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2015, Vol.22, No.1

  • 1.

    Does publicness reduce risks?:examined across OECD countries

    Hearan Koo | 2015, 22(1) | pp.19~47 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine the level of publicness in OECD countries and to testthe relationship between publicness and risks. In order to do it, I construct a compositeindex of publicness consisting of four sub-dimensions; public values, socialjustice, democratic civicness, and public openness and compare the level of publicnessacross OECD countries. In addition, I identify four different types of publicnessin OECD countries and analyze the relationship between the publicness typesand public and private risk management capability. The results can be summarizedas follows. 1) the level of publicness is the highest in the northern European countries,such as Norway, Sweden, and Finland, and the lowest in Korea, Japan, andHungary. 2) there are four types of publicness found: participatory republican,government-centered republican, inclusive liberal, and exclusive liberal. Koreashares the distinct characteristics of the exclusive liberal publicness. 3) countriesrepresenting the participatory republican publicness type show better capability toresponding to a broad range of risks, while countries representing the exclusive liberalpublicness type show poor capability. In conclusion, I suggest that it is necessaryto restructure publicness to become more participatory and more inclusive inKorea, in order to reduce risks. Trust and transparency may provide a firm basis forrealizing publicness.
  • 2.

    The Effect of the Publicness Crisis on the Overcoming Process of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    JiYoung Kim | 2015, 22(1) | pp.49~81 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of prolonged economic slumpon Japan society in terms of publicness and how publicness crisis affect the way ofdeal with the problem related to Fukushima Nuclear Disaster. Fukushima Nuclear Disaster is not natural disaster but structural disaster took placeby the publicness crisis accumulated for lost 20 years. Japan society has sufferedfrom rapid increase in irregular employment and widened the gap between socialclasses since 1990s bursting of bubble economy and the concern for fairness hasbeen also raised in this period. While most of industry undergo restructuring in2000s, however, electronic power company still hold onto their vested rightthrough Gensiryoku Mura(Nuclear Power Village) tightly-woven network of localpoliticians, industry executives, engineers who have become dependent on nuclearpower for jobs, income, and prestige. These publicness problems have a significantimpact on the economic policy resuming operation of nuclear reactors afterFukushima Nuclear Disaster. Through the analysis about the relation between publicness and disaster, this articlefinds that first, state-led publicness throw fairness, openness into crisis, second, thelengthy publicness crisis made public accept the policy of separating safety issuesfrom economic framework.
  • 3.

    Hurricane Katrina as Unnatural Disaster: Government Failure and Inequality of Risk

    Dong-Hyun Ko | 2015, 22(1) | pp.83~119 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the process of the disaster caused by Hurricane Katrina inAugust 2005 the US case. Katrina is the case exposed the double failure of‘government failure’ and ‘inequality of risk’. First of all, I have an issue dealing withthe disaster management system, and analyze how the cooperation between thefederal government and the local government collapsed. Second, I analyze howthe damage was concentrated to blacks and poor people. In addition, I point outthat the public policies such as housing, welfare, and education policies are workingas exclusive policy for them. Katrina shows that the publicness of American society has a complex nature. Therebuilding process of collaborative governance shows the power of US democracy. However, the inequality of risk that remains unresolved shows the vulnerability ofthe publicness. Therefore, disaster management does not mean just to increase theorganizational capacity and improve the management system. We need to enhancethe social resilience to disasters by developing public policies to address the socialvulnerability.
  • 4.

    Risk governance as seen from Germany’s Nuclear Phase-out

    Kim, Ju-Hyun | 2015, 22(1) | pp.121~153 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Nuclear power technology presents risks that can be objectively identified, but thefact that the extent of such risks is perceived differently across societies indicatesthat risks are socially constituted. The definition, awareness, and countermeasurespertaining to risks depend heavily on the social context. Following the outbreak ofthe Fukushima nuclear disaster in March 2011, nuclear-dependent countries mainlyreacted in two ways. Some abandoned pro-nuclear policies by enhancing publicawareness of nuclear-related risks, while others attempted to maintain such policiesthrough safety assessment of nuclear facilities. Germany’s nuclear dependency wassimilar to Korea as of 2011, but the country has decided completely phase out nuclearpower. What was the mechanism behind Germany’s risk governance in deciding to abandonnuclear power? This study seeks to identify the source in the publicness ofsociety. Publicness is fundamental for a safe and harmonious society. Through ananalysis of macro indicators and case studies from the Nuclear Phase-out process,Germany was found to surpass other countries in terms of openness and democraticcitizenship, which are two out of four categories of publicness. Thesestrengths have allowed the country to effectively manage and respond to futurethreats posed by nuclear power. German society regards nuclear power as a riskeven though dangerous scenarios have yet to emerge, and its decision of denuclearizationis bringing significant changes to its politics, economy, culture, and civilsociety. By examining governance changes and achievements in German society,we will be able to derive implications for Korea’s risk governance.
  • 5.

    The successful management of flood risk and publicness in Netherlands: double-loop learning after the flood in 1953

    정병은 | 2015, 22(1) | pp.155~184 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The Netherlands is characterized by not only its high flood vulnerability but alsohigh flood risk management in social, technical, and institutional aspects. Thestorm surges on the North Sea are serious threats to the low-lying part ofNetherlands. The flood defense and water management have been recognized ascrucial issues and national agenda. After the flood disaster in 1953, which remainsas traumatic collective memories, double-loop learning process has followed to secureflood prevention and safety. The Delta committee established after the disasterin 1953 decided to execute Delta project including the constructions of dams, barriers,dykes across the North sea in terms of long term investment. Due to openness(transparency), public interests pursuit, civic participation which are essentialcomponents of publicness, the Netherlands have succeeded in the innovations offlood risk management system. In history of wars against flood, people have balancedbetween the individual and the public. They are well organized around eachpillar in basis of religions or political attitudes, and participate in the discussionprocess to engage decision making processes. Pillarization implies the close tiesbetween political elites and the masses through networks of religious, ideologicalorganizations. And it promotes the cooperations between government and civic societyto solve important issues.
  • 6.

    Policy Layering and the Multi-pillar Restructuring of the Public Pension System in Korea

    Dokyun Kim | 2015, 22(1) | pp.187~215 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at analysing the institutional mechanism of the multi-pillar restructuringin the Korean pension system. Since the national pension system wasintroduced in 1988, its replacement rate was sharply retrenched from 70% to 40% ofthe average income level. Also, adding to the national pension, the basic old-agepension and the basic pension were introduced in 2007 and 2014 respectively. Despite of these crucial changes, however, the unitary public pension system mainlybased on the national pension was not fundamentally changed. This paper putan emphasis on the interaction between environment, institution, and actors andfocuses on the effect of actor’s strategy on the institutional change. In addition, italso focuses on the role of ‘veto point’ and ‘discretion in interpretation/enforcement’as variables affecting actors’ strategy. As s result, this paper argues that the institutionalchange in the Korean pension system is explained not by ‘policy conversion’,but by ‘policy layering’.
  • 7.

    The effect of householder’s characteristics and perceptions of the Korean National Health Insurance coverage on getting private medical insurances

    박정호 | 2015, 22(1) | pp.217~241 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigated the effects of householder’s characteristics and perceptionsof the Korean National Health Insurance coverage on getting private medicalinsurances. For this purpose, 6,839 cases were selected from the Korea WelfarePanel Study data and analysed using multiple regression and generalized linearmodels method. The major results were as follows: First, the underprivileged groupperceived the high level of the health insurance coverage. Second, the level of gettingprivate medical insurances among underprivileged group was low and dwelling-geographical variable was shown as the main factor for this result. Third, perceptionsof the health insurance coverage had negative effects on getting privatemedical insurances. Fourth, perceptions of the health insurance coverage andchronic diseases variable had the interaction effect on getting private medicalinsurances. Based on these results above, it is expected to develop the ways of analyzinghealth insurance coverage at the micro dimensions in further. Also, it isnecessary to enforce the level of health insurance coverage by increasing supportsfor chronic diseases such as rarity incurable diseases and cancer, expanding healthinsurance benefits. In addition, it is desirable that private insurances should bestandardized, regulated and supervised by the law and the authorized agency for fair contracts. Also, it is required to implement contribution policy on privateinsurances.
  • 8.

    Explaining Dual Labour Market in China with an Institutional Approach

    Yuhwi Kim | Kwon hye young | Sophia Seung-yoon Lee | 2015, 22(1) | pp.243~284 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to analyze dual labour market and the increase of rural migrants inChina focusing on hukou system, labour market institutions and social security systemwith an institutional approach. We attest that the formation of dual labour marketin China has distinguishing characteristics which are different from those suggestedby western-oriented discussions on dual labour market. Discussing the formationof chinese dual labour market addresses implications for studies on the labourmarket and its related institutions especially regarding the future unifiedKorea since China experienced the transition from communist economy to marketeconomy. In this paper, we examine firstly, the current situation and structure ofthe dual labour market in China. Secondly, we specifically analyze hukou system,labour market institutions and social security system which are closely related to labourmarket of China. Lastly, we analyze the formation of dual labour market withan institutional approach and discuss on its policy implication. It is concluded thatchinese dual labour market of the urban area, in which the urban hukou workersand the rural-urban migrant workers of non-state sector are segregated, was formedthrough hukou system, labour market institutions and social security system.
  • 9.

    The change of attitudes to gender role according to type of family policies: focusing on cash, time and service

    KIM, SA-HYUN | 2015, 22(1) | pp.285~316 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The basic purpose of this study is to examine the influence of family policies ongender role attitudes. In particular, this paper aims to explore what kind of governmentintervention changes the people’s attitudes to gender role. In order to achievethis goal, this study classified family policy into three types, that is cash, time, andservice, and tested each effect on gender role attitudes. The result can be summarizedin two. First, we found that service policy have a linear relationship on the gender role attitudes,whereas cash and time policy have an inverted U shape relationship. Thismeans that if government intervenes in a way to maintain or reinforce traditionalgender role, in other words, if families are given an option to maintain the statusquo, their attitudes to gender role will change to traditional way. Second, the influence of each family policy is different depending on the group. Inparticular, this difference is largely determined by the one’s option that can be detachedfrom the labor market.
  • 10.

    Inequality Re-examined: Valid Indicator of Impacts of Social Policies of the Welfare States?

    Han, Dongwoo | 2015, 22(1) | pp.317~343 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This article tries to answer the following two research questions: What is equalitythat social policies of the welfare state aim for all about?; Have welfare states reducedthe inequality in reality? Socioeconomic equality means the equality in incomedistribution in welfare policies. Regarding the first question, the authorpoints that equality has been often confused between equality of social right andequality as distributive ideal and review how equality principle has been taken intoaccount to the social policies of the welfare states. Regarding the second question, this article analyzes how social welfare states havereduced income inequality empirically. Including South Korea, in almost OECDcountries, while social expenditures have consistently increased during last decades,evidences that income inequality was reduced were hardly found. The authorshows that welfare states are being challenged politically as well as economically inpolicy efficiency. In this article, three critical factors-production capability, intedependence,and power-should be regarded in establishing and implementingsocial policies aiming for the socioeconomic equality.
  • 11.

    Social Enterprises as Hybrid Organizations: Focusing on State‑Market‑Civil Society Collisions

    Suyoung Kim | 2015, 22(1) | pp.345~379 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The study attempts to theorize ‘hybrid organizations’ in the new era of welfare hybridsand analyse social enterprises from the angle of hybrid organization. Traditional social welfare theories regarding the ‘welfare state’ and ‘welfare mix’cannot embrace current phenomena in social welfare areas, such as quasi-marketvoucher schemes, welfare-to-work initiatives, Corporate Social Responsibility andsocial economy. This study defines these phenomena, which persue the fusion ofstate-market-civil society sectors, as ‘welfare hybrids’ and examines the types andissues of hybrid organizations. As a case study of hybrid organizations, the latterpart of this paper looks into social enterprises. This study argues that diverse problemsof social enterprises stem from the hybridity of state-market-civil society principlesand models in one organization. Also, this article discusses various organizationalstrategies of social enterprises to cope with such sectoral collisions.
  • 12.

    How self-employed experiences influenced welfare attitudes after the 2007 economic crisis in South Korea

    Young Jun Choi | 이승준 | 2015, 22(1) | pp.381~402 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    The early retirement from the primary job and the excessive entry to the self-employmenthas become one of the serious social problems. After the excessive entry,it is reported that many of them failed their business, which would lead to the economicinsecurity of their old-age. Much has been written about the entry and theexit of the self-employment, but there are few studies on how the vulnerability ofthe self-employed has influenced their welfare attitudes. Given that the politicalsustainability of the welfare state relies on people’s supports and many of middleand older people have experienced self-employment, it is important to research theeffect of self-employed experiences on welfare attitudes. In this context, this researchaims to analyze experiences of the new self-employed after the financial crisisin 2007 and to analyze how these experiences have affected their welfareattitudes. It will use the Korean Labor Panel and the Korea Welfare Panel for theanalysis. This study will discuss the vulnerability of the self-employed and will arguethat the experience of the self-employed tend to decrease welfare supportsrather than increase.
  • 13.

    Influential Factors for transition probability from school to good job of high school graduates: comparison of men and women

    IM YUJIN | 정영순 | 2015, 22(1) | pp.403~433 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    This study provides a comparative analysis on factors affecting the pattern of transitionfrom school to good job and its transition probability of high school graduates,separately for the men and women. The result of Kaplan-Meier analysis showsthat the pattern of transition from school to good job between women and menconsiderably differ by indicating the mean of the transition period to good job forwomen is 27 months(median 3 months), while 46 month(median 53 months) formen. The transition pattern is also different. The transition rate for both men andwomen are significantly high for six months after graduating. However, the rate fortwo sectors show a substantial difference after 6 months: the lowered rate duringthose 6 months had lasted in case of women as it had surged each year after 4 yearslater from graduating. The results of Cox Proportional Hazards regression confirmthat the unemployment rate, region, education levels of parents affect the transitionprobability of both men and women, but other prediction factors are different betweenthe two sectors. For women, marriage, career experience and full-time careerexperience affect the transition probability while personality, job training experienceafter graduating and working experience in school are factors affecting it. This suggests that optimal implementation timing for transition strategies need tobe different based on gender and it is more effective to include differentiated supportstrategies separately for men and women along with common support strategies when establishing implementation strategies.
  • 14.

    The Determinants of Public Funded Elderly Works Duration: Discrete Time Hazard Model

    박경하 | 이현미 | 2015, 22(1) | pp.435~460 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study tried life table analysis and estimated discrete-time hazard model in orderto find out determinants of the length of work spells using the 5 waves of theElderly Job Supporting Program database from 2008 to 2012. The survival analysisshows that the survival rate is very low because 60 percent of the work is extinct inthe 5th year. In human factors number of females is significant to explain workextinction. In organization factors welfare center has also effect on lowering possibilityof work extinction. In business factors, the total length of business performance,number of participants has influences on lowering possibility of work extinction,while work of private area makes possibility higher significantly. Therefore job creating policy for the elderly should be long-term perspective, andconsider main factors of work sustainability which is focused on making descentjob.