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2018, Vol.25, No.2

  • 1.

    Care as a Constitutional Value

    Kim, Hee-Kang | 2018, 25(2) | pp.3~29 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    By examining care from a normative perspective projected in the Constitution of South Korea, this paper attempts to assess care from the standpoint of justice and establish the status of care as a concrete political value. The point that this paper focuses on in the Constitution is about the “human worth and dignity” and “right to pursue happiness” clauses of the Article 10 at the beginning of Chapter II which defines the rights and duties of citizens. The clauses of “human worth and dignity” and the “right to pursue happiness” are generally interpreted as the highest values of the constitutional order. While exploring the human dignity and the pursuit of happiness clauses in light of care, this paper intends to address the value of care as human dignity, which is the highest ideology and constitutional principle of the Constitution and, at the same time, the limitation of explaining the freedom to care with a liberal concept of freedom implied in the pursuit of happiness. Ultimately, this paper argues for the justification of putting ‘care’ in the Constitution. In the end, this paper aims to emphasize the significance of care as a guiding principle for the maintenance of our lives and society, a primary principle of social regulation and public governance, and a direction for a just state which can identify and rectify care injustices.
  • 2.

    Care Penalty and Basic Income

    Jayoung Yoon | 2018, 25(2) | pp.31~55 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The economic penalty of care and gender inequality reinforce each other. Unequal distribution and treatment of care are at the basis of gender inequality. Care creates economic penalty that deepen gender inequality. Those who perform care work tend to take the position of the vulnerable in socio-economic power relations. Due to their weak position, it is difficult for them to voice out a fair treatment and reward for their work. As a result, care workers both at home and in the public sector suffering from lower economic value of care are positioned in unequal gender relations with more vulnerable socioeconomic status. The basic income system may have the potential to mitigate multifaceted gender inequalities in our society. For the introduction of basic income to help realize the real freedom for women, it is necessary to understand unique natures of care work and tackle economic penalties of care work. This paper examines the relationships between care penalties and basic income, focusing on the debate on the introduction of the basic income system. We argue that if the economic penalties caused by unique natures of care work are not eased or resolved, the introduction of the basic income may not contributes to alleviating gender inequalities.
  • 3.

    The Conceptualization of Caring Justice and an Evaluation of Long-Term Care Policy in Korea

    JAE EUN SEOK | 2018, 25(2) | pp.57~91 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    Despite the rapid growth of social care, understanding of care is segmental and caring is still marginalizing. The socialization of caring is actually a ‘half-socialization' that is the result of injustice surrounding caring. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the problem of caring in terms of justice. In this paper, I discuss the limitations of social justice based on John Rawls 's social contract theory in the discussion of caring justice through feminists’writings on caring ethics. And then applying Nancy Fraser' s three scales of Justice-redistribution, recognition, and representation, the concept of caring justice has been newly constructed. The concept of caring is defined as a unified concept of caring including the aspect of the social rights of the care recipient as well as the labor rights of the care provider. Based on the analysis of care justice, we derive the ideal types of care policy and then evaluate the long-term care policy for the elderly, which is the central axis of Korean care policy. The results of this study are as follows: First, it is necessary to strengthen the labor rights of care providers especially for the socialization of care responsibilities and the proper allocation of social resources. Second, a service delivery system and care culture are needed to ensure the relational autonomy of care-receivers and care-givers for caring ethics and individualization of care. Third, the issue of care should be treated as the central agenda of politics in order to distribute care responsibility democratically and to distribute legitimate resources. This requires a paradigm shift from marginalization of care to mainstreaming of care. Ultimately, we should aim for a Caring Society.
  • 4.

    A Study on the Improvement of Korea’s Work-Based Learning Program for Non-academic and Unemployed Youth: Comparison of U.K.

    Hong Seoin | An, Soyoung | 정영순 | 2018, 25(2) | pp.95~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to compare and analyze the work-based learning programs of the U.K. in order to find out the successful strategies of the Korea’s youth internship which has not got employment effects. Furthermore, to seek a fundamental improvement plan of the Korea's work-based learning programs. The implications through comparative analysis are as follows. For internship performances, the curriculum should be standardized on the basis of industry-specific job criteria, which can be reflected by industrial demands and be correspond to needs at the workplace. Also, it is imperative that the curriculum is linked to national qualifications to guarantee the job ability. Additionally, an infrastructure for effectively monitoring, managing, and evaluating programs should be established. However, these strategies are still constrained in improving the job ability of vulnerable targets and fostering the future-leading manpower in the new industry. In order to reform the work-based learning program, it needs to be structured with a variety of programs suitable for different levels of participants by introducing traineeship, apprenticeship and further education.
  • 5.

    The Effect of Alcohol Availability on Drinking Behavior: A Multilevel Analysis on Urban Regions

    Kwon, RIA | Sangsoo Shin | Shin, Young-jeon | 2018, 25(2) | pp.125~163 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Social and health problems related to drinking are serious. Drinking behavior is affected not only by personal factors but also by environment factors. The purpose of this study is to find out how the alcoholic beverage stores in community influence the drinking behaviors of individuals after adjusting the individual level variables and provide it as basic data for alcohol related regulatory policies. In order to identify the factors affecting drinking behavior, we conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis with high-risk drinking and current drinking as dependent variables. Individual-level data provided by 2015 community health survey from respondents of urban residents, and regional level data provided by the National Statistical office. The variables such as age, education level, and income level were used as individual level variables and the number of basic living allowances, divorce rate, and the number of pubs were used as community level variables. According to the research results, after controlling all variables, the number of bar, retail per 1㎢ in residential area effect on current drinking. But, they are not effect on high risk drinking. In the high risk drinking, only the divorce rate effect on drinking behavior. As a result of the stratified analysis, there was no difference in the current drinking. But, it shows that the higher the number of retail stores and the total alcohol availability, the higher risk drinking behavior in the 60s. The results of this study suggest that policies aimed not only on individuals but also on the local environment are necessary.
  • 6.

    Changes in Child Care Compensation Criteria by the German Constitutional Court

    Shinyong, Lee | 2018, 25(2) | pp.165~189 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Under the principle of subsidiarity, the German family policy formed in the 1950s and 1960s minimized the role of the state while maximizing the role of the parents. The German Constitutional Court, however, ruled that the level of compensation for the financial burden of child support costs must follow the basic rights, not the principle of subsidiarity. The Federal Constitutional Court has taken the duty of protecting the human dignity of the state under Article 1 of the Constitution as the starting point of the judgment. The Federal Constitutional Court held that the dignity of a child is guaranteed only if the level of the child's allowance or deduction is equal to or higher than the level of the child standard benefit under the Social Assistance Act established by Congress. The Federal Constitutional Court also regarded the state to compensate parents for child support costs as much as the level of child standard benefit under the Social Assistance Act as a family protection obligation of the state under Article 6, Section 1 of the Constitution. In addition, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the right to equality declared by Article 3 of the Constitution can be realized by compensating all parents for child support costs at the level of child standard benefit under the Social Assistance Act.
  • 7.

    A Critical Review of Alternative Pathways to New Social Policy in Development Context

    Ilcheong Yi | Hyuk Sang Sohn | Taekyoon Kim | 2018, 25(2) | pp.191~217 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    At the turn of the century, social policy in both developed and developing countries confronts new challenges and risks caused by the multiple crises in finance, food, energy and climate change. Changes in the structures of risks are particularly significant. In addition, the global economic crisis starting in 2008 has provided a new context of the global political economy. Both developed and developing countries have responded to these new challenges and risks differently. What risks do these responses aim to address? How can these responses address these risks? Can these diverse responses offer lessons for lower income economies attempting to address social development challenges alongside economic growth in the globalised and increasingly uncertain 21st century context? This paper aims to provide a critical review of the new trends, phenomena or directions of social policy discourse and practice to respond to the new risks in the context of development. Explaining the nature and forms of new challenges and risks and pointing out the potentials and limitations of social policy discourse, it introduces the key points of the previous research we have to keep in mind in formulating alternative social policy approaches. General principles and core elements of social policy in addressing new challenges and risks in the 21st century, which are particularly visible in social policy reforms in emerging economies, are highlighted as a conclusion.
  • 8.

    A Study on the Influence of Women's Economic Risk Perception on the Fertility Gap

    JUNG YUN TAE | 2018, 25(2) | pp.219~241 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of women 's perception of economic risk on the fertility gap. This study analyzed how the economic risks such as the risk of unemployment and poverty, the risk of housing insecurity, the risk of financial instability and the risk of economic downturn affects the gap between the actual number of children and the ideal number of children. For this purpose, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed using the KGSS(Korean General Social Survey) 2014 dataset. The result of the analysis shows that women who perceived economic risk seriously had fewer children but had a higher fertility gap. This study suggested policy suggestions based on the above results.
  • 9.

    Income-led Growth and Legacy of the Korean Welfare Regime

    YOON HONGSIK | 2018, 25(2) | pp.243~280 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the discussion on the income-led growth known as the core economic strategy of Moon’s administration in terms of Korean welfare regime. Although the income-led growth strategies have presented various issues, the income-led growth strategy seems to be a timely alternative discourse that emphasizes the demand side, considering supply-oriented growth strategies have caused long-term recession and deepening of inequality. It is important that the income-led growth strategy places social expenditures as an important growth engine for virtuous cycle of production and consumption. However, this paper has confirmed that simply raising wages and increasing social expenditure do not increase the aggregate demand and production. Moreover, empirical studies have shown that the inclusion of external sectors and liabilities into the analysis weakens the wage-led growth of the Korean economy. For this reason, this study concluded that the government's sophisticated policy intervention is necessary for the increase of real wages and social spending to be economic growth.
  • 10.

    The Experience of Self-employed Business and the Income Mobility by Age Group

    Dokyun Kim | 2018, 25(2) | pp.281~304 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at analysing what impacts the experience of self-employed business have had on the income mobility. Since 2000s, the flexibilization of labor market and the population aging led to the increase of the number of self-employed job as many retirees at the age of early 50s has set up the self-employed business as a bridge job. However, previous researches just have emphasized on the impoverishment of the self-employed, but not focused on what different effects the experience of self-employed had on the income class mobility by age group. This paper compares the difference in the income class mobility by age group and employment status, and analyses its longitudinal trends. According to the result, as a whole the experience of self-employed has positive effect on the upper mobility of income class, but it become disadvantageous for the upper mobility as the age goes up. When belonging to the age group over 60s, the experience of self-employed rather increases the risk of lowering income class. Just as the experience of self-employed has different effects on income class mobility by age group, so the differentiated measures for age groups are demanded.
  • 11.

    The Achievement of The Employment-oriented Welfare State

    Home | Cho, Hyojin | 2018, 25(2) | pp.305~332 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores the effectiveness of employment-oriented welfare state by analyzing the mediating role of employment rate on the relationship between public welfare effort and fiscal soundness. Notably, this study considers the quality of employment into the analysis: part-time work, involuntary part-time work and low-wage work in analysis. The data sample consists of 18 OECD countries which initiated employment-oriented welfare strategy after the crisis of welfare state. An analysis was conduct based on Baron & Kenny(1986)’s method and panel two-stage model to handle the endogeneity problem. The results show that while the high level of public welfare effort negatively affects the fiscal soundness if it contributes to boosting employment rates, it has positive effects on the fiscal soundness. However, when the incidence of involuntary part-time employment and low-wage employment is high, the mediating impact of employment rate on the fiscal soundness disappears. This study argues that unless the quality of employment is taken into consideration, the positive effect of employment-oriented welfare state strategy to improve the fiscal soundness is not fully guaranteed.
  • 12.

    A Study on Social Capital Type of the Juvenile Deliquents

    Geunhwa Shin | 2018, 25(2) | pp.333~366 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to identify the types of social capital by delinquent adolescents using the Q methodology and to find ways to form social capital. As a result, 33 types of statements about social capital were extracted from 16 juvenile delinquents and five types were derived. Type I was named as 'Friend Supportive Type', Type II as 'Family Friendly', Type Ⅲ as 'Ability Type', Type Ⅳ as 'Social Justice' and Type Ⅴ as 'School Trust Type'. First, it is necessary to develop a program that uses good friends to improve social capital in peer relations. Second, intervention in the direct relationship between parents' children, that is, communication with friends, children of friends and children who are indirectly formed with children, as well as communication, attention, and communication are required. Third, it is necessary to intervene to control the continuous emotional control ability in daily life. Fourth, there is a need to strengthen the irrationality of the social system and the supervision over the harmful environment. Finally, there is a need to improve the environment to enhance the level of school norms and confidence in the school.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Correspondence and the Autonomy between the Act on the Guarantee of Rights of and Support for Persons with Developmental Disabilities and the Similar Ordinances of the Local Governments

    Jeon, Ji-hye | Lee, Se-Hee | 2018, 25(2) | pp.367~402 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed the relationship between the act on the guarantee of rights of and support for persons with developmental disabilities(Act for PWDD) and the similar ordinance of the local governments based on this law and focused on the correspondence(the rate of reflection) and the autonomy(differentiation). As of October 2017, 63 local government regulations and Act for PWDD were analyzed in this study. The results of the analysis are as follows: First, the rate of reflection in the ordinance of Act for PWDD was different according to the clause. In the aspect of emphasizing welfare support, the agreement between local ordinance and rate was high. While the Act for PWDD emphasized the rights of persons with developmental disabilities, there was little information about their right in the ordinance of local governments. This is evidence that current ordinance is based on the protective point of view for people with developmental disabilities. In the future, policy measures will be needed to ensure that respect for decision-making by persons with developmental disabilities and rights guarantees are included in the bylaws. Second, there is a provision that the rate of ordinance reflection is 0%, which may be guaranteed by other laws in the area, so it does not mean the absence of related system in the region, but there is possibility of institutional blind spot. In the future, consideration should be given to the complementarity of other legal systems in the area with developmental disabilities, so that persons with developmental disabilities should not be placed in institutional blind spots. Third, the autonomy(differentiation) of local ordinance was examined from the contents aspect and the administrative aspect to help practical implementation. The differentiation between the ordinances vary. Emphasizing the responsibilities of the head of the organization, emphasizing the fact-finding survey, setting up the welfare committee, or adding local needs were included to the ordinance. Local governments considering the enactment of ordinances in the future should refer to these cases and establish enactable local ordinances that take advantage of the characteristics of local autonomy.
  • 14.

    Conditions for Integrated Public Welfare Delivery System: Case Studies in Britain

    Bo-Yung Kim | 2018, 25(2) | pp.403~428 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    There has been constant attempts for integration of public welfare delivery system which lead to integrated case management, then this become more significant issue regarding ‘community care’ recently in Korea. However, most of them was limited to fractional organization rearrangement or more use of private resources rather than realising user-centred approach. Therefore, in this research, we would like to do a couple of case studies in Britain which has rich experience of reforms for integrated approaches between health and social services and Troubled Family programme resembles the integrated case management in Korea by visiting a London Borough and a local council respectively. In conclusion, we found three conditions are required to establish successful integrated delivery system: elimination of institutional barriers relating to workforce, organization, and finance shared objectives and partnership among the professional groups and agencies and information sharing system with technical support regarding individual cases.
  • 15.

    The Fourth Industrial Revolution and Labor Relations: Labor-management Conflict Issues and Union Strategies in Western Advanced Countries

    Lee Byoung-Hoon | 2018, 25(2) | pp.429~446 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The 4th Industrial Revolution, symbolizing the explosive innovation of digital technologies, is expected to have a great impact on labor relations and produce a lot of contested issues. The labor-management issues, created by the 4th Industrial Revolution, are as follows: (1) employment restructuring, job re-allocation, and skill-reformation, driven by the technological displacement, resetting of worker-machine relationship, and negotiation on labor intensity and autonomy, (2) the legislation of institutional protection for the digital dependent self-employed, derived from the proliferation of platform-mediated labor, and the statutory recognition of their ‘workerness’, (3) unemployment safety net, income guarantee, and skill formation assistance for precarious workeforce, (4) the protection of worker privacy from workplace surveillance, (5) protecting labor rights of the digital dependent self-employed and prcarious workers and guaranteeing their unionization and collective bargaining. In comparing how labor unions in Western countries have responded to the 4th Industrial Revolution, German unions have showed a strategic approach of policy formation toward digital technological innovations by effectively building and utilizing diverse channel of social dialogue and collective bargaining, while those in the US and UK have adopted the traditional approach of organizing and protesting in attempting to protect the interest of platform-mediated workers (i.e. Uber drivers). In light of the best practice demonstrated by German unions, it is necessary to build the process of productive policy consultation among three parties- the government, employers, and labor unions – at multi levels (i.e. workplace, sectoral and national levels), in order to prevent the destructive damage as well as labor-management confrotation, caused by digital technological innovations. In such policy consultation procesess, moreover, the inclusive and integrated approach is required to tackle with diverse problems, derived from the 4th Industrial Revolution, in a holistic manner.