Translation and Modernization in Korea and JapanLee, Geun Heui(Sejong University)Translation has become an important tool for modernization all over the world. Through translation, Japan and Korea have been able to introduce Western institutions, cultures and knowledge about sciences, philosophy, and so on. Especially in modern times, the role of translation was prominent in both nations. They enlightened their people and enriched their languages with new words and expressions by the way of translation. However, modernizations in Japan and Korea have been evaluated differently. Academics have considered Japan's modernization successful, while they have not made this assumption for Korea. The aim of this paper was to find translation differences related to the topic of modernization between Japan and Korea. The result of this study showed significant distinctions. Japan had begun modernization before the modern age: It had institutions responsible for translation activities run by the government, well-educated translators, interest in Western academic knowledge and culture, translation aids which were dictionaries, and an enlarged language with new words using Chinese characters and borrowed Western languages. Korea did not do this. Japan proceeded with modernization without the intervention of great powers such as Russia, France, England, Austria, Italy, and Germany. They were in a war respectively. Korea faced invasion from many countries including Japan. Korea had been undergoing modernization with high pressure from outside.