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2006, Vol.7, No.2

  • 1.

    Translating Animation Films: Subtitling as RewritingKang

    Ji-Hae Kang | 2006, 7(2) | pp.7~29 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    Translating Animation Films: Subtitling as RewritingKang, Ji-Hae(Ajou University) This study explores the subtitling of animation films for children by drawing on the concept of "rewriting" (Lefevere 1992). While subtitling is similar to other forms of translation in many respects, it is also quite different in that subtitling, as a form of audiovisual translation, entails heavy spatial and temporal constraints and is "written to be spoken as if not written." The present paper examines how the subtitling of animation films creates rewritings of original films by providing a comparative analysis of original film dialogues of six American animation films and their corresponding Korean subtitles. The genre of animation films has been described by numerous scholars as involving creative and transformative rewriting of existing narratives. The present paper argues that the subtitling of animation films equally undergoes comprehensive rewriting as a result of the translator's rendering of the source language film dialogues (oral texts) into the target language subtitles (written texts). The process of subtitling creates more overt links among video, sound, and dialogues and strengthens entertainment functions of animation films by exploiting oral features of language, puns, and other linguistic devices. Subtitling also rewrites the film by simplifying and explicitating meaning and domesticating the dialogue of film. The findings suggest that the rewriting observed in subtitling of animation films is a manifestation of the translating agent's intervention to produce a translation that creates new cultural and commercial values in the target culture.
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    Translation Strategies to Compensate for the Asymmetry of Cultural Elements: Based on the Tourist Guide Posts and Brochures of Busan

    Dohun Kim | 2006, 7(2) | pp.31~51 | number of Cited : 39
    Abstract PDF
    Translation Strategies to Compensate for the Asymmetry of Cultural Elements: Based on the Tourist Guide Posts and Brochures of Busan Kim, Do Hun(Pusan University of Foreign Studies) Built upon previous research on intercultural studies and translation strategies, this paper aims to expand the current literature by exploring the role and importance of cultural elements in the process of translation. Clear understanding of cultural elements is crucial in cross-cultural translation, as communication does not take place in a vacuum, but rather in a world of shared knowledge and experience. Hence, when the source and target text readers are separated by culture and have little or no shared cultural background, there will be a large gap that the translator will have to bridge if the target text reader is to understand the text in a manner similar to the way source text reader would understand it. And this is where the cultural elements in the source text culture must be explained or reestablished in the target text, as communication starts from a shared base. Based on a clearer understanding of cultural elements and the consequences of their asymmetry, this paper seeks to find out how the translator can communicate to the target text reader the equivalent information and connotations as the source text reader understands. To this end, this paper will illustrate concrete compensation or translation strategies that enable source and target text readers to have shared cultural understanding. The translations that serve as the bases for the explanation of translation strategies are taken from tourist guide posts and brochures that contain a number of cultural elements, thereby requiring the translator to employ active and diverse compensation mechanisms.
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    Translation of Personal Pronouns in English Research Papers into Korean: A Textlinguistic Approach

    김영신 | 2006, 7(2) | pp.53~67 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Translation of Personal Pronouns in English Research Papers into Korean: A Textlinguistic Approach Kim, Youngshin (Keimyung University) One of the most important considerations in the process of translation is to produce a target text which conforms to the norms and conventions of TC(Target Culture) and satisfies communicative needs of TT(Target Text) readers. Using research papers as its data, the present study aims to show how Korean research paper conventions differ from their English counterparts. The identification of such differences, it is argued in the paper, will be of great help to translators, because they can come up with optimal strategies when they are encountered with translational problems. The first part of this paper is devoted to exploring textual differences between Korean research articles and English ones in terms of macrostructure/superstructure, followed by the examination of microstructure. Especially with regard to microstructure, this paper analyzes metalinguistic utterances in which participants in the textual interaction become explicitly manifested. It is argued that personal pronouns such as 'I', 'We', and 'You' appear more frequently in English research papers, thus creating personal involvement between the author and readers. It is also observed that these constructions were usually rendered in passive forms in Korean target texts. Drawing on the concept of text politeness, this study suggests that translation should be carried out in a way to comply with the textual norms of TT.
  • 4.

    Terminology Translation of Digital Narrative & Discourse

    HYUNJU RYU | 2006, 7(2) | pp.69~86 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Terminology Translation of Digital Narrative & Discourse Ryu Hyunju(Pusan University of Foreign Studies) This paper addresses the problems of terminology translation of digital narrative and its discourse with focus on narrative texts: computer games and hypertext fictions. Digital narrative is the narrative mediated by computer technology so that readers/users can enjoy the texts on computer screen. As such, this new narrative form uses a slew of English computer terminology. At issue is standards and consistency when it comes to translation and terminology. This is more true in digital narrative because computer technology evolves quickly. Not just users but translators rush to accomodate its terminology and find Korean equivalents. This is quite a challenge to translators as they need a strong background knowledge on this new discipline while keep up with current digital jargons and narratology. Otherwise they often make mistakes in interpreting concepts and making Korean equivalents. I elaborate translation problems with examples of key terminology and concepts: dungeon, dragon, RPG, PK in games and hypertext, link, node and super reader in hypertext fiction. Some Korean scholars argue that we should make Korean equivalents to English counterparts. The original intention is good but it fails to reach consensus among Korean scholars. Consequently they suggest same terms for different concepts or vice versa. What makes a matter worse is that people are reluctant to use standardized terms. Instead, they mix jargons of Korean and English or even coin strange words dubbed as "alien terms." It is no easy job, then, to make all the Korean equivalents to English jargons of digital narrative. Yet it will be worthwhile to study its concepts to find the best equivalents and use standardized terms if any.
  • 5.

    A Study on Gilles Deleuze's 'Minor' Meaning

    Sa Kong Il | 2006, 7(2) | pp.87~104 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    A Study on Gilles Deleuze's 'Minor' Meaning Sa, Kong Il(Pusan University of Foreign Studies) Gilles Deleuze is a neologizer and inventor of concepts. His concepts have various and complex meanings, and his arguments are often dense and always entail a thought that proceeds by means of paradox. Accordingly, it is necessary to understand Deleuze's thought perfectly in order to translate and interpret his concepts completely. In this sense, this paper analyzes his minor concepts, such as minority, minor writer, minor language, and minor literature. The opposition between minority and majority is not simply quantitative. While the meaning of majority implies a constant serving as a standard measure by which to evaluate it, that of minority is characterized by the puissance in variation. So the major is a constant and homogeneous system, and the minor is a potential, creative becoming.Through the criticism of this major language, Deleuze emphasizes the autonomous becoming and creation of the minor language, finding a strategic position of the minor language. In the autonomous becoming-minor, writers become authors who don't have future and past, but only becoming and middle. Deleuze considers these writers as minor writers. They lead to the way to stutter major language itself by creating the becoming and variation of language as continuous variation or variable continuum. As far as used in minor mode, the continuous variation can explain the most implicit and creative characteristics in a language and become the language of theater. In this process, minor writers can create minor literature.
  • 6.

    Korean-English Mistranslation of Juvenile Stories

    우형숙 | 2006, 7(2) | pp.105~125 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Korean-English Mistranslation of Juvenile Stories Woo Hyung-sook (Sookmyung Women's University) Translation has brought people of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds close together. It has built bridges of understanding and appreciation among different societies. In the respects, the translation of juvenile stories can be said to be of great importance. By reading translated stories, children can also contact and experience exotic things or happenings. These days more and more children have been enjoying translated foreign juvenile stories over the Internet. It is no wonder when we think that we are living in the age of the Internet. But the problem is that some translated juvenile stories contain some aspects of mistranslation. The purpose of this study is to find some mistranslated parts in Korean-English translated juvenile stories, suggesting some strategies for better translation. In order to develop some translation strategies, this study classifies mistranslation of juvenile stories into two great parts: mistranslation on the word level and mistranslation on the situation level. Each part is also divided into more specific subparts. On the word level, mistranslation takes place with a more general word, omission, a non-lexicalized word, a loan word, a non specific word, and lack of information. On the situation level, mistranslation takes place with the wrong structure and the unnatural conjunction of the contents. Even though this study focuses on the analysis of translated juvenile stories, it is also designed to open possibilities for analyzing the translated works in other fields.
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  • 8.

    Translation of Metaphorical Expressions: Focused on Constructions for Speech Act

    Lee Young-Ok | 2006, 7(2) | pp.151~178 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Translation of Metaphorical Expressions: Focused on Constructions for Speech Act Lee, Young-Ok(Kyung Hee University) It is a crucial step before starting to translate from one language to another to analyze the differences of the two languages in terms of various aspects of language structure and cultural background. The comparison of Korean and English is especially inspiring and rewarding for both practical and theoretical purposes as the two languages are in diametrically opposite position in language structure and cultural background. Metaphorical expressions reflect differences of the two most important aspects in comparing two languages, which is a prerequisite for adequate translation and successful communication.This study analyzes Korean and English metaphorical expressions for speech act and classifies the differences, focusing on the differences in their source domain. Both languages use expressions for food and physical things to show, grasp, manipulate, possess, and even fight with as a source domain of speech act. The significant difference unique in Korean metaphorical expressions is in the use of flowing water or spreading air as important source domain elements for speech act. This may be interpreted as reflecting the Korean culture that sees activities and events as a kind of natural and spontaneous development of serial phases that constitute the whole activities and events. Korean language also makes use of direct forms of speech act as an effective way to enhance its perceptibility.
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  • 10.

    A Research on Movie Translation Strategies

    정인희 | 2006, 7(2) | pp.207~233 | number of Cited : 22
    Abstract PDF
    A Research on Movie Translation Strategies Jung, Inhee(Yongin Songdam College) The purpose of this research is to explore effective strategies for translating movies from English into Korean. Translating movies is different from translating printed texts such as novels and articles. While movie audiences follow stories with pictures in front of their eyes book readers understand what is going on just with a written text.One of the major functions of movies is to give emotion to the audiences in the source language(SL). The audience of the target language(TL) want to have the truest possible feel of the original. Movie translators must therefore try to deliver emotion to the audiences in TL as close as the original movies do in the SL. The equivalence theory and skopos theory are briefly looked into and two major methods of movie translation, subtitling and dubbing, are explained. Then several conversational examples from five movie scripts in both English and Korean are examined. The conversations in the SL and the TL are compared and analyzed to find what kind of strategies are applied by translators. In this research it is concluded that various translation tactics such as picture-corresponding translation, chunking up, chunking down, foreignization, domestication, deletion, etc, are useful to deliver dynamic equivalence in movie translation. We can assume a movie translator has carried out a successful translation with effective strategies when the translated movie makes the same resultant impression on the audience as the original does.