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2008, Vol.9, No.1

  • 1.

    Functions and Usage of Colon and Strategies to Translate Colon in English-Korean Translation

    Dohun Kim | 2008, 9(1) | pp.7~27 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    It is of notable interest that the translation of punctuation marks in English-Korean translation often invites `headaches' due to punctuation system differences and that the issue has been neglected in the academic discipline of translation studies. This paper purports to explore the various functions and usage of colon (:) and present useful translation strategies that can be employed in English-Korean translation. Explanation of the colon's functions is based on a number of widely-used style guides and grammar books, and the examples used for the explanation are taken from children’s literature; the punctuation points used in such genre are relatively clear and in conformity with the standard usage. Based on a clearer understanding of the functions and usage, this paper selects and classifies effective translational strategies and discusses how such strategies can be deployed and what attentions should be paid in the process of translation. Although there are a number of punctuation marks in the English language system, this paper limits its scope to colon, which often invite confusion and disagreement of interpretation in the process of translation, as the usage and function of ssangjeom, the "form-equivalent punctuation mark" in the Korean language, display both similarities and differences with colon. The author hopes the research will contribute to triggering further discussion on the translation of punctuation and to offering guidelines for those in the translation profession.
  • 2.

    A Tentative Demarcation of Korean Translation History

    Jeong-Woo Kim | 2008, 9(1) | pp.29~69 | number of Cited : 25
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at demarcating the Korean translation chronicle, after having established some resonable demarcation criteria from the dawn of translation era to the early part of the 20th century. The results discussed so far are as follows: The key point on which the author persistently has emphasized in finding out the proper, and relatively objective, criteria to demarcate the Korean translation history, is that they should be based upon the intra-history, not extra-history, of translation; that is, they should be extracted from the thorough survey for concrete translation materials themselves, which in turn form the body of translation history. Taking this basic principle into consideration, the author has tried to find out some factors which led the changes revealed in the Korean translation history by examining both outer and inner aspects of translated books. The former aspects taken into account in this paper are their source and target languages, their translation techniques applied to the translation, their translation formats, and the latter ones are the kinds of fields such as Buddhist/ Confucian scriptures, armory books, medical books, etc. The strongest factor that we have found out from our survey and analysis of the necessary translated materials, is the kinds of languages relevant languages, especially target language. The tentative demarcation of Korean translation history is as follows: I. The Pseudo Translation Period (From 11th to 13th century) II. The Pure Translation Period (From the 14th century and after) II.a. The Translation-by-Idu Stage (To the middle of 15th century) II.b.The Translation-by-Korean Alphabet Stage (From the middle of 15th century and after) II.b.1. The Translation-by-Jeongeum Phase (To the latter of 19th century) II.b.2. The Translation-by-Hangeul Phase (From the latter of 19th century and after)
  • 3.

    Social Cognitive Writing Theory and Translation Strategy by Stages

    김혜영 | 2008, 9(1) | pp.71~93 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to present the strategy by stage of translation in the perspective of the social cognitive writing theory for effective translation. Since the translation is a series of process to yield translated sentences as a result object, it can be referred to as writing process. Based on the point of view that the translation is the writing process integrated with 'reading-writing', we re-establish the concept of translation in the perspective of the social cognitive writing theory, and present with the principle of translation and the translation strategy by stages during the translation process. As the social cognitive writing theory regards the writing as the meaning composition process through interactions with members of the discourse community and emphasizes the social environment which influences the meaning composition process through interaction with the writer, it compliments the strategy of solving problems required in the writing process. So we re-establish the concept of translation as 'communication process as well as meaning composition process which re-produce and re-create a completed text, by interpreting the text of a start language as the text of a target language in consideration of social and cultural context of discourse community through conversation with audience' in the perspective of social cognitive writing theory. And we set up the principles of translation with five categories of 'participation principle to discourse community', 'integration principle of reading-writing', 'conversation theory', and 'interdisciplinary principle'. We establish the process of translation as categories of 'Planning→understanding(data investigation→rough reading)→Expressing→Revising', and suggest the translation strategy by stages required during the course of translation for effective translation, referring to the problem solving strategy by stages during the writing process presented as method of writing in the social cognitive writing theory.
  • 4.

    A Study on the English Translation of Soo-Yeong Kim’s Poems

    Hyo-Joong Kim | 2008, 9(1) | pp.95~115 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper lies in analyzing various aspects of the English Translation of Soo-Yeong Kim's Poems. The results of the analysis turn out as follows: Translators' efforts to keep the original intact and to translate as faithful as possible are to be seen throughout their translation works. Their achievements as translator deserve fair and proper evaluation. They make frequent use of many devices such as the indention, addition, or deletion, italic type, shift of signs for the readers who are not familiar with Korean Culture. It is the distinguishing features of Kim's poetic diction that he used common words. And their translation method is principally a literal rendering. However, they translate freely according to the circumstances. Even though, some parts of English Version don't perfectly replace their Korean counterparts to meet the convenience of non-Korean readers. Sometimes, this leads to unsatisfying result, since while doing so, the translation may damage its pure atmosphere and fine nuance of the original. In order to enhance the literary atmosphere of the poem, translators convert the refrain into the english end rhymes. Besides, they take the advantage of the indention and facultative modification of sentence marks for the purpose of raising the comprehensive faculty of foreign readers. The importance of literary translation cannot be over-emphasized in this global age. As stated above, English Version proves the difficulties of the translating Korean literary works. However, one of the best ways is the translating Korean literature, especially, Korean poems for the understanding Korean high-graded culture and literature.
  • 5.

    The constraints of the Korean and Japanese cartoon translation due to a metaphor and a picture image

    Park, Mi-Jung | 2008, 9(1) | pp.117~144 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to study the Korean and Japanese editorial cartoon translation. In particular, this study is intended to examine a constraints of translation due to a metaphor and a picture image used in the editorial cartoon. For it, the analysis is limited to the Korean and Japanese translation of one-panel cartoon whose picture image is translated among the editorial cartoons. In the concrete, a relation between the visual image on metaphor and the limitation of translation is analyzed in the aspect of pragmatics among the horizons of Semiotics classified by Morris. The correlation is examined through extracting the key signifier from the letter text that the metaphor is used and the picture text in the editorial cartoon. Then, the relationship between the metaphor symbol which is moved to target text and the limitation of translation of visual image is described focused on a relevance theory. As a result of analysis, when a denotative meaning is reproduced with the visual image among the signified of metaphor whose the original text is the letter text, there is the large constraints of translation on the metaphor.
  • 6.

    Politeness, Ellipsis, and Visual Codes in Film Subtitling

    박윤철 | 2008, 9(1) | pp.145~166 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    The film transfers the meanings and contents of the source text through the visual, audible, and written channels. These channels also have influence on the translation of subtitling respectively or together. In the analysis of subtitling until now, the meanings of politeness features which can be a good device in understanding the relation between two speakers, failed to relay the source contents by ellipsis or condensation, or transferred to change and lose them. Accordingly, this paper aims at observing the preservation of politeness meaning in subtitling though there is the shift like ellipsis, condensation in its process. The Face Threat Action(FTA), one of the politeness features is generally demanded to minimize its threat. It occurs the ellipsis or condensation in the shift process of subtitling. Such processes may cause the subtitling to change and lose the source meaning. However, the translation of the subtitling had usually been analyzed in context oriented aspect, and this perspective had not included the visual code information. And it rationalized that the translation of subtitling could have the redundant meanings between utterances and visual codes. These meanings cause the ellipsis and condensation in subtitling. Converting the English into Korean subtitling at films like Lake House(2006), Sweet November(2001), and Pride & Prejudice(2005), the politeness feature such as FTA remained at the target subtitling, and it was carried with weakened meaning more than the source text. Even though the meaning of the source more or less weakens, the meanings of politeness features in target subtitling remain similar to source text meanings by assistance of visual code contents. Therefore, it can be known that the politeness features in subtitling are carried fully with the support of visual codes and context situation regardless of ellipsis, condensation of subtitling.
  • 7.

    Translation of marked themes in movie subtitling

    Jong-Hwa Won | 2008, 9(1) | pp.167~191 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Subtitling refers to the printed translation of a dialogue in a film, which usually appears at the bottom of the screen in one or two lines. Since sutbitles are shown simultaneously with the movie's dialogue, strict time and space constraints are imposed. As a result, in many cases, subtitlers are forced to present the dialogue in condensed form at the risk of change or loss of meaning. One source of relief for subtitlers, however, is that such changes or losses of meaning can often be supplemented by other modes of communication such as visual images on the screen, sound effects, and paralinguistic cues delivered by the actors. Based on such unique requirements of subtitling, it would be easy to assume that subtitling may require translation strategies different from those for written texts. The present paper explores the unique translation strategies employed by subtitlers, including the methodologies to cope with strict time and space constraints. Marked themes or occurrences of thematic structure which are less typical in the source language, are used as the tools for analyzing subtitling strategies. Through analysis of translation strategies used for marked themes, which have their own subtleties of emphasis and meaning, the present paper concludes subtitlers put a major focus on the readability of the target text rather than being faithful to the linguistic structures of the source text.
  • 8.

    A Study on Maximizing the Acceptability in Screen Text Translation

    이다현 | 2008, 9(1) | pp.193~214 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Establishing a systematic methodology of acceptability is crucial for producing good film translations. Furthermore, I suggest a practical method for increasing the acceptability of the screen translation and analyze it through a model and hypothesis that attempt to communicate based upon cognitive ability. The attempt to systemize the general process of screen translation is necessary in order to increase acceptability. This research summarizes the plan as follows because systematic model and strategic presentation are pressing needs. This plan can maximize the acceptability and understandability of screen translation. Since the translator is the intermediary between the original text and the viewer of the translated film, he has the duty to re-communicate accurately due to the responsibility of producing a product that increases the spectators’understanding. Just as the creator takes pride in his work, so should the translator have pride in transmission and implicit explanation. Acknowledging this role will change the status of film translators. The answer to "what?" is the practical method of increasing understanding for increased acceptability. It can lead to the improvement in quality of supplemental communication by establishing understanding of the desire to re-communicat by the translator, which is primarily, as well as of the spectators' reception. This new area of translation studies needs to be enlarged with a practical method for improving the quality of translation and the upgrading of the position of translators through "correction" and "understanding."
  • 9.

    Paradigms of Translation Criticisms

    전현주 | 2008, 9(1) | pp.215~258 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    This paper discusses the elements required in form and content paradigms based on the analysis of various Translation Criticisms(TC's), grasps what critics notice as they qualify the acceptability of Target Texts(TT), and suggests a kind of guideline for translation criticism policies and their assessments. The selected TC's have been screened according to several standards such as authenticity, durability, and activeness of critics, journals, and publications. And also, having TC's genre(literature and non-literature), Source Language(English and Korean) and Target Language(Korean and English) and the category of TC's in mind, the writer has adopted texts such as In/Out" English Studies in Korea(『안과밖』), Kyosu Newspaper(『교수신문』), A Study on the History of the Modern Korean Translated Literature (『한국현대번역 문학사 연구』), and other major sources. Analysed the TC's, this study suggests form and content paradigms of TC's as follows, and attempts to verify their validity, reliability and objectivity. There are two kinds of criticisms: 'self-criticism' and 'others'-criticism', which are specified into the various aspects of TC's. For example, in terms of common factors, the form paradigm of TC's consists of subject, object, medium, and recipient of criticisms(See Table 2-1). And as the object of criticisms is concerned, there are four kinds of TC category: 'individual', 'collective', 'comprehensive', and 'TT-oriented'. The category of TC plays the most significant role in constructing the body and core of TC. Next, considering the content paradigm of TC's, four kinds of TC category have the distinctive features by the ways of comparing ST(s) with TT(s), their assessment criteria and items in TC's: First, the ways of comparing ST(s) with TT(s) in TC's are widely different depending on the combination mode of the four factors of person, time, text, and language(See Table 2-2). Second, the assessment criteria has different aspects in 'individual' and 'collective' TC's group and 'comprehensive' TC's group. The one is evaluated by its genre, directional text, and the goal of translation, and the other is traced by times, language, genre, author, translator and the like(See Table 2-3). And finally concerning to the assessment items for TC's, acceptability are filtered in the means of 'extra-text's elements' and 'intra-text's elements'(See Table 2-4) by critics. In the case of the 'collective' TC's, however, it has some evident limitation which can not approach the intra-text's elements properly, so critics notice the imbalanced phenomena of the power between major and minor language, genre, author, translator groups in synchronic and diachronic prospects individually. The ultimate goal of this study is to encourage and direct translators as critics including professionals and amateurs and vice versa to equip themselves with effective translation strategies. By the same token, considering the purpose of Translation Studies, making the measurement grids for filtering TT's acceptability, establishment of the effective and practical paradigms of form and content for TC's can dedicate toward the development and improvement of translation quality management. Accordingly, with regard to the role of public recognition tools to endow TT's with their acceptability, TC's checkpoints and critics' views proposed above are conversely translated and should be adapted as translators' essential guideline.
  • 10.

    Spelling Mistakes of Proper Nouns in English Information Boards of Gwanghalluwon Area

    Hie Sup Choi | 2008, 9(1) | pp.259~282 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    In the summer of 2007, I happened to find some mistakes in the English information boards in Gwanghalluwon Area. I checked eight information boards. As there are so many mistakes, I decided to write papers on them. As this is the first one of them, I focused on the proper nouns in the information boards. The National Institute of the Korean Language proclaimed “The Rule of Romanization of the Korean Language” on the 19th of July, 2000. According to the additional rules, they should have changed the information boards by the end of the year 2005. I don't know whether the information boards were changed or not, but there is no consistency in the spelling of the proper nouns. The place names are not spelled according to any specific rules, for example, the rule of seal characters or the rule of phonetic representation. As “The Rule of Romanization of the Korean Language” advices to use the rule of phonetic representation, the proper nouns should be translated and spelled according to the rule. The mistakes are so diverse that it is almost impossible to classify them into some categories. Some proper nouns have spelling mistakes and unnecessary quotation marks. Some have unnecessary additional spellings or a hyphen, and some show an omission of a necessary spelling, etc. The mistakes in the spelling of proper nouns show the attitude and ability of the persons who are in charge of the information boards. The translators who translated the information from Korean into English seem not to have any sense of historical calling and not to understand the information boards are mute diplomats introducing Korean culture to foreigners.
  • 11.

    Translated Musicals and Musical Translation in Korea

    Sung Hee Kirk | 2008, 9(1) | pp.283~309 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    Korea's musical market has grown by more than three hundred percent during the past five years and now claims over fifty percent of the performing arts market. Since musicals in their current form are of western origin, the translated productions most likely have played an important part in shaping the Korean musical industry. This paper examines the brief history of large-scale translated musical productions for the past five years in an attempt to better define their role in shaping the current Korean musical culture. Relative to other elements of western culture, musicals have been late in entering the Korean market. This paper attempts to postulate the reason behind the late arrival of this genre. Also of interest are the translation mediation methods adopted by translators. Translation is generally a very complex procedure, but translation of musicals has added factors such as music, performability, acceptability, marketability as well as approval from the original production companies. The translation process and strategies used by the translators are examined and motivations behind these decisions are postulated.
  • 12.

    Translator in Power Relationships: a Multidisciplinary Analysis of English ‘of’ into Korean

    Dhonghui Lim | 2008, 9(1) | pp.309~344 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Upon the realization of the significance of a thorough academic research on the English word 'of' and its modification structure for the development of a descriptively and explanatorily adequate linguistic theory and the specification of human insights into natural human language, this paper conducts an intralingual, interlingual, and cross-cultural investigation in the field of translation studies. In the thorough, multidisciplinary investigation by which it means a set of integral approaches made at every possible aspect with the linguistic element situated at the core, rather than a pre-destined theoretical manipulation to make the "minor" linguistic elements fit into a mainstream framework of theory, it proposes that multidisciplinary approaches be an optimal research method not only for language and literature studies but also for translation studies, a new interdiscipline or even multidiscipline that calls for its autonomy more than anything to gain ground in the fields of humanities and the cosmopolitan contexts of the twenty-first-century world. Faced with the theoretical and conceptual predicaments regarding the English prepositions and particles, this paper first obtains a hint from O'Dowd (1998) that raises a significant logical question about the categorial status and function of a P-form, a gereric term that refers to prepositions and particles. And in this logic, this study puts forward its objective to describe and explain the linguistic behaviors of the English 'of', using a theoretical approach that, hypothetically and hopefully, works best towards an integrated theory not only in linguistics but also in translation studies. In this study, thereby, the focus of the investigation is put on research methodology as to how an academic explanation could result in a scientific finding and, for the sake of optimality, an open-ended yet integral approach is adopted.: an inter-/multidisciplinary way. For the proceeding, the English word 'of' is chosen so as to observe the linguistic behaviors in scrutiny, and the British novel Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley is used (in part) to have a particular socio-cultural and historical context of the text in that the word 'of' is freely yet strategically employed. And in order to get the possible principles and variables (and other factors and elements explicitly and implicitly underlying the mental transaction and verbal expression in the work) shed light on and unearthed, the actual translation samples are adopted (rather randomly so as to best minimize any value-driven intervention into the translated work) and cross-examined both intralingually (among the translating data) and interlingually (with the translated data). And by means of the detailed exemplification and explication in a contrastive analysis using the notion of the major-minor forms of language, it shows that at the center of the methodology does translation studies (or translatology) lie (supported by other studies on language, mind, and culture) and that further researches in translation studies, in particular (as a multidisciplinary yet autonomous field of study on translation practices and theories), should help develop other disciplines in humanities and natural sciences, too, including linguistics, literature, cultural studies, psychology, cognitive science, and sociology. This study, subsequently, illustrates and proposes a specific research method as to how a multidisciplinary approach towards an integrated theory in translation studies can help both linguistics-oriented and aesthetics-oriented researches deepen their insights and broaden the perspectives regarding subjects of their own interest. In conclusion, this multidisciplinary investigation into the linguistic property of the English word 'of' and the complex yet very dynamic workings of the translating into Korean shows that every kind of data of actual language use contains both the major forms and minor variables of the particular language and that a good deal of solid empirical evidence for such existence should be revealed in the process of translating, especially when translations are implemented by an aesthetically creative and strategically active translator. In addition, it argues that it is translation studies that can allow such multidisciplinary and integral approach to tackle comlicated theoritical problems concerning human language, mind, and culture, and that the academic field of translation studies should be further promoted and developed not only for the students and researchers in the field but also for the professionals and scholars in other academic disciplines.