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2013, Vol.20, No.3

  • 1.

    Candidate Selection Methods, Standing Committee and Structure of the Social Security Acts: Compare Korea and Germany

    Shinyong, Lee | 2013, 20(3) | pp.9~46 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The degree of delegation related to the social security acts is involved in the candidate selection methods and the standing committee system. The social security acts with a small amount of delegation have an affinity with the bottom-up selection methods and the standing committee to guarantee long term in office. In Germany, the bottom-up selection method which guarantees the right of party members to nominate candidates and the standing committee to guarantee long term in office have an affinity with the Social Acts with less delegation. But the social security acts with a large number of delegation have an affinity with the top-down selection methods and the standing committee not to guarantee long term in office. In Korea, the top-down selection method in which the central headquarter of the party dominates the selection process, and the standing committee whose members are to be selected every two years have an affinity with the Social Security Acts with the excessive delegation.
  • 2.

    Labour Market Risk Shifts in 18 Post-industrial Economies: An Application of Fuzzy-set Ideal Type Approach

    Sophia Seung-yoon Lee | 2013, 20(3) | pp.47~76 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The discussion of “new risks” in the field of social policy started to gain attention in the late 1990s and it is commonly argued that new risks are provoked by deindustrialization and/or globalization being more concentrated among the young, women and low skilled individuals. This study commences its inquiry with a conceptualization of labour market risk in an attempt to critically rethink the argument of new risk. A reevaluation of the concept is followed by an empirical investigation on the different types of risks and their changes by different degree. Eight-teen countries are selected in order to provide a comparative account to understand new risk. These are comparatively analyzed using the fuzzy-set ideal type approach to discover different types of social risks and to measure degrees of changes in relation to social risk. In sum, this paper aims to answer: what is new risk? and how do the characteristic of labour market risks differ in different post-industrial countries? The findings suggest that the types of risk are diverse and the speed or the directions of shift are also diverse.
  • 3.

    Feasibility of Tax Increase in Korean Welfare State via Estimation of Optimal Tax burden Ratio

    KIM, SEONG WOOK | 2013, 20(3) | pp.77~115 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to present empirical evidence for discussion of financing social welfare via estimating optimal tax burden in the main member countries of the OECD by using Hausman-Taylor method considering endogeneity of explanatory variables. Also, the author produced an international tax comparison index reflecting theoretical hypotheses on revenue-expenditure nexus within a model to compare real tax burden by countries and to examine feasibility of tax increase in Korea. As a result of the analysis, the higher the level of tax burden was, the higher the level of welfare expenditure was, indicating the connection between high burden and high welfare from the aspect of scale. The results also indicated that the subject countries recently entered into the state of low tax burden. Meanwhile, Korea had maintained low burden until the late 1990s but the tax burden soared up since the financial crisis related to the IMF. However, due to the impact of foreign economy and the tax reduction policy, it reentered into the low-burden state after 2009. On the other hand, the degree of social welfare expenditure’s reducing tax burden has been gradually enhanced since the crisis. In this context, the current optimal tax burden ratio of Korea as of 2010 may be 25.8%~26.5% of GDP based on input of welfare expenditure variables, a percent that Korea was investigated to be a ‘high tax burden-low ITC’ country whose tax increase of 0.7~1.4%p may be feasible and that the success of tax system reform for tax increase might be higher probability when compare to others. However, measures of increasing social security contributions and consumption tax were analyzed to be improper from the aspect of managing finance when compared to increase in other tax items, considering the relatively higher ITC. Tax increase is not necessarily required though there may be room for tax increase; the optimal tax burden ratio can be understood as the level that may be achieved on average when compared to other nations, not as the “proper” level. Thus, discussion of tax increase should be accompanied with comprehensive understanding of models of economic developmental difference from nations and institutional & historical attributes included in specific tax mix.
  • 4.

    Data Privacy Law and International Human Rights Regime: An Event History Analysis on the Diffusion of Data Privacy Law(1960~2011)

    Eunhye Yoo | 2013, 20(3) | pp.117~140 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This research focuses on the effects of international and national factors on the legislation of data privacy law in 117 countries from 1960 to 2011. Previous research on data privacy law usually put its emphasis on the contents of data privacy law, legal interpretation of data privacy law or legal cases; yet it lacks academic approaches from human rights perspectives. This paper points out the diffusion of data privacy law in nation states and analyzes the effects of national international factors affecting the legislation of data privacy law using an event history analysis. It turns out that the increasing number of internet users and international human rights regime are positively associated with the likelihood of having data privacy law. Contrary to our hypotheses, FDI, internal human rights practices, and the level of high technology do not show any effects on the likelihood of having a data privacy law.
  • 5.

    The mediating effect between the degree to provide emotional labor and personal relationship in the intent to stay for Care worker

    Ji, Eun-Gu | kim min joo | lee won ju | 2013, 20(3) | pp.141~170 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship among the degree to provide emotional labor, personal relationship and the intent to stay of female care service workers. Specifically, this study focuses on the mediating effect of the personal relationship (client and agency relation). The path analysis and structural equation modeling analysis were performed on the collected data using SPSS18.0. and AMOS 8.0. And Sobel test conducted for examine the mediating effect. The results are the followings. First, the result of the analysis showed that agency relationship was an indirect factor as the partial mediating effect on relationship between the degree to provide emotional labor and the intent to stay for the care women workers. The result suggests that education utilizing various techniques and strategies to overcome the difficulty accompanied by emotional labor such as communication education and the government try to effort managing and controlling the agency which impact on the labor condition of care workers. Second, the government also tries to provide the trust and collaboration network system which construct a good relationship between the care worker and the agency.
  • 6.

    Coverage Method in German Workers’ Compensation Insurance and Policy Implications: Focusing on Volunteers and Persons in Special Types of Employment

    Kim, Sangho | 2013, 20(3) | pp.171~195 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    One of the current issues in Workers’ Compensation Insurance is about the coverage range. Korea uses the definition of worker under the Labor Standards Act in Workers’ Compensation Act and solved the problems associated with the coverage range of insurance group by the exceptional clause only for the groups which was raised about the need for the social protection. The purpose of this paper is to draw implications for solving problems which are associated with the coverage range of insurance group by reviewing the German literature. We focus on volunteers and persons in special types of employment. German government supports the activity of volunteers by providing with the protection service against the accidents. This paper shows how the coverage range is extended from the dependent employees in the introduction of the Workers’ Compensation Insurance to the people who need social protection focusing on the volunteers. The implications of this research are following. First, German system shows that Workers’ Compensation Insurance can be extended to the groups which do not belong to the dependent employee but are worthy of protection. Second, it is necessary to provide volunteers in the social welfare system with the protection service against the accidents and the statutory accident scheme is recommendable to use. Third, volunteers in the social welfare system need to be compulsory insured. Fourth, Korea should find their own way in solving problems associated with persons in special types of employment.
  • 7.

    Italian welfare in the aftermath of economic crisis : Understanding welfare reforms in the light of alternative theoretical approaches

    HONG I JIN | 2013, 20(3) | pp.197~221 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The 2008 world economic crisis had unprecedented consequences in European societies, with repercussions on Southern European countries in particular. In Italy, the crisis itself provided a plausible rationale for policy makers to push forward long needed welfare cuts, resulting in the neoliberal austerity trend fostered by the Monti government (years 2011-2012). In the light of the fact that Bismarckian welfare states from continental Europe are generally difficult to reform, understanding these policy dynamics requires an adequate theoretical framework. This paper seeks to understand the logics behind welfare reforms in Italy after the 2008 economic crisis, by reviewing available theoretical approaches in literature. It is argued that external forces (notably, the European Union) represented the main trigger factor, and that political elites marginalized the role played by civil society, with social problems such as unemployment worsening as a result.