This study aims at looking the roles and activities of the related parties in the legislative process of the labor Acts. To look at the above, this study mainly focused on the conditions, the structure and strategies, the results of the bargaining process of the Acts, based on the bargaining theory.
Relating to the conditions, the main issues and bargaining parties have been changed during the deliberation of the acts. In relation to the structure of the bargaining, the committee members had the initiative to negotiate one another compared to the old days when the committee members tried to abide by the orders of the central party. Each party had the posture to attain its own interest as a usual in the bargaining but changed its original position based on the issues. Each party deliberated the Acts without throughly reviewing the impacts of the acts in advance.
Policy implications are as follows: The committee members as the negotiating parties bargained the acts with considerable autonomy compared to the past. This means the legislature played an important role in resolving the conflict of the society through democratic procedure. In addition, the different environment and legislative structure of the deliberation process influenced the legislative members and the contents of the acts. As a result, the Acts were modified to be favorable for the labor union circles compared to the original version. The role and behaviors of the parties also could be explained through the relationship between the degree of conflict and mutual cooperation.
Reform of regulations aims to ensure more freedom to economic activities in a country, and the ultimate goal is to protect its people (consumers) safe and reduce inconveniences. Whenever new presidents take office, efforts are being made to abandon regulations or raise the quality of regulations.
Nevertheless, people are suffering seriously from difficulties buying things to meet their needs. One of the good examples is the fact that it is hard for people to buy OTC (non-prescription) drugs easily. To buy OTC drugs, consumers are required to visit a pharmacy. It is relatively easier in cities to find a pharmacy, but in rural areas, patients need to travel to downtown.
From this point, this study focuses its discussion on the current situations of the sale of OTC drugs and ways to improve the situations, in the framework of reform of regulations in consideration of consumers’ welfare.
Alleviation and reform of regulations are designed to exclude government interventions in economic activities by the private sector as possible. Generally speaking, regulations to protect consumers or take into consideration interest of consumers are mostly those imposing obligations on businesspeople. This study maintains that regulations be reduced for consumers’ welfare. In other words, viewing limiting the sale of OTC drugs to pharmacies as a regulation on market entry, the study suggests a policy direction that such market entry regulations be alleviated for the good of consumers.
Limiting the sale of OTC drugs to pharmacies is likely to become a threat to the safety of consumers due to misuse or abuse of such drugs. Considering consumers’ safety, the study argues that pharmacies which sell OTC drugs should be increased in number for consumers’ convenience and to induce price competition. The study examines characteristics and safety of OTC drugs, reviews positions of stakeholders and situations in other countries. Specific policy directions including the scope of OTC drugs are suggested; and as a way of strengthening consumers’ safety, the study suggests a better marking system and active participation of consumers in side effect reporting system.
This study dealt with the privatization of social welfare area. Specially, the relationship between long term care insurance for the elderly which began last year, 2007 and privatization which use market mechanism is the main area of the study. The purpose of the study is the followings.
Firstly, impact analysis the market mechanism emphasizing the choice and competition on the field of the long term care insurance for the elderly.
Secondly, policy alternatives for the improvement of the long term care insurance for the elderly at the era of the consumer choice.
The study points out some possible policy alternatives of prerequisites for safe arrival of the long term care insurance for the elderly;
1) the extend of the public facility for the elderly people owned and run by state.
2) arbitration of the expense burden and reduction of the non-benefit items.
3) care management system construction of the individual care.
4) improvement of the career labor conditions.
5) building information service system for the user.
6) strengthening social responsibility for the profit organizations.
This Study is to evaluate Korean pension policy from 1998 to 2007 focusing on changes of the roles of the government and the market to secure old age income. In this evaluation, I've dealt with mainly the effects of the changes on the social rights. Pension policies of Kim dae-jung government and Rho mu-hyun government pursued retrenchment of public pension and extending of private pension. So the shares of private pension in old age income security has been increasing. Especially as a result of 2007 reform, the role of government has been transformed from assuring limited number of people adequate pension benefits to securing minimum income to the old. Although some efforts to enlarge pension coverage and the entitlements, it failed. Major pension benefit decreased considerably and the minimum guarantee depending on means test is based on selectivism. The social right to old age income actually has weakened since economic crisis in 1998.
This paper examines the employment status of the age groups of 50-64 and empirically analyzes the characteristics of their employment in terms of "decent" jobs. The age groups are given less chances of employment than the groups of the 40s in general, and of decent jobs in particular. The most disadvantage groups among them are those of old age, low education levels and housewives. Human capitals and family status of them prevented their chance of holding good jobs, which led to less chance of decent jobs even in the age of 50-64. These findings provide significant policy implications. The government should provide decent jobs with adequate income and stable employment conditions as well as more job opportunities. We also need labor market system to link the job seekers and providers, and such public rules as higher retirement age and wage-peak systems.
The purpose of this study is to discuss about housing support programs for the homeless and to investigate the effectiveness of Korean pilot programs for the homeless.
Data were collected through case management recording about three program participants : temporary rental subside program, rental program of purchased house for the single homeless, and homeless shelter program. Collected data about programs were analyzed in terms of following residential stability. Kaplan-Meier life analysis method was used.
As a results of analysis, the participants of temporary rental subside program were more vulnerable than sheltered people in demographical characteristics. However, the participants of temporary rental subside program showed a good results in residential stability after the termination of rental provision. Community based housing support programs including temporary rental subside program, and rental program of purchased house for the single homeless deserve much consideration as a means of community residence and integration for the homeless.
It is suggested that housing support programs should be expanded and that public sector should play a more active role in the domain of financial and program control.
This study explores the relationship between school education and poverty in South Korea. Special attention is given to the impact of rapid expansion of school attainment ("rush to higher education) on the poverty status for the last 20 years (1985-2006) using the Urban Household Expenditure Survey. Dividing the research period into two economically different times, I analyse the distribution effects and inequality effects of the expansion of school education each period. Research findings are as follows. Firstly, poverty rates of all educational strata reduced in the first period but increased steeply after the economic crisis in the second period. The economic crisis at the end of 1990s enlarges the poverty gap between the education groups. Secondly, higher education has a positive effect on escaping from poverty by changing the distributive effect of education.
However, in the second period even the expansion of higher education continues, poverty risk of all groups tend to increase, making relatively low-educated people more vulnerable. Inequality effects overwhelmed positive effects of the distribution changes. Thirdly, after the economic crisis, economic status of high school graduates are downfallen, converted them into the vulnerable ("Degradation of the high school education"). As for the university graduates, the distribution change hasn't impact much but their relative advantage has been shrunk by the strong impact of the increasing economic insecurity.
The system of the Community Chest of Korea(United Way) has attempted from the year of 1998 by the law, and the United Way of Korea(Community Chest of Korea) has made a great fruits through fundraising and its allocation.
However there have been constant attempts of intervening due the weakness of the governance and the decision making structure by the government and the closed consciousness of the leadership has been exposed.
Therefore the Community Chest of Korea(CCK) is faced with a serious crisis, which is the serious change of the CCK status, since the new government has started, and the crisis comes to the amendment the CCK law, which gives more weights to the influence of the government.
This study analyzes the operating system and the nature of the four important subjects; the board of the directors, the committees, the secretariat, the donors, and the beneficiaries, and the problems of the Community Chest of Korea.
Based on the relationship amongst the four subjects, the four models are proposed and the suggested countermeasure is that the committees supplement the limit of the Board of the Directors and puts more authority to the secretariat in making decisions
The minimum cost of living is used as a criteria of allocation and provision of the National Basic Livelihood Security Program in Korea since 1999. This study explores an urgent problems of the minimum cost of living to analyse 'program to learn by direct and actual experience of the minimum cost of living', co-sponsored by People's Solidarity for Participatory Democracy(PSPD) and The Beautiful Foundation.
The consequence is that it has problem in the items of non-consumption expenditure, transportation and communication, others consumption expenditure, and housing expense. The measurement of the minimum cost of living require a comprehensive and systematic readjustment.