With accelerating economic and cultural globalization processes that involve increased international migration on a global scale, policy circles around the world have paid sustained attention to multicultual policy and its significance for social integration. Despite the spread of multicultural policies, little has been done for systematic evaluations of those policies. As an attempt toward filling this void in research, this study empirically examines the effect of multicultural education policy on immigrant children’s sense of belonging to school. Based on a cross-national sample of approximately 150 thousand children selected from about nine thousand schools across 29 OECD member states, a three-level hierarchical linear modeling analysis has been conducted. The main findings clearly indicate that the degree of institutionalization of multicultural education policy on a country level is fairly strongly associated with the level of immigrant children’s sense of belonging to school. This provides a piece of suggestive evidence that multicultural policy, if firmly institutionalized and successfully implemented, can really work toward social integration. This result calls for more extensive research to evaluate various in tended and unintended effects of diverse forms of multicultural policy on individuals and society.
While gender arrangement of West Germany before the unification was characterized by a moderate division of labor, East German one was distinct by relative equality. After the unification developments of gender arrangements in East and West German regions have taken three phases. During the first period(1990~1997), whereas gendered division of labor in the West remained stable East German gender equality had faced a great tension. East German gender arrangement managed to have adapted to changed enviornments but, West German one was hit by socioeconomic crisis in the second period(1998~2005). In the third stage(2006~) gender arrangements in both regions have experienced qualitative change against economic revitalization. In the course of these developments gender arrangements of both regions have maintained differences although they seem to move toward a same direction owing to deficit of sustainability of Western model and that of feasibility of Eastern one respectively. Among others increasing female part-time employment has established additional breadwinner model(Zuverdinermodell) in West in contrast to the prevalence of dual breadwinner model in East. Secondly while Eastern part of Germany has marched to dual breadwinner model with external care defamilialization of child-care has proceeded moderately in West despite the common tendency toward increasing socialization of child-care to a remarkable degree.
Third, East German women have better performance in economic independence than their Western sisters. But traditional idea about gender labor division regarding major role of women as house work and caring has diminished to a great degree in both regions making optimistic prospect for gender arrangement to advance toward dual breadwinner- dual (or institutional) care model.
As the burden of family caregivers has been rising as a social issue, it needs to develop the policies to alleviate the burden of family caregivers. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors related to family caregivers’ burden with the community- dwelling elderly under the long-term care insurance system, using the Stress Process Model developed by Pearlin(1990). Total 1,827 family caregivers with beneficiaries, who used the long-term care services in their home and community in March 2013, completed questionnaires. Family caregivers’ burden was measured by caregiver burden scale, developed by Kwon JD(1994). That is helpful in understanding families’ caregiving burden multi-dimensionally. To investigate factors related to family caregivers’ burden, multiple regression analysis was conducted. As a result, family caregivers got the average score 90.5 out of 140 on the total caregiving burden, which indicated a considerable burden. The influencing factors varied among the total and six dimensional burdens. The results of this study showed that a multi-dimensional approach is needed to relieve the family caregivers’ burden. In conclusion, we suggest some strategies to relieve the caregiving burden for family members. It is expected that this study would be helpful to policy-makers, the insurer, the long-term care providers and family caregivers in understanding the caregiving burden and influencing factors.
Improving the working conditions in long-term care(LTC) is one of the most critical issues in the Public Long-Term Care Insurance System. However, there are few studies that help to understand management and LTC worker’s perceptions of which of workforce strategies they need and how much they(their management) have put them into practice to improve the working conditions. The purpose of this study is to explore management and LTC worker’s perceptions of the strategies for better working conditions, and to compare the two perceptions carefully. 206 operators and 622 LTC workers in institutional care homes completed the structured questionnaires, including 7 dimensions 29 workforce strategies to improve their working conditions, by e-mail. fax. or interview. As a result, this study found that 29 strategies were generally much needed in both groups, but then again they have not been carried out fully. And also this study showed that there were considerable perception gaps between management and care workers in terms of the necessity and the level of practice of some strategies, while they agreed on ‘wage increases’ as the top priority for better working conditions. This result implies that a proper remuneration is the most urgent issue of LTC workers. Our findings suggest that it is needed to develop the workforce policies, that facilitate long-term care institutions’ action for better working conditions and narrow the perception gaps between management and LTC workers.
Since the 1990s, there are two extreme opinions between compressed growth and neoliberal transformation in the studies on welfare state development in Korea. In order to verify both extreme arguments, this study in which the development of public pension system is analyzed raises the following questions; First, how reforms in National Pension Scheme have changed the public pension system? Second, what is the factor that has caused these changes? As a result, two reforms in National Pension Scheme can be regraded as a gradual institutional transition such as ‘Conversion’ and ‘Partial Displacement’ than as a radical change. The National Pension Scheme was originally introduced for the purpose of promoting economic growth. In the first reform in 1998, however, the aim of National Pension Scheme was transformed into providing the old age income security for every worker. In the second reform, a public pension system which only consisted of social insurance was replaced partially by the Basic Old-Age Pension, a system of social assistance.
In addition, the factors in the political context and the institutional discretion which are presented in historical institutionalism are very useful to explain these aspect of change. In the second reform, the weakening political support for keeping institution and low level of discretion caused the transition of ‘Partial Displacement’. By contrast, in expension reform like the first reform a high discretion and a strong veto player could led to ‘Conversion’ rather than ‘Drift’.
This study examines the factors of labor market participation of marriage migrant women and the different predictors of labor market participation among Chinese, Korean-Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Filipino. In order to accomplish these works, this study used the data of 2012 national survey on the multicultural family and analyzed by Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. Our findings indicated that age, education, nationality, occupation education experiences, Korean proficiency, children under age 9 and main carers, husband income and husband attitudes about gender roles were significantly related to labor market participation among certain marriage migrant women groups. Given those finding, this study suggests some policies for promotion of labor market participation of marriage migrant women.
This study attempts to examine the relationships between religious giving & mutual- aid giving and secular giving in Korean households. Data used for this study is the ‘National Survey of Tax and Benefit’ (NSTB) which has been collected at the form of panel data by Korea Institute of Public Finance (KIPF).
Controlling for effects of household factors and financial indicators of households, it showed that religious giving has a substitutive relationship with secular giving in terms of amount of giving and philanthropic effort. Mutual-aid giving has a complementary relationship with secular giving in terms of amount of giving, not philanthropic effort. Among control variables, the following variables are statistically significant; education level of householders, house ownership, household income, and amount of other expenditures.
This study contributes to building new knowledge about the relationships among various forms of giving at household level. Particularly, this study makes us understand that the relationships on secular giving can be different in a society with different culture: complementary with mutual aid giving and substitutive with religious giving in Korea. Indeed, it broadens and deepens our understanding of the relationships among each form of giving. Moreover, this study makes us realize that such analysis can provide significant contextual knowledge for governmental policy interventions on secular giving.
This study examines whether and how the employment status of husband affects the enrollment of private health insurance for working women in Korea. The study utilized data from Korea Health Panel(version 1.0), which contains various information on health and healthcare at the level of individuals and households. The logistic model is applied to female employees aged 25-65 and who are currently married. The results show that, enrollment of private health insurance among the women is not significantly related to their own employment status. Rather it differs by the employment status of their husbands. Women whose husbands are in unstable employment are less likely to enroll private health insurance than their counterparts. The findings suggests that the employment of women may serve as a secondary source of the income and expenditure at the households.
This study investigates the growth mechanism of private tutoring industries and the spatial transition process of educational environment in the Metropolitan Seoul Area. In particular, we focus on their interactions among private tutoring industries, educational demand, and government education policies. For the purpose, we review the growth trends of private tutoring industries in first, and then analyze the distribution patterns of private tutoring industries and youth population which constitute their demand during the last two decades. The growth mechanism of private tutoring industries is verified by considering dynamic relationship among them comprehensively. We examine the inter-relationships between the quantitative and locational changes in the private tutoring industries and the government policies for education, formal school education, and residential choice of families having children. The growth of private tutoring industries has been related significantly with the government policies for education and the qualitative degradation of formal school education as well as the changes in the educational demand according to the income level increase and competitive global economic situation. The locations of private tutoring industries have been determined by the locations of formal schools and youth population in the beginning, while their locations have been attracted to the families having children in the later. The trend instigates the agglomeration of the private tutoring industries into a few places with the diversification of private tutoring industries, These places obtain prestige for private tutoring environment, and thus getting more locational attraction.
This study examined the effects of the structural community contexts and sense of community on sense of community among women. A door-to-door survey was conducted to collect the individual-level data from 385 women. The social indicators of 20 residential district was collected for the community-level data.
The results of the Hierarchical Linear Model analysis showed that women who live in the community with the higher percentage of the low-class population and the foreigners are less likely to feel that their community is safe. In addition, women who have more sense of community are more likely to feel that their community is safe. Suggestions were made that the environmental improvement of neighborhoods and housing, the building of the reciprocal culture for the foreigners in communities, and the facilitating of the community participation.
The purpose of this study is to investigate structural constraints of local government hospitals and explore governmental responsibility in this regard. In general, it is assumed that public hospitals are protected from competition. However, local government hospitals provide health services in very competitive environment as large expansion of private sector. Furthermore, they have been requested managerial or fruancial performance without sufficient support of local goverment, which constrained their role as public entity. Managerial responsibility has been emphasized under New Public Management after economic crisis in 1997, which lead to enlarge bureaucratic control of local government. This might be incompatible with policy agenda of Ministry of Health and political responsibility is necessary to improve public role of local government hospitals.