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2011, Vol.18, No.1

  • 1.

    Understanding poverty from a political sociological perspective

    이주하 | 2011, 18(1) | pp.11~42 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to disentangle the multi-faceted complexities of discourse and policy on poverty through the prism of political sociology. First, it examines three concepts of poverty and a typology of poverty paradigms through the social exclusion discourse together with regime approaches. It then categorizes four types of poverty policy, namely social transfer benefits, taxation, social investment, and employment, in terms of ex ante distribution and ex post redistribution on the one hand, and work and welfare on the other. Following on from this, the paper analyzes poverty alleviation pursued by the developmental state which attempted to secure legitimacy by ensuring output-oriented effectiveness instead of input-oriented democratic legitimation. Here attention is paid to the governance of the developmental state and the Janus-faced nature of the authoritarian regime. Finally, it highlights an integrated approach, based upon four types of poverty policy, necessary to reduce poverty and inequality.
  • 2.

    A Critical Review of Poverty Studies in Social Policy

    KIM KYO SEONG | 2011, 18(1) | pp.43~82 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    The main purpose of this study is to critically review existing studies of poverty in social policy. The study examines 246 articles which were published in “Korean Journal of Social Welfare”, “Social Welfare Policy”, “Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies”, and “Social Security Review” from 1998 to 2010, using quantitative content analysis. Although the number of poverty studies has shown an upward trend, there are also some limitations as follows. First of all, there is a strong tendency to rely on income-based poverty, rather than considering multi dimensions of poverty measurement. Secondly, many studies stick to outdated ways of explaining the realities of poverty, based on observations of householders or heads of family. Third, although a variety of methodologies has been observed, this has had little impact on the results. In addition, the analyses also indicate some limitations, such as otherization of the poor, symbolization of the analytic realities, and too much emphasis on the individual unit of analysis, mainly due to the predominance of quantitative research. These repeated research patterns present a serious impediment to exploring distinctive or creative policy alternatives. Poverty studies have reached a limit and are seemingly unable to come up with an effective counter plan to recent poverty problems that are more composite and itemized.
  • 3.

    A Look at the Need for a Paradigm Shift in Public Assistance Programs in Korea

    NO, Dae-Myung | 2011, 18(1) | pp.83~117 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyses the problems of Korean public assistances programs(PAP) and propose reform options. In recent years, the PAP has played a very important role in protecting the poor who were left out of social safety net. It means that the first objective of PAP is the expansion of social expenditure to cover the excluded poor. There is also two other objectives : support for the self-reliance of the working poor, and reform of inefficient benefits systems. With these objectives, the reform of PAP should be taken in line with the actual and coming reform direction of social protection system. The debate on the reform of PAP has been focused on the benefit system of National Basic Livelihood Security Program(NBLSP). Threre are three line of arguments which have been conflicting with one another. In fine, each of these arguments champions : 1) the expansion of PAP expenditure, 2) the activation of working poor, or 3) the efficiency of welfare programs. However, it is next to impossible to choose one among the three. Also, the propositions for the reforms (reform of benefit system, separation of cash benefit program in accordance with demographic subgroups) should not be thought of as independent of income protection for the poor. The choice proved to be impossible, after a long debate. But a more comprehensive reform plan for the PAP should be crafted. This study underlines that the OECD countries have reformed the institutional structure of PAP, the allocation strategy of public resources, the share of cash benefit and in-kind benefit in the past twenty years. The reform’s failure in some European countries was also an important research subject. This study proposes an open discussion about the actual problems of PAP : welfarefraud, delivery system, and low policy outcome. Finally, this study propses a paradigm shift in PAP. Helping the working poor exit from NBLSP is not the feasible policy objective, because that it means an exit from all welfare programs.
  • 4.

    Policy for elderly care and the role of voluntary organizations in UK

    Ki-Nam Park | 2011, 18(1) | pp.121~145 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is trying to look into the influences of elderly care policy on the satisfaction of care receivers and relational autonomy between care givers and receivers. In order to have a more realistic understanding, we need a new perspective beyond the existing framework confined to state and market. Direct interviews with policy specialists and voluntary organizations in UK have been conducted. Market is major policy channel for providing elderly services. However negative aspects of this approach are not noticed enough, especially on the effects on relational autonomy and quality of services. First of all, the major reason is that old people as care receivers and unpaid care givers are supported their choice and autonomy as an inclusive citizenship by voluntary organizations deeply rooted in local communities. They can represent their collective needs and interests through diverse activities of voluntary organizations mediating unequal power relations among state, market and policy beneficiaries. The experience of UK may provide Korean policy makers and related actors to rethink over the governance among state, market, and civil society on their own development of long-term elderly care.
  • 5.

    A Comparative Analysis of Extended Unemployment Benefits between Korea and the USA and Its Policy Implications

    Dong-Heon Kim | Jai-Joon Hur | 2011, 18(1) | pp.147~173 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In this paper we compare extended unemployment benefits programs between Korea and the USA with a comparative perspective and, based on the comparative analysis, suggest institutional reform of Korea's extended unemployment benefits in the employment insurance system. Although Korea and the USA have similar unemployment benefits systems, institutional arrangements of extended unemployment benefits are much more generous in the USA than in Korea. Based on the U.S. empirical studies and policy experiences of extended unemployment benefits, we suggest the extended benefit amount should be the same as the regular benefit amount to support the livelihood of the long-term unemployed. Our study shows that Korea's exhaustion rates are much higher than those of the USA. This implies that it is imperative to review general adequacy of regular benefit duration and the duration of extended benefits.Current triggers used to activate extended benefits need some fine-tuning in the near future to adapt to the changing labor market situations. Finally we argue that extended benefits should be financed by the general tax or at least 50 percent of the expenditure costs shared by the government.
  • 6.

    A Discussion on National Pension Fund Management with an Alternative View to Government Pension Policy Direction

    Won, Chonghyun | 주은선 | 2011, 18(1) | pp.175~207 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The national pension fund administration may do direction that do not coincide with the purpose of public pension fund, in case of the pension fund managed in pursuit of only profitability. As a public fund for old-age income security, the national pension fund has peculiar purpose that is different from those of other kinds of funds. Because the reason for existence of national pension system is to guarantee stable pension benefit for planholder, the target of the national pension fund should be to improve stability of system, which helps support the generational contract. That's why the purpose of the public pension fund is not to raise the profit rate of management. Therefore, It is needed to accept that the national pension system can not be preserved in that property and profits applying now in national pension. It is required the management of pension fund which emphasizes the stability and appropriate profits rather than that of pursuit of high earning rate heightening risky asset weight strongly. Therefore, It is needed to begin discussion about pension fund management policy with an alternative view, which is different from the government pension fund management policy since 2000’s.
  • 7.

    The Problems and Policy Recommendation on The Support Policy for Social Enterprises in Korea

    Kim Hyewon | 2011, 18(1) | pp.209~238 | number of Cited : 69
    Abstract PDF
    The support policy for social enterprise in Korea has focused on job creation measures. The main problems of social enterprise support policy are as below. Firstly, the share of direct subsidy for job creation is too big and the pressure of over-employment is high. Secondly, indirect supports such as financial supports and sales promotion are under-developed. Thirdly, the support for various types of work integration social enterprise(WISE) is rare. Due to job creation - centred policy, large reduction of employment occured in some social enterprises which had depended heavily on government's employment support and could not have got sound business models. Government had better reduce the share of direct job creation and expand the indirect subsidy like reducing social insurance contribution. Moreover the fund for third-sector organizations which supply public service and social enterprises need to be created. In order to develop WISEs which help hard-to-place jobseekers get into regular labor market, active labor market policy should be redesigned.
  • 8.

    Public Services and Household Consumption Expenditure Inequality : Comparing the Education and Health Expenditure of Korea and the United Kingdom

    여유진 | Sujeong Kim | 2011, 18(1) | pp.239~265 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the inequality effect of public services such as education and health services. To do this, we compare the Korean and the British household expenditure data. The empirical analysis using Gini decomposition methods shows that the gini coefficients of the total consumption expenditure in Korea and the UK are similar but in the education and health consumption, there's quite a different story. In terms of the contribution of the individual consumption item to the total consumption inequality, educational consumption in Korea accounts for one fourth of the total inequality. Comparing with the UK, the share of the education in Korean household expenditure is very high, the main contributor to the consumption inequality. In terms of health expenditure, as we can expect, Korea is more unequal than the UK which provides universal free health care service to all the citizens through the NHS. The share of health expenditure in Korea is three times bigger than that of the UK and the marginal inequality effect of health consumption is also higher in Korea, meaning that although Korea has expanded public health insurance, health consumption is still unequally distributed among the households, imposing relatively high burden in korean households. Unequal consumption in education and health means an inegalitarian and closed society, so the publicness of these services needs to be enhanced in Korea.