The study checked whether the trade-off relationship between the home ownerhip and welfare by Kemeny and Castles was still valid in four welfare regimes, and analysed the factors of change and stability on rate of home ownership between social democratic states and southern european states. Based on the results of the study, the relationship between housing ownership and public expenditure was confirmed only in the liberal welfare regime and in the conservative welfare regime, as evidenced by the 2014 data collection. Second, social democratic states have dramatically increased housing mortgage loans and showed signs of housing commodification but southern european states have showed pre commodification of housing, maintained comparatively whole home ownership and low mortgage loans.
Third, social democratic states has resulted in a rise in housing demand and housing prices, through reduced new housing and social rented housing construction, home ownership friendly taxation and generous lending policies, but southern european states have maintained a stable housing demand and housing prices thanks to the rich housing stocks, extended family, self provision and self promotion by close relatives, and intergenerational inheritance and transfers of housing. Although sequence of the equity ownership and welfare are still unclear, it is not a rational alternatives to induce housing ownership through large mortgage loans.
This study intends to identify the difference of socio-economic characters and housing welfare needs between housing poverty types and to know the independent effects of variables on the housing poverty types. It was revealed that the double housing poverty household, housing below facility standard, unaffordable housing with low income, housing below structure･performance･environment standard, housing below area standard and housing below room standard should be supported one by one. And the variables related with the housing poverty types are different Suggestions were made for housing welfare policy for the double housing poverty, the control for rental housing market, the policy considering income level for unaffordable housing, the housing policy for the disable household.
Self-employed women are highly vulnerable to social risks like unemployment and poverty as job instability has increased in recent decades. Despite this, the Korean public policy focus has been on employees, not the self-employed. This may be closely linked to the legacy of the East Asian welfare model policy logic. Therefore, this study explores social risk levels by gender and employment status and examines the relation between social risks of self-employed women and the East Asian welfare model policy logic, through comparing-means analysis and ordered logit regression analysis using the 9th wave data of the Korea Welfare Panel Study Korea. The study yields evidence of divisions in social risk levels according to gender and employment status: that is, a gender difference, and a substantial gap between self-employed workers and regular employees. Furthermore, the findings of the study indicate that self-employed women — especially in small businesses — are more vulnerable to social risks than are self-employed men. This strongly supports the conclusion that the higher social risks of self-employed women in Korea are closely linked to the legacy of East Asian welfare model policy logic, which focuses on social protection for core workers and largely neglects women.
Because of low amounts of pension benefit, the Basic Pension of Korea has played a very limited role in reducing the high poverty rates of the elderly. Based on an empirical analysis of the poverty alleviation effect of alternative pension amounts, this paper shows that although the higher basic pension amounts help to reduce the absolute poverty rate of the elderly, it cannot significantly reduce the relative poverty rates. Authors contends that the main objective of the basic pension should be targeted to combat the absolute poverty level. This paper also argues that in order to reduce the relative poverty level of the elderly, the benefit level of National Pension should also be increased.
This study analyzes how workers become impoverished and have their jobs less stabilized after they suffer from non-job-related sickness. Given that South Korea lacks sickness benefits, which most of OECD member states legislate and implement except US and Switzerland, this study examines its impact on laborers’ job stability and povertization in Korea. The researchers have conducted in-depth interviews with nine former or present laborers who have the experiences and four experts on the issue in July-September, 2017 for the qualitative analysis. It is found that laborers, after becoming aware of their sickness, at first endure their pain without informing their employers not to lose their jobs. The attititude is observed especially among non-standard laborers, because sickness more often leads to job loss for them than for standard laborers. After workers have to leave their jobs due to their sickness in the end, they have no choice but to keep working in less stable jobs to compensate for income losses. They become gradually impoverished with their social capital like family bond declining. We observe laborers who are eligible for industrial accident insurance compensation could not benefit from the system because some employers refrain from the legal reporting duty. Due to this illegal practices, some industrial accident victims unduly lose their jobs due to “non-job-related sickness”. Second, some employers report to the authority that their sick laborers have left their jobs ‘voluntarily’ even when they have quitted it without their volition, in which case the newly unemployed are not eligible for unemployment benefits. Large holes in Korea’s safety nets for those suffering from multiple risks of sickness and unemployment.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the development process and current status of income maintenance policies after the financial crisis, to sort out key issues or problems, and to explore future plans or directions that can overcome the limitation. In order to develop intensive argument, the scope of research is limited to the National Pension, Basic Pension, and the National Basic Livelihood Security System. The research also focused on two values of the ‘universalism’ and the ‘adequacy’ based on the ‘SPF(social protection floor)’ in the overall narrative process. Additionally, this paper briefly summarized the related contents released by the Moon Jae-in Government and presented an affirmative strategy and a transformational strategy centered on social allowance and basic income respectively, to establish an integrated income guarantee scheme. Although some improvements to the present system are also required, it is an effort to expand the practical effect of social benefits through the full and comprehensive reform of benefit structure and method.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of labor market policy on fiscal soundness of welfare state. The analysis was carried out using cross-sectional panel data regression analysis, stepwise mediating effect analysis and system GMM designed by Baron and Kenny(1986) based on the data from 1985 to 2015 for 20 OECD countries. In setting up the analysis model, this study considers the interaction effect between active and passive labor market policies as well as the time sequence of the outcomes which have been overlooked in the previous studies. The result shows that labor market policies have significant impacts on the fiscal condition of welfare states, which is measured as the levels of national debt in this study. Especially the expenditure on active labor market programs has a positive effect on improving the fiscal soundness of welfare states by promoting the employment rate. In contrast, passive labor market programs expenditure is negatively associated with employment rate growth and it exacerbates the burden of national debt in the short-term. However, when active labor market programs and passive labor market programs are combined, the negative impacts by passive pabor market policies on the fiscal soundness of welfare states are off-set. Therefore this study addresses that although the expansion of the labor market policies can be inimical to the fiscal soundness of welfare states in the short-term, in the long run, they can have effective roles in securing and promoting the fiscal soundness of the welfare states by promoting the employment rate.