Korea Social Policy Review 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 1.82

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pISSN : 1226-0525

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2020, Vol.27, No.2

  • 1.

    Letter from the Editor

    Soo Wan Kim | 2020, 27(2) | pp.1~3 | number of Cited : 0
  • 2.

    Social Exclusion in Public Sector: A Qualitative Case Study of Employees of Special Post Offices

    Seungjun Lee , KIM, JURI | 2020, 27(2) | pp.7~44 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Special post offices are private establishments providing public postal services. A postmaster or postmistress of a special post office is a private person entrusted with public postal services, and his or her employees are permanent full-time regular workers. When the government had financial difficulties in the 1960s, establishment of special post offices were promoted, and 843 branches were founded in South Korea as a result. In 2018, approximately 730 branches are providing postal services mostly in rural areas. By using a qualitative case study method, this research explores diverse dimensions of social exclusion that employees of special post offices are experiencing: salaries, levels of social security, and other employment benefits. The researchers have conducted 4 focus group interviews and 6 in-depth interviews with 23 people working in special post offices. The research findings show that the level of their salaries and expected pension income is lower than those of public officials doing identical postal services. In addition, they are facing instability of employment although their legal status is a regular worker, and they are substantially excluded from employment benefits such as autonomy at work, using leaves, and decent working environment enjoyed by the public officials.
  • 3.

    What Makes Personal Care Workers Stay Long at Long Term Care Facilities? Findings from Administrative Big Data at National Health Insurance Service

    Hee Seung Lee , Jung Suk Lee , Yeongwoo Park | 2020, 27(2) | pp.45~70 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Long term care(LTC) workers are one of the main pillars of the formal LTC delivery system. The study identifies factors affecting job tenure among personal care workers(PCW) in LTC facilities using 2016 administrative big data of the National Health Insurance Service(NHIS). We applied OLS regression using the sample of 35,944 full-time PCWs in LTC facilities, which participated in 2015 NHIS LTC Quality Evaluation. We hypothesized that the job tenure of PCWs was affected by socio-demographic characteristics, job conditions, organizational characteristics, and organizational policies. The average job tenure was 2.73 years, and its median was 2.1. Older women PCWs stayed longer. Higher monthly salary and longer hours of work extended the tenure of PCWs. PCWs stayed longer in LTC facilities with less than ten residents; a higher occupancy rate; longer operation history in a rural area. PCWs’ job tenure was related positively with LTC facilities’ organizational policy such as annual health screenings and job improvement efforts, but negatively with paying salaries based on labor contracts and training employees about internal organizational procedures. This study found that various financial and non-financial factors can motivate PCWs to stay long in LTC facilities. The long term care workforce retention policy should be designed considering those findings.
  • 4.

    Multiculturalism May Work, but Not Always: A Comparative Social Policy Perspective on the Educational Performance of Immigrants

    Yang Kyung-Eun , Seung-Hwan, Ham | 2020, 27(2) | pp.71~92 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Despite the worldwide diffusion of multiculturalism policies, scholarly debates still continue as to whether or not they effectively contribute to immigrant integration. Based on a comparative social policy perspective, this study attempts to fill this void in research. In particular, we shed light on the possibility that the effect of multiculturalism varies across countries depending on social policy arrangements. Using a cross-national sample of approximately 24 thousand immigrant children in 30 OECD countries, a series of hierarchical linear modeling analyses has been conducted. The results show that the strength of multiculturalism institutionalized at the country level is positively associated with immigrant children’s educational performance at the individual level. However, such an association appears to differ markedly across countries. We find multiculturalism’s intended effect much smaller or often negative in countries characterized by a high level of welfare generosity. Such a ‘corrosive effect’ of welfare generosity suggests that multiculturalism may produce either intended or unintended consequences depending on institutional dynamics in social policy development.
  • 5.

    Long-term Changes in the Extractive and Redistributive Capacity of the South Korean State, 1965-2017: An Analysis of the Tax Revenue, Tax Structure, and Tax-Welfare Complex Using the Methodology of Ideal Type

    Jin-Wook Shin | 2020, 27(2) | pp.93~124 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In South Korea, a developmental state of low-tax and low-welfare systems with regressive tax structure depending on consumption tax has been established during the period of authoritarian rule, and many previous studies have emphasized that a large part of such characteristics continued up to date. To examine the long-term changes as well as the continuity of historical legacies of the tax-welfare complex of the South Korean state, this study analyzed the trend from the 1960s to the 2010s in comparison with OECD member countries, using tax revenue, tax structure, and welfare expenditure as key indicators. Methodologically, this study took a historical-comparative approach using ideological type to interpret the case of South Korea as a specific form of combination, proximity, and deviance in relation to the social democratic, continental European, liberal, and developmental regime types. The results of analysis showed that the legacy of the regressive developmental state continues, but has undergone considerable quantitative and qualitative changes. The tax revenue started to leap from the late 1980s, and the welfare expenditure started to leap from the late 1990s, and since then they have grown the most rapidly and persistently among the OECD member countries. Regarding the tax structure, the increase of income tax and social insurance contribution are contrasted with the decrease of consumption tax. While the characteristics of low-tax and low-welfare system continue from the international standard, the South Korean state experienced a significant change toward a hybrid welfare state in which the institutional legacies of the developmental state like the tax expenditure, the characteristics of the liberal type centered on income tax and those of the continental European type centered on social insurance contributions coexist. Discussions on new structural problems and policy responses corresponding to these changes are expected to become more important in the future.
  • 6.

    Poverty Duration and Exit of the Working Elderly Poor: Implications for the Senior Job Program

    Ji, Eun Jeong | 2020, 27(2) | pp.125~162 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study examines poverty duration and poverty exit of the working elderly poor to investigate the effectiveness of the senior job program utilized by the government as a method of workfare and poverty reduction policy. The analysis uses ten waves (2009– 2018) of the Korea Welfare Panel Study data using by life-time table and discrete time hazard analysis. According to the results, 76.1% of the elderly population experience poverty at least for one year during 10 years. It shows that employment is not a solution to lift old people out of poverty. In addition, the persistent poverty rate is 51.0% and among them, the chronically poor, whose average income per capita over time is below the poverty line, account for 59.4%. This index provides evidence that it is difficult for the elderly to exit poverty in the short term. Old people are not able to escape poverty even if they are working. It does not mean that old people cannot exit poverty due to a lack of work. Second, poverty duration of old people who participate in the senior job program is longer than that of the other elderly poor expecially unemployed old people. It indicates that contrary to government expectation, the program is limited in terms of alleviating the poverty rate. Third, even after controlling for other variables, there is a state dependency that the likelihood of exiting poverty decreases the longer a person has been poor. This poverty duration dependence may be rooted in the extremely low quality of jobs. Furthermore, unlike the government’s expectation, the senior job program cannot contribute to the exit the poverty due to low job quality, rather, it should endeavor to achieve the original goal of the program and ensure decent working conditions for older workers in the regular labor market.
  • 7.

    Old-age Income Security of Precarious Workers: Simulation Analysis of South Korean Precarious Workers’ Pension Benefit

    Yunyoung Kim | 2020, 27(2) | pp.163~195 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyses how the old-age income security of precarious workers varies according to the type of multi-level pension system focusing on the increasing precarious workers in the post-industrial South Korea. In the service economy, precarious workers experience complex precariousness in terms of employment, income, and social wage. This study aims to compare the effect of multi-level pension systems on the relationship between the precarious work in labour market and the old-age pension benefit. Specifically, I construct four hypothetical precarious workers group representing the precariousness in the labour market in Korea and compare the benefit levels of the groups in three different pension systems. The result shows that the Partially Guaranteed pension system does not ensure the sufficient old-age pension benefit of precarious workers. However, the gap in pension income by the groups is smaller than other groups, which refers to that the pension system provides with low level of pension income not only precarious groups but stable workers. In addition, pension income of precarious worker groups in Partially Guaranteed pension system fluctuate with their experience of precarious work before retirement. In the conclusion, I suggest a possible way to reform the Korean pension system to ensure the old-age income security of precarious workers in the post-industrial labour market.
  • 8.

    A Study on Type of Korea’s Local Employment Policy and Characteristics

    LEE SANG A | 2020, 27(2) | pp.197~227 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The main objective of this study is to comparatively analyze the types of local employment policies and their characteristics to discover implications for Korea’s local employment policy. The fuzzy set research method was used for analysis. The data used in the current study were comprehensive plans for local government administrations elected for the 2014–2018 term in the analyzed regions, as well as detailed annual jobs plans from 2014 to 2018 published according to the local jobs objective disclosure policy. As a result of the analysis, types such as comprehensive local-led (C*a*I), comprehensive active (C*A*i), local-led active (c*A*I), comprehensive focused (C*a*i), local-led focused (c*a*I), and weak local employment policy (c*a*i) were identified. The results of the current study prove that employment problems can be solved when local employment policies are active in nature and harmonize with other attributes. That is, active labor market policy programs that facilitate the balanced development of local employment policies will ensure the effectiveness of these policies. Furthermore, the current study implies that local employment policies can be used as a means of policy for qualitative vitalization, which enables the market’s entry into a state of long-term stable employment.
  • 9.

    Universal Health Care at the Crossroad: An Evaluation on the Privatization Trend in Canadian Medicare

    Cho Young Hoon | 2020, 27(2) | pp.229~253 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to examine if and how much the Chaoulli decision of 2005 ruled by the Supreme Court of Canada has brought the privatization in health care to Quebec and the rest of Canada. This article adopts a historical comparative method in the sense that it compares Quebec and other providences on several indices representing medical privatization before and after 2005. Such an historical comparative method will enable this article to evaluate the influence of the Chaoulli decision on the privatization in health care, and to analyze the recent trend in medical privatization of the Canadian health care. This article is significantly different from existing researches in the sense that it attempts to demonstrate the degree of the influence of the Chaoulli decision on health care privatization based upon recent empirical data. In addition to the academic contribution, this article has a practical significance in the sense that it shows the recent trend in the expansion of health care market in the universalistic health care system and that it, by emphasizing a passive attitude of the Canadian governments as a main driving force for the medical privatization, provides a useful reference for the reform policy in the national health insurance the Korean government recently tries to initiate.
  • 10.

    An Analysis on the Effectiveness of aid Fragmentation Based on the Level of Economic Growth of Recipients

    Moonyoung Joe , Lee, Suk-Won | 2020, 27(2) | pp.255~280 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    With the explosive surge in the volume of aid, skepticism towards aid effectiveness has been emerging as a major issue among donor countries. In particular, as aid increased on a diverse and vast scale, aid fragmentation became serious, which led to a decline in quality of aids. However, aid fragmentation does not necessarily cause a decrease in aid effectiveness, for aid fragmentation refers to an increase in quantitative aid by various participants. Thus, this increased amount of aid can rather help the development of recipient country's economic growth under certain conditions. Based on these conflicting research results, this study analyzed how aid fragmentation affects the effectiveness of aid depending on the level of economic development in recipient countries. In addition, the path of causal relation between the level of economic growth and aid fragmentation was identified. To this end, this study discussed the impact of such a strategic choice on aid effectiveness, especially focusing on changes in fiscal spending among the policy strategies of recipient countries. Through this, the effect of the aid fragmentation on aid effectiveness in Southeast Asia and sub-Sahara Africa, where economic levels are significantly different, was analyzed, and the mediation effect of changes in fiscal spending was reviewed. As a result, Southeast Asia has shown no significant impact on aid effectiveness, while sub-Saharan regions had positive impact. In the case of sub-Saharan regions, it was also shown that changes in fiscal expenditure had effect of curbing the aid effectiveness. Therefore, it can be said that proper level of aid fragmentation can contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of aid, but it could also lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of aid due to problems such as the distortion of government's fiscal expenditure and the inability of government carrying out the intended aid projects.