Although the socialization and expansion of insurance for eldercare services in Korea have improved, the necessity of a social safety net for the primarily female in-home care workers is rarely discussed. There is no social safety net for workers’ health, even though in-home care workers are exposed to various occupational risks in poor working environments. Therefore, this study aims to reveal the occupational health risks faced by female in-home care workers of Long-Term Care Insurance policy in Korea, and to design a social safety net in order to protect them from those risks. This study uses qualitative research methods to analyze how in-home elderly care workers experience the existing pre-preventative and post-compensational social policies designed to protect them from occupational risks and industrial illnesses. In particular, this research analyze the mismatch between the institutional context of occupational risks and the current social security system for workers’ health. Based on these research findings, this study finally suggested how the social security system for care workers’ safety and health could be reconstructed. This study has an implication that provides an in-depth analysis of the experience and the structural context in health risks and the social safety net for in-home care workers’ health, and this has been rarely discussed before.