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2015, Vol.22, No.3

  • 1.

    Inequality and the Quality of Democracy in South Korea Public Opinion and Electoral Politics after the 1997 Financial Crisis

    Jin-Wook Shin | 2015, 22(3) | pp.9~39 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Nearly three decades-old Korean democracy still has many difficulties in providing effective institutional channels for addressing the problem of increasing inequalities. This study tries to get a better understanding of the specifically political aspect of the inequality problem in Korea by investigating the relationship between public opinion and electoral politics after the 1997 crisis, with particular emphasis on the political circulation process between electoral accountability and mandate responsiveness. The main questions of this study are as follows: Firstly, has the majority opinion of the public perceived inequality as the most urgent issue in Korean society? Secondly, did the public regard the resolution of inequality problems as the most important election issue and state affair? Thirdly, has the inequality issue ever been a decisive election issue in presidential elections since the 2000s and been taken seriously by the winners of the election in their policy formation? The results of analysis showed that although the socioeconomic inequalities have consistently been the first priority for an absolute majority of the public both as the election issue and as the policy agenda of the new government, the political competition in the presidential elections was determined either by the issues concerning political reform or by the personality- or event-issues, leading to further neglect of the inequality issue in the policy formation by the new government. These results suggest that despite the lack of class consciousness and classvoting among the Korean voters, a central cause of the marginality of the inequality issues in Korean politics may be sought in their systematic exclusion from the electoral power struggle.
  • 2.

    The Influence of Households’ Finacial Debts on Income Inequality

    SEUNG YEON WON | 2015, 22(3) | pp.41~72 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    This paper, using the ‘Survey of Household Finances and Living Condition’, analyzed the households’ financial debts by income decile and the influence of financial debts on the income inequality. The empirical results are as follows. First, As households’ incomes are lower, their burden from the financial debts are larger. Second, calculating the level of income inequality by the Gini’s coefficient and Esteban-Ray Index, the inequality of the disposable income which is deducted by the interest and principal payment of financial debts became worse than that of current income. Third, as the households have higher financial debt ratios, their disposable incomes in next year decreased more. Above all, the lower-class households have the higher probability for their disposable incomes to decrease even if their current incomes increase. This shows that the increase of financial debts makes the lower-class households’ disposable incomes worse than higher and middle class households’ ones, which implies that the financial debts of households may aggravate the income equality. The results suggest that the government should develop the fundamental income distribution policy, not dependent on the financial supporting policy which increase the households’ financial debts.
  • 3.

    ‘Critical Citizens’ and Government Trust: : 2014 in Korea

    Seo Bokyeung | Ah-Ran Hwang | 2015, 22(3) | pp.73~102 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to analyse the influencing factors on the government trust applying to the ‘critical citizens’conception(Norris 1999, 2011) and search the implication needed to expand the support base of the democratic government in Korea. The Specific questions are such. First, who are the ‘critical citizens’in Korea? Second, How do they evaluate the economic performances, the procedural performances and the distributive performances of the government Third, Why do they have low trust on the government The first finding is that the ideology and party identification have influence on the democratic support and the trust of government of Korean voters. Second, ‘Critical citizens’have negative perceptions about the governmental economic, procedural and distributive performances, significantly and consistently. Third, independently of their political attitude, ‘Critical citizens’ consider the governmental procedural and distributive performances as the important factors evaluating the trust of government.
  • 4.

    Measuring Multidimensional Child Poverty in Korea: New approach to Measure Material Deprivation of Children

    Eunju Kim | 2015, 22(3) | pp.105~137 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to measure child poverty in Korea with multidimensional poverty index. Although poor children have been deprived in many aspects of living standards, poverty measurement based on household income comes short of identifying children’s deprivation. In this sense, this study attempts to measure child poverty drawing on the theoretical discourses of relative deprivation by Peter Townsend who defines poverty with standard of living, as well as income. It suggests multidimensional deprivation index that comprises five component variables within four dimensions- Shelter, Food/nutrition, Health and Education. After reviewing validity and reliability of the index, it estimates optimum poverty threshold considering standard of living and income. According to the analysis of 2008 KOREA National Survey on Children and Youth Data, child poverty rate measured with multidimensional poverty index is higher than conventional income poverty rate. In addition, a range of socio- economic and demographic variables are analysed to come up with characteristics of poor households with children. Child poverty rate appears to be higher in the rural area, household headed by aged over 60s, lone-parent, single mother, and working poor household. Based on the findings, this study suggests for child policy to introduce more inclusive poverty measurement and directly target specific needy group.
  • 5.

    Making Local Welfare Administration Accountable and Responsible: An Analysis of the Daegu Metropolitan City Welfare Ombudsman

    Kim, Soon Yang | 2015, 22(3) | pp.139~164 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to analyze the institution ‘welfare ombudsman’ in South Korea, in order to suggest policy implications to raise the accountability and responsibility of welfare service provision. To the end, this article first discusses the theories on ombudsman and welfare ombudsman, and then formulates the analytical framework to analyze the practical situation of welfare ombudsman. The next chapter explores the institutional arrangement, practical operation, underlying problems, and performance of welfare ombudsman in South Korea, conducting the case study on the Daegu Metropolitan City Welfare Ombudsman. The final chapter suggests alternatives to make welfare ombudsman contribute to enhancing the accountability and responsibility of welfare administration.
  • 6.

    Significance of Qualitative Evaluation and It’s Congruence in Evaluating Social Policy

    이성우 | kwak, Byung-Hun | OH, SOOGIL | 2015, 22(3) | pp.165~196 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This article gropes for the use of qualitative evaluation in social policy under consideration of its significance, which can complement quantitative evaluation. It maintains the viewpoint of complementarity. To evaluate social policy or social programs effectively, it requires for evaluators to reflect the points of view of the stakeholders in the context of social realities. Since social policy is value embedded field, qualitative evaluation has compatibility with social policy. Qualitative evaluation seeks to understand social realities including individual, social, structural, and environmental contexts. Nevertheless existing evaluations of social policy tend to show ‘methodological uniformity’ by standardized indicators and artificial contexts. This article argues to evaluate the value of social policy through qualitative evaluation focusing processes based on interpretation. For qualitative evaluation, we can use in-depth interview, focus group interview, or observation which orient ‘natural communicative process.’
  • 7.

    Integration Process on the ODA Policy-Making System of Japan: Applying Advocacy Coalition Framework

    Han Seungheon | 조희정 | Minah Kang | 2015, 22(3) | pp.197~234 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores the integration process of the Japanese ODA policy-making system applying the Advocacy Coalition Framework(ACF). It examines the ODA policy change process from the late 1990s to 2008. The analysis is separated into three periods: before integration, during the integration process, and after integration. Data sources include Japanese documents and qualitative interviews. We found that the policy process was framed by two coalitions advocating different belief systems. These coalitions were influenced by prolonged economic stagnation, negative public opinion on ODA, and administrative reforms by Koizumi Junichiro. In the first stage, the coalition which supported integration included Koizumi Junichiro’s cabinet, civil society, some members of JICA and JBIC, and some members of Congress. The opposing coalition was formed by the Ministry of Foreign Policy, the Ministry of Finance, business groups, and the majority of Congressional members and JICA and JBIC staff members. However, some members of the opposition changed their stance during the second stage. The Ministry of Foreign Policy, most of the JICA staffs, some business groups, and several members of Congress changed their positions and became a part of the coalition supporting integration. Coalition members’ used influencing resources consisted of public opinion, information, supporters, and skillfulleadership. After the fragmented Japanese ODA policy-making system was integrated to the new JICA in 2008, there were several positive impacts on the ODA policy-making system; ODA effectiveness had increased and staff members who had differing beliefs for Japan’s ODA system came to understand and agree with one another. This Japanese case provides helpful insight for Korean ODA policy-making due to similarities between the two processes.
  • 8.

    Regulatory Policy for the Development in Occupational Pension: Cases of the UK and Switzerland, and the Implication in Korea

    Jung Chang Lyul | 2015, 22(3) | pp.235~263 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the regulatory policy in the Korean occupational pension at the point of time when it will expand to all employees in the near future. The expansion of private pension is a universal phenomenon in the advanced countries and, the role of government is changing from providers to regulators. The regulatory policy in private pension is widespread but it is generally thought as policy instruments to achieve public ends in private welfare systems. In regard to the matter, it compares regulatory policies between the UK and Swiss occupational pensions. While the UK has changed the policies from de-regulation, strengthening regulations such as fee and insolvency protection, Switzerland has efficiently regulated financial institutions through minimum interest rate. The Korean occupational pension has focused on the coverage extension only since its introduction but the systematic regulations have been absent. At the result, all elements such as fee, funding rule and insolvency protection are likely to increase the burden of members and companies. It is necessary to recognize that the regulatory policy is the prerequisites to achieve public ends in occupational pensions
  • 9.

    A Qualitative Study on the Experience of Fathers Using Parental Leave

    JIN-WOOK KIM | kwon jin | 2015, 22(3) | pp.265~302 | number of Cited : 46
    Abstract PDF
    The study aims to analyse the decision process of parental leave use and the living experience of Korean fathers who have used or are using parental leave. 10 participants were selected through the snowball sampling method and qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews. The qualitative data are analysed by thematic analysis. The results can be sorted out as (1) 4 themes and 13 sub-themes for the analysis of the decision process of parental leave use, (2) 5 themes and 15 sub-themes for the analysis of fathers’ changes in daily living, and (3) 2 themes and 8 sub-themes for the analysis of fathers’ change in attitudes. Findings suggest that fathers who use parental eave and take up the full-time housework and childcare experience a fundamental changes in behaviours and attitudes related to the work-family balance. Based on the qualitative analysis, the study suggests policy directions for expanding fathers’ parental leave.
  • 10.

    Peculiarities of East-Asian Welfare System: Does an Independent Welfare Regime of East-Asia Exist?

    Chung, Yun Tag | 2015, 22(3) | pp.303~335 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to advance debates on an separate East-Asian welfare regime. For this, I set research themes which could help systematically analyze the studies of an independent East-Asian welfare regime protagonists and opponents with an accent on the period before and after 1990s and on the perspective of international political economy. In discussion, I reconstructed the findings according to the research themes and argued that the hermeneutical advantage of an independent East-Asian welfare regime is very limited: Firstly, while Esping-Andersen sought the criteria of welfare regime in welfare- internal factors, the protagonists of East-Asian welfare regime sought them mainly in welfare-external factors. Secondly, the causes of welfare regime construction are not clear enough. Thirdly, there is little comparison with underdeveloped(non-core) countries from the perspective of international political economy. Fourthly, it is not appropriate to equate the periods before and after the 1990s, when democratization and extensive welfare reform took place. Besides, I argue that ‘productivist’ policies can be found not only in East-Asia and that the preposition social (welfare) development is proportional to economic growth could be false. Therefore, I argue that an independent East-Asian welfare regime or peculiarities of East-Asian welfare system can be hardly accepted any more.
  • 11.

    The Analysis of Factors Affecting the Retention of Good Jobs among Wage Workers with Disabilities

    김영애 | 정영순 | 2015, 22(3) | pp.337~361 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This study is to examine current situation on the retention of good jobs and the mobility into bad jobs among disabled workers with good jobs for five years(2008~2013), and to explore the factors affecting the retention of good jobs in terms of individual, human capital and job effects. By analyzing the Panel Survey of Employment for the Disabled using the Panel Logit Random Effects Model, we found that 73.8% of disabled workers remained employed in their good jobs, whereas 26.2% of them fell into bad jobs. ‘Size of enterprise’, ‘willingness to improve employee’s welfare’, ‘aptitude’, ‘job accommodation’ and ‘job turnover’ as job factors, ‘sex’ as an individual factor, and none of human capital factors were statistically significant in predicting the retention of good jobs. Theses results suggest that strategies for job placement before being employed should consider size of enterprise, individual worker's occupational aptitude, employer’s awareness of employee’s welfare, and the proper job accommodation services for the retention of good jobs. After employment, government should continue to support education for employer’s awareness of employee’s welfare and subsidy for job accommodation services.
  • 12.

    The Transformation of the East Germany and Roles of Social Policy

    Kyu Sung Hwang | 2015, 22(3) | pp.363~390 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to investigate the roles of social policy in transformation of East Germany in perspective of combination between income security and social services. The developments of social policy in transformation process of East Germany can be distinguished by four stages according to a configuration of demand, supply, and results of social policy. At first stage(1990), the promise of income security policy including pension provisions made East German transformation acceptable to their population at the sacrifice of social services. East Germans were benefited from Income security policy at the second stage(1990~1997), but the limits of it had been revealed whereas demands for social service had not been realized at the third stage(1998~2004). After 2005, the legacy of child care services of former East Germany has been exported to West. Income security policy in the transformation processes has put grave concerns in the early stage of transformation but social service has played a pivotal role in later stages. While the former has contributed to it by passively coping with income loss and poverty, the latter has provided social infra for labor market participation of women. Theses of institution transfer from West to East, widely known as one of the most striking characteristics of East German transformation, need to be rectified that unification could have societal forces on East Germany but also on German welfare state. It is expected that while possibilities of income security to expand will highly restricted those of social service will be widely open. It is recommended that Koreans pay attentions to voices for bilateral reforms at the stage of unification and/or updated reform discourses on German welfare state including social infra orBürgerversicherung to enjoy advantages of late developer in national reunification and welfare state.