The purpose of this study is to analyse the change of consumption structure of households due to spending on private tutoring, then analyse the difference of change depending on income bracket. The results of the study show that the proportion of private tutoring spending of poor households is relatively higher than high or middle income households although the amount is smaller than them. The consumption items adjusted by the change of private tutoring spending are different depending on income level, and adjustment possibility of them of poor households is very lower than other classes. These show their risk of insufficient consumption of food, clothing, and shelter is high. The burden of private tutoring spending of the poor increase the economic insecurity, therefore various supportive approaches such as improvement of the quality of public education, economic support the poor suffering from the burden of private tutoring spending are necessary to prevent the latent problems of the poor and their children.
Currently in Germany, there is talk of ’state of emergency care’, which is addressed to the problems of quality assurance in aged care and shortage of aged care workers. In order to solve this problem in the aging German society, the federal government has set itself the goal of providing high qualified care givers through a systematic and on a high level of professional training opportunities. Various projects and measures have been carried out to improve the reputation of the primarily care profession in society and for the purpose of attracting especially young trainees for the aged care professions. The present work considers training and qualifications in the long-term care sector in Germany; it points out both the characteristics of aged care education and the learning content in the aged care education and attempts to highlight what roles and perception of tasks contained therein.
This study attempts to examine the relationship between giving & volunteering behavior and charitable bequest intention. For the examination, this study used ‘2011 Korean National Social Survey’ that was randomly sampled from the population of Korean in 2011. In examining the relationship, this study employed the method of Propensity Score Matching that permits the comparisons between experimental group and control group. In this study, the experimental groups consist of six different combinations of philanthropic behaviors as follows: donating only; volunteering only; participating both; regular donating only; regular volunteering only; and doing both regularly.
The results show that all the types of philanthropic behaviors have tatistically significant positive effect on charitable bequest intention. First, more active philanthropic behavior such as regular behavior causes higher charitable bequest intention. Second, those who participate in both philanthropic behaviors (combined behavior of donating and volunteering) have stronger effect on charitable bequest intention in comparison to participating only one philanthropic behavior (either donating or volunteering).Third, giving have relatively stronger relationship with charitable bequest intention than volunteering.
Throughout more careful examination of the causal relationship from hilanthropic behavior to charitable bequest intention, this study provides new understanding on the effect of daily philanthropic behavior on charitable bequest and practical implication to nurture charitable bequest. Indeed, this study contributes to building a knowledge foundation for future research on charitable bequest.
This paper aims to explore whether the trilemma of welfare states has been a valid argument about the recent change of welfare states. Based on fuzzy-set ideal type analysis of data from seventeen OECD countries, it examines that welfare states have achieved three core policy objectives -income equality, employment growth and fiscal discipline- in the service economy during the period between 1981 and 2010. The evidence presented in this paper does not support the trilemma of the service economy where only two goals can be pursued successfully at one time, at a cost of the other remained goal. The trilemma has been effective only to the countries in liberal welfare regime where employment growth and fiscal discipline has been achieved at a cost of higher levels of income equality. However, conservative welfare-state regimes have experienced the deterioration of income equality and fiscal restraint after the mid 1980s and it seems that they have diverged into various models. In the countries of the social democratic welfare regime, the goals of equality and employment have been achieved simultaneously together with fiscal discipline since the early 2000s. While they are classified as the perfect model in the research, Southern European welfare states including Greece and Italy, classified as ‘the crisis model’, have not performed well in all the three aspects. On the evidence presented in this paper, it can be said that the trilemma of welfare states in the service economy is not effective to explain the policy goals of welfare state as well as the result of redistributive politics in the service economy.
This article aims to analyze main features of activation policy and compare major programmes in terms of their impact on employment performances in Korea. Since the introduction of National Basic Living Security Act in 2000, a series of activation policies have been in place for social assistance recipients, low-income employees, and youth unemployed by means of providing tailored employment and social services via in-depth counselling and case management. These activation policies carry both enabling and demanding elements: requiring programme participation in exchange for public assistance benefit receipts on the one hand, and providing various social services to remove barriers to employment through case management on the other hand. Therefore, it merits attention to analyze how various features of activation programmes affect employment outcomes, the effectiveness of delivery system and policy instruments as well.
In analyzing employment outcomes of activation policy of which main characteristics lie in provision of employment and social services, this article points out the features and policy instruments of the activation policy that contribute to labor market entry of public assistance recipients and low income employees. In addition, it also delineates the determinants of exit from benefit receipts. Results from statistical analysis show that activation policy with intense employment service helps both benefit recipients and low income employees enter into the labor market at a faster rate. However, tailored social service provision enables social assistance recipients to exit from benefit receipts. These results suggest theoretical and policy relevant implication in regards to redesigning the delivery mechanisms and service instruments of activation policy.
After the introduction of the three welfare regimes by Esping ‑Andersen, discussion on ‘other’ types of welfare regimes was facilitated and the scholarly focus on East Asian economic development gradually shifted to the East Asian welfare states discussion from the late 1990s. Literature on East Asian welfare states increased our understanding on the characteristics of not only the East Asian welfare state as a whole but also of each country in the region. However, compared the attention given to developing variables and empirical studies on the East Asian welfare state, less attention has been given to the concept of East Asian welfare states.
Recognizing the limitation in developing comparable variables without a concept analysis of the East Asian welfare states, this study highlights the importance of conceptualization and concept analysis in comparative social policy studies. This paper first discusses on the concepts, conceptualization and on the use of set theory in comparative social policy research. Next, the study argues the validity of ‘functional equivalence’ in the East Asian welfare state studies and critically reviews the existing literature. Lastly, this paper suggests how the concept of functional equivalence can be successfully employed for the East Asian welfare states studies with a concept analysis and by applying a set theory including the fuzzy set theory.
The purpose of this study is to examine pathways of factors that influence job satisfaction for full-time and part-time married female employees with children of 18 or under and to compare path coefficients for two groups. Simultaneously analyzing multiple populations, we found that the path model was appropriate for both groups with significant differences in path coefficients. Income, workplace size, husband’s support for wife’s work, and work-to-family conflict had direct effects on job satisfaction for both groups whereas health had a direct effect only among full-time workers. Family-to-work conflict had an indirect effect for both types of workers, while health had an indirect effect among full-time employees only, and income and having children under school age among part-time employees only. The results indicate that differentiated approaches to increase job satisfaction for full- and part-time employees are needed.
This study investigates issues, which the current disability benefit of the national pension Scheme is facing, and seeks improvements concerning the universalism of coverage, the adequacy of benefit levels, and the equity of institution. The low universalism problem is caused by the coverage deficits and the strict disability assessment system of NPS and can be overcome by widening the disability category and changing the disability assessment system to workability test. In addition, the benefit level of the disability pension will be reduced stronger than the old age benefit in the long. The low benefit level due to the short contribution period and the low disbursement rate and can be improved by the enhancement of the standard contribution years and the disbursement rate. On the other hand, the main reason of the equality problem can be seen as the requirements for benefit, which are applied differently depending on the membership status. As policy measures, the unification of requirement on the basis of a recent payment, a payment in a certain percentage of life, or a hybrid of both criteria is investigated.