Korea is one of four nations without public paid sick leave among the OECD membership. The rest three are the US, Switzerland and Israel. This study compares and analyses how these three states manage the social risks faced by workers who suffer from non-job-related diseases or injuries, aiming at finding policy implications for Korea, which has lack related policies for sick workers. This study examines the two distinct approaches among OECD member states of public paid sick leave (implemented by most of OECD member states) and private sick leave (observed in the US, Switzerland, and Israel). This study in particular focuses on the latter three nations to compare and analyses how they protect sick workers not by public paid sick leave but by state regulation imposed on employers. This study finds that the three nations relieve the social risks undergone by sick workers in indirect ways of enforcing regulations on employers.
Switzerland and Israel impose regulations via civil and labour laws respectively, by which employers are obliged to provide paid sick leaves to their sick workers. For example, Swiss workers can get three weeks of paid sick leave during their first year of contract, while Isreaeli workers are eligible for additional 1.5 days of paid sick leave for every one-month workplace experience. The US federal government rules that employers with more than 49 workers should not dismiss their sick workers without regulated conditions.
The three nations, albeit without the state-financed paid sick leave, have managed to control the social risks of individual sick workers by implementing regulations on employers. The indirect approach by the three relatively market-oriented states have the two following implications for Korea. First, the right to sick leave for sick workers needs to legislated urgently. Second, the state, as the only OECD state without social protection for sick workers, needs to legislate a regulation for the paid sick leave program sooner than later.
This paper aims to examine the existing studies of dual poverty of time and income from the perspective of care. In general, dual poverty studies concern issues such as multiple inequalities, the double burden imposed on women, the improvement of women’s jobs that occupy a considerable portion of care work, and the expansion of care-support for female spouses. In this regard, dual poverty studies seem to have some positive insights not only to the time & inequality research but also to that of care. However, in order the existing dual poverty studies to be further care-sensitive, this paper suggests that they need to take care into consideration more systematically in the analytical process of dual poverty as well as their policy implications. Also, this paper proposes that the existing dual poverty studies should be able to criticize the current way how care is merely treated as a residual issue. To conclude, while proposing the care-time/care-burden ratio by the type of household as an idea of analysis, it argues for the extension of ‘caring-with’ and socialization of care as the effective solutions for time and/or dual poverty.
This article challenges traditional theories on the role of the left and power-resources mobilization based on Western European welfare states’ experiences. Traditionally, welfare state research has claimed a central role for leftists and their capacity to mobilize power resources, deemed crucial features in welfare state construction. However, this study claims that such a rationale may rest on a West-biased explanation.
The mainstream leftists in Japan and Korea have been passive in building a welfare state for a long time, mobilizing instead popular sentiment on foreign security or national unification policies, considered as more crucial political issues than welfare policies. The social democratic approach to welfare development was likewise viewed negatively. These views from the leftists partially contributed to the construction of ‘small welfare states’ in East Asia. A belief in radical ideologies such as Marxism-Leninism and the Juche ideology, and regarding socialism as an ideal model to replace the capitalist system, were common traits in the area. This was based on a strong sense of distrust and hostility toward the anti-communist, conservative governments that dominated the scene at that time, accelerated by the domestic Cold War, a geopolitical specificity of East Asia. This study suggests that it is not only the size of the power resources of the political left that counts, but progressives’ policy attitudes and strategies matter as well in the development of welfare states.
This study addresses the issues of the pensionable age of Teachers’ Pension focusing on the Bill suggested by Lee Eun-Jae, evaluating the legitimacy of the early retirement pensionable age for those retired by reducing a quota and closing a school. The main findings are as follows. First, retirement pension plays a role not as an old-age income security scheme but as an unemployment benefit in the case of providing retirement pension far too early after 5 years of retirement due to abolition of a school, rather than pensionable age of 65.
Second, early retirement pension by closing a school could increase dependency on pension and weaken work incentive if those retired are not keen on seeking a job and do not commence work because of receiving benefit at once, even though they are still of working age and good health. Third, those working for national/public schools have little possibility of early retirement but those working for private schools always have risk of abolition of schools. Furthermore insured fixed-term civil servants of Government Employees Pension are partially able to be covered by Employment Insurance, but insured private school personnels of Teachers’ Pension are unable to be covered by Employment Insurance. Fourth, early retirement payment by closing a school could increase relative deprivation of insured persons of National Pension. Moreover insured persons of National Pension are covered by Employment Insurance but insured personnels of Teachers’ Pension are not. The study proposes reforms of including insured personnels of Teacher’s Pension in Employment Insurance, providing different amounts of early retirement payments according to the periods of being left for the pensionable age of 65, limiting the periods of giving the early payments, making a separate employment insurance fund within the Teachers’ Pension fund.
This study aims to examine the organizational factors that influence service quality perceived by older clients by using hierarchical linear analysis. The organizational factors influencing the subjective service quality for older clients were classified into both institutional characteristics and organizational culture.
For this purpose, the study collected data from 240 older clients and 200 careworkers who provide services in 45 long-term care facilities in Seoul between May 1, 2014 and October 31, 2014. The collected data were analyzed using HLM 7.0. The study found two significant results. First, it was confirmed that the service quality perceived by older clients was various depending on the organizational characteristics, and it was also found that the organizational variables set in this study significantly explain the difference of the service quality perceived by older clients. Second, among the organizational factors, the size of the facility and the group culture have a significant effect on the service quality perceived by older clients. Based on the results of this study, it suggests that organizational level variables should be considered as policy strategies in order to improve the service quality in long-term care facilities for older clients. It also emphasized the importance of differentiated service quality policies depending on the size of the facility and building a collective culture for careworkers at the facility level.
This paper examines the effect of religion on welfare attitudes of individual in welfare states. While the importance of religion tended to be relatively ignored in current welfare state research, we investigate how religion affects welfare states in both theoretical and analytic contexts. We first suggest two theoretical frameworks for the effects of religion on welfare attitudes: self-interest perspective (welfare status) and value perspective. Then we analyze the effect of religion on welfare attitudes with the multi-level analysis using International Social Survey Program (2016) data. The main results are as follows. First, religion has been proved to be a significant factor affecting public attitudes toward government responsibility for welfare. Second, the more dependent on religion, the less supportive for the state role for welfare. It shows that an individual has conflict on interest between religion and the state as a welfare provider, taxpayer, and welfare recipient in perspective of welfare status. It also implies trade-off relationship between religion and state in the functional context. Thirds, while the values of the protestant and Catholic tends to conflict against state-centralism, the effects of welfare state regimes imply that Lutheranism and Calvinism among Protestantism may have different values on capitalism and the role of the welfare state.
We evaluate the coverage of long‐term care insurance (LTCI) using the National Survey of Senior Citizen 2017. We estimate the coverage gap by suggesting a new definition of coverage gap using the motivation of service access and sufficiency of the service amount. The motivation of service access is construed as whether the elderly with statutory care needs are willing to use public care service. The sufficiency of the service is defined as whether the amount of service available is adequate. Specific adjustments are also made to correct the non-representativeness of the sample. Besides micro level analysis, we also implemented a comparative analysis using OECD data to provide comparative implication on the coverage gap. By combining the result of the micro level analysis and comparative analysis, we evaluate the characteristics of the coverage of the LTCI in Korea. Finally, we consider the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.