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2018, Vol.25, No.4

  • 1.

    The Growth of the Korean Welfare State and its implications for redistribution: Who has been excluded?

    NAHM, JAEWOOK | 2018, 25(4) | pp.3~38 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to analyse the redistributive impact of the welfare state growth in Korea after 2000s and establish whether there are people excluded from the benefits of the growth. The growth of the Korean welfare state has been achieved by universalizing welfare benefits under the social insurance-centered institutions which are the legacies of the productivist/developmental welfare regime. When it comes to redistribution impacts, the welfare state growth improved inequality among old age populations to a certain degree due to the introduction of the Basic Pension. On the other hand, welfare benefits for the working poor population has hardly been improved in spite of the growing welfare state. It can be said, therefore, that low-income working-age populations have been excluded from the growth of Korean welfare state. These groups are mostly in middle-old age, unemployed or precariously employed and half of them were female householders. The exclusion of these groups from the Korean welfare state shows that the growth of the Korean welfare state was unbalanced. To include the excluded into the Korean welfare state, it is necessary to increase non-insurance social provisions, extend the range of application of the social insurances, integrate income protection, employment service, and vocational training for the working poor, and combine universal and targeted welfare benefits.
  • 2.

    New DNA of the Korean welfare state: Towards social liberalism and freecurity

    Young Jun Choi | 2018, 25(4) | pp.39~67 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The Korean welfare state has achieved remarkable development during the last two decades, but simultaneously we have witnessed growing prevalent social conflicts and exclusion in the society. This research argues that the source of current problems lies in the nature of the Korean welfare regime, so called, 'paternalistic liberalism'. The paternalistic liberalism has been formulated by the combination of legacies of the developmental state and neo-liberalism. Paternalism with the growth-oriented and employment-centered approach has been a significant factor to restrict individuals’ freedom and happiness in the Korean welfare state. It has also been embedded in the Korean welfare state such as social insurance, workfare programs, and centralized social services. In this context, this research proposes social liberalism, pursuing real freedom for all, as a new paradigm for the Korean welfare state. Breaking from the old path, Freecurity, combining freedom and security, which is argued to be the upgraded version of flexicurity, is also newly proposed as the operating model of social liberalism.
  • 3.

    Institutional Dynamics of In-Work Poverty Determination: Distributive Process of Labor Markets, Households, and the Welfare State Using Korean Welfare Panel Study, 2008-15

    Kirak Ryu | 2018, 25(4) | pp.71~104 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper adopts a distributive performance process model of in-work poverty based on labor markets, households, and welfare states and analyzes the 4-11 waves of the Korean Welfare Panel Study during 2008-15. Previous studies on in-work poverty have focused on the definitions and concepts of in-work poverty by analyzing employment and unemployment persistence and repetition dynamics, but rarely paid attention to institutional distributive performance. In this regard, this study preforms a stepwise analysis of labor markets, households, and welfare states as a process of income generation in labor markets, satisfaction of welfare needs and income pooling at households, and deduction of social security contribution and income tax as well as receipt of public transfer income at welfare states. Results of empirical analysis show that in-work poverty had been on increase during 2008-11, followed by a decrease between 2012-15. At labor market stages, full time status had the most prominent impact on in-work poverty process, while status by employment and contract type have generated a huge variation as well. At household stages, household work intensity and number of earners contributed to reduction of in-work poverty, but the relations did not seen to be straightforward. However, welfare state played little role in lifting employees out of in-work poverty. In terms of institutional distributive process, in-work poverty was prevalent in either household-welfare state stage or labor market-household-welfare stage. Non-vulnerable group in terms of in-risk poverty was around 80% of the sample during the period of analysis, the size of which has remained constant.
  • 4.

    Individualization in Family Policy and Gender Division of Unpaid Work in Germany, Netherlands and South Korea

    Mi Young An | 2018, 25(4) | pp.105~124 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This article analyzes individualization of family policies and gender division of unpaid work in Germany, Netherlands and South Korea. Measured in terms of women’s employment promotion, the individualization at the policy level was greater in Korea than both Germany and Netherlands. However, married women’s share of unpaid work was substantially larger in Korea than Germany and Netherlands. The strong unequal divison of unpaid work was also the case among working married women. Regression analysis showed that share of unpaid work in Korea was related to relative income in all three countries. But while gender ideology was positively related to married women’s share of unpaid work in Germany and Netherlands, the relationship was not found in Korea. Gender of respondent was also an explanatory factor for all three countries. The influence of married women’s relative income and gender ideology on share of unpaid work was similar to or larger than the effect of gender of respondents in Germany and Netherlands. By contrast, it was gender of respondent that mattered most for married women’s share of unpaid work in Korea. Among working married women, we found that both relative income and gender ideology were related to differences in share of unpaid work in Germany and Netherlands which was either similar to or larger than the effect of gender of respondent. However, we found that gender of respondent mattered most in Korea.
  • 5.

    The effect of Korean Employment Protection Legislation on Eliminating Discrimination on Non-Regular workers

    Home | 2018, 25(4) | pp.125~161 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to investigate the impact of Korean employment protection legislation that has implemented since 2007 on eliminating discrimination on non-regular worker’s wage and social security. It is used the panel Tobit model reflecting the variation of implementation time according to the size of establishments. Although the employment protection laws for non-regular workers have implemented, the wage gap and discrimination in social security for non-regular workers have continued. Of course, the discrepancies on wage and social security were founded not only between regular and non-regular workers but also within non-regular workers. For reducing the discriminations, this study proposes to restrict the reason for justifying discrimination, and the introduction of a new approach to accessing the discrimination and complimentary credit system. Besides, this study suggests to actively review the strengthening of regulations on the use of non-regular workers.
  • 6.

    Korean welfare regime in the conservative administration, 2008-2016

    YOON HONGSIK | 2018, 25(4) | pp.163~198 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed the change of the Korean welfare regime during the conservative government. It is clear that the welfare expanded during the conservative government, but this expansion was the process of realizing the constraint of expansion that reduces future welfare expenditure in Korea. In addition, as the public welfare centered on social insurance expanded after 10 years of liberal government, the backward selectivity of the Korean welfare regime strengthened in the conservative administration. Expanding social insurance itself does not reinforce the backward selectivity of the Korean welfare regime. However, the industrial structure created by the export-led growth system has intensified the fragmentation of the labor market, and expanding social insurance designed based on regular workers under these conditions has forced the backward selectivity of the social security system. It is for this reason that the backward selectivity has been reinforced during the conservative government.
  • 7.

    Economic Activities in Digital Platforms: Types, Natures, Risks, Policy Suggestions

    Suyoung Kim | MyungJoo Kang | Eun Sol Ha | 2018, 25(4) | pp.199~231 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The development of ICT has led to changes in the pattern and the meaning of work and requires restructuring of the existing social security system, which was established chiefly for the wage workers in the industrial economy. However, while economic activities within the digital platform markets are different from industrial labour, there is still a lack of discussion on what social problems platform workers can face and how to cope with them. As a comprehensive sketch of economic activities in platform economy, this study identifies the types of platform workers and analyses three characteristics of their economic activities ― flexibility, virtuality, and connectivity. It then examines what social risks can be derived form the three characteristics. This research lastly suggests alternative social safety nets and policies to alleviates the social risks and problems that platform workers may face in the digital society.
  • 8.

    Two Economic Crises, Unemployment, Working Poor, and Gender: Explaining the Dynamics of the Risk Patterns of Suicide in South Korea

    문다슬 | Chung, Haejoo | 2018, 25(4) | pp.233~263 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study sought to identify gender-specific mechanisms of increased suicide rates during economic crises in South Korea. In order to address research aims, we focused on two international economic crises: IMF financial crisis in 1997, and international recession in 2008. This study provides three main findings. First, different mechanisms increased suicide rates during the two economic crises. Particularly, the high level of unemployment raised suicide rates during the 1997 IMF while the high level of working poor in the 2008 recession. Second, suicidal risk patterns for men and women differed at each period. The 1997 crisis which mostly affected full-time permanent workers had had relatively greater impacts on men suicide, whereas the 2008 crisis which affected precarious workers had done on women suicide. Finally, our finding indicated that these gender-specific risk patterns had been derived from the gendered labour market and male-friendly social policy. Placing women at the periphery of the labor market and using them as a buffer in times of crisis, governments failed to protect them from their economic difficulties. Suicide is fundamental and important public health and social problems. These findings suggest that the national suicide prevention strategy should pay attention to the social determinants of suicide through gendered as well as population health perspectives.
  • 9.

    A Study of the Experiences and Changes of the Self-Sufficient Centers that Converted the Centre Corporation into Social Cooperative

    Baek Hakyoung | Kim, Kyoung Huy | Kyoung-Hun, Han | 2018, 25(4) | pp.265~299 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The pilot project for type diversification of self-sufficient support center that convert the centre corporation into social cooperative was introduced in 2015. That aimed to increase the number of participants of self-sufficient programmes and to create more jobs for the working poor through expanding the center’s autonomy of usage of budget and arrangement of self-sufficient programmes. This study analyzed the organization transmitting processes and changes of the centers took part in the pilot project, then aimed to suggest the improvement schemes to be helpful for reinforcing positive efforts and removing obstacles in the process converting. The results show that converting into social cooperative is a choice for the sustainability of the centers led by surroundings rather than self-initiated plan. There are some positive changes that are increasing the enterprising spirit and obligation of the center staff. Further more, the cooperation with other community organizations is enhanced based on achieving regional recognition, and support of local governments and the opportunity for new businesses are expanded. However, these are very limited in the regions where social economy is undeveloped. Eventually, we should seek the development schemes of the pilot project considering the reduction of the number of participants in self-sufficient programmes and decreasing of their ability to work, even if some positive aspects are revealed.
  • 10.

    The Effect of Poverty Reduction by Public Pension: A comparative study of 34 OECD Countries

    Kim, Yun Tae | Jae Wook Suh | 박연진 | 2018, 25(4) | pp.301~321 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether any combination of the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the public pension system is a causal factor for the elderly poverty reduction rate. For this, fuzzy-set qualitative comparison analysis was conducted with the poverty reduction rate as the outcome condition variable, the public pension expenditure ratio, the redistributive index, the first floor public pension weight, the second floor public pension weight and the second floor forced private pension weight did. As a result of the analysis, the combination of high public pension expenditure ratio, low two - tier public pension share and high two - tier compulsory private pension share has become a cause of high poverty reduction rate of the elderly. And more various forms of association were found as the cause of low poverty reduction rate of the elderly. This paper suggests policy proposals based on the above findings.