no wage differential between local and migrant workers considering labor productivity gap. Protecting basic human rights for migrant workers has greatly improved as well. In spite of such a big success, Korea's EPS leaves something to be developed. About 190 thousand irregular migrant workers, which are almost same number of people just before Korea introduced EPS in 2004, are still working in Korea. This means that Korea has not successfully reduced irregular migrants even after introducing EPS. Migrant workers began to slightly deteriorate wages and working conditions in some industries such as construction sector. There is no systematic instruments for preventing small and medium sized firms that demand low skilled migrant workers from delaying industrial reconstruction by depending on foreign labor. Thus Kora has to develop efficient measures for overcoming those challenges.
  • 7.

    Evaluation of Roh Moo-hyun government's child policy and future tasks of the next government

    Chung, Ick Joong | 2008, 14(2) | pp.280~311 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    Child welfare services have been first started in early 1950s but nowadays they still focused on needy children with special emphasis on residual services. However, these residual services might be the best in the past but they are not suitable for a megatrend reflecting a low birth rate, an aging population and knowledge-based economy. Performance and limitations of Roh Moo-hyun government's child policy are reviewed and future tasks of the next government are presented. Roh Moo-hyun government threw away the simple growth-or-welfare dichotomy and, instead, recognized child policy as the social investment that would heighten national competitiveness in the long term. Roh Moo-hyun government moved in the right direction but there was insufficient policy infrastructure for new implementation. Therefore, the next government needs a new design for integrated and universal child policy that should take into account national human resource development plan and its economic development policy. And it also needs efforts to integrate the consensus and social agreement in the process.
  • 8.

    New Urban Poverty and the Minimum Living Standard Guarantee Scheme in China

    Heungseek Cho | Byung-Cheol Kim | 2008, 14(2) | pp.312~344 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This article will review the process of massive unemployment in urban area, its impact on the livelihoods of urban unemployed and the changes in social policy since the introduction of economic reform. Since economic reform launched in the late 1970s, China started economic reform in rural area and expanded the reform into urban area. The central focus of China's economic reform in urban area lies in restructuring its urban state and collective enterprises. In particular, there has been the government's radical approach to lay-off a lot of workers in the urban state and collective enterprises and this process of China's distinctive lay-offs policy has given rise to massive unemployment. Although the Chinese government carried out a series of policies for the urban unemployed such as the establishment of the Re-employment Service Centers(RSCs) and unemployment benefits, the unemployed tend to get poorer due to the limitations of related policies. Unlike the 'Three-Nos', the traditional legitimate recipients of state support in a centrally planned economy, the newly unemployed who fall outside the formal social assistance system has become the newly urban poverty-stricken population. The Chinese government introduced the Minimum Living Standard Guarantee (MLSG) scheme that was firstly introduced in Shanghai in 1993 as a final safety net for the unemployed and the scheme was gradually extended into the rest of the country. Thus, the distinctive feature of Chinese MLSG scheme in urban area since economic reform is the establishment of minimized public assistance policy system acting as a final safety net, which highlights the elimination of social unrest due to massive unemployment and the provision of social relief to the newly poor in urban area.
  • 9.

    The Family Policy in France: its origin and generalisation during the period of 1910-1945

    Byongkyun Na | 2008, 14(2) | pp.345~378 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this study is to analyse the origin of French Family Allowance, which has been appeared and generalized during the period of 1910-1945. The Family Allowance System of Textile Industries Consortium of Roubaix- Tourcoing(Consortium Textile de Roubaix-Tourcoing) and that of Compensation Fund of Paris Region(Caisse de Compensation de la Region Parisienne) have respectively provided the family allowances and the related services to the employees' families from the year of 1910s, which became the origin of French Family Policy. The Family Allowance System became universal in the 1930s in France. The main objective of the state intervention with Family Allowance System at that time was to solve the problem of low birth rate by supporting (financially and non-financially) the families with children. The "pronatalists" (the group of men and women composed of some civil servants, politicians, citizens, and professors) were the main initiators (actors of policy) of universal family policy in the 1920s-1930s in France. The Family Allowance system was incorporated into French Social Security System in the late 1940s.