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2008, Vol.9, No.3

  • 1.

    The translation of emotion metaphors in literary texts: Korean into English translation of ‘sadness’ and ‘anger’ from the perspective of conceptual metaphor theory

    김순영 | 2008, 9(3) | pp.7~26 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine how negative emotion metaphors are conceptualized and translated in literary texts from Korean into English. It also tries to make a suggestion that a conceptual approach may contribute to the formulation of translation strategy for emotion metaphor. A brief discussion of previous and current views on metaphor establishes some perspective on the subject. The Conceptual Metaphor Theory presented by Lakoff and Johnson(1980) forms basic theoretical background for the paper. Lim(2006) and Kövecses(2000) provide further theoretical background as well as classifications of metaphor conceptualization in Korean and in English respectively. The conceptualization of ‘sadness’ and ‘anger’ in source texts and their renderings in target texts are compared in an attempt to identify significant features of emotion metaphor translation. The findings show that the metaphors are conceptualized and translated in three ways: mapping onto the same source domain as the source text, creating the same metaphorical image in ST and TT; mapping onto different source domain, creating different metaphorical image in ST and TT; and translating into paraphrased words instead of using the conceptual source domain. Based on the findings the paper came to a conclusion that conceptualizations of emotion metaphors onto the same source domain in ST and TT would contribute to transferring metaphoric image as well as its sense.
  • 2.

    A Research on the Ideology of Chinese-Korean Translation

    도희진 | 2008, 9(3) | pp.27~45 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    One of distinctive characters about translating Chinese into Korean is that it implicitly contains ideology not only in a broad sense (such as religion or gender) but also in a narrow sense (different political ideologies: socialism or capitalism). More specifically, people in China, a socialist state, have been given relatively more intensive ideology education in school or from mass media due to the ideological confrontation with Taiwan. South Korea is also comparatively sensitive to political ideology related to North Korea issues. Accordingly, a starting text (ST) often takes on an ideological character implicitly or explicitly and translators themselves tend to incline toward certain ideology, sometimes unconsciously, as a result of school education or social learning from media, books and so on. It is considered meaningful to make a study on how translator’s ideology is reflected in the outcome because it can not only figure out a role of ideology in the translated context in general, but also help us comprehend ideological issues of South Korea, a capitalist state and China, a socialist nation, both of which have faced unique political situations. This study has been carried out in an attempt to illuminate an adjustment role of translator’s ideology, based on translations turned Chinese into Korean, which often contain political ideology under the unique political situations. As a basis of the study, the second chapter explains a concept of ideology and relations among ideology, a translation, and a translator known by the precedent studies. Based on researches of the students in the Korean-Chinese department at the interpretation graduate schools, Chapter 3 addresses the specific examples of the adjustment role of the ideology both in the broad and narrow sense. According to the research, the subjects are likely to adjust their translations, influenced by the broad sense of ideology such as religion or social beliefs, and the narrow sense of ideology like political inclinations or opinions about the Taiwan Strait issue. This study, however, does not have enough subjects to ensure the role of translators’ ideology as an independence variable. The analysis is also restricted to meaning-structure and vocabulary. Therefore, it is suggested examining enough subjects to figure out more definitely the role of ideology and widening the scope of analysis in further studies.
  • 3.

    A Subversive Power of Translation: Focusing on the Korean Translation Practice and Deterritorialization of the Northwestern Border during Gaehwagi

    배주옥 | 2008, 9(3) | pp.47~71 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to explore the relationship between the birth of nationalism during Gaehwagi(1876-1910) and the historical, political and cultural contexts of Korean rendering of the Bible during the time. Taking a translatological perspective on the subject, it observes the cross cultural and lingual practices of the time with respect to the concepts of “deterritorialization,” “minoritization” and “becoming” presented by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. The Gaehwagi Bible translators' historical, political and social backgrounds/positions are investigated as “diasporas” to uncover the attributes of translation which will inevitably give an answer to the birth of nationalism during the designated period. A Korea Gateway, “Korea-mun (고려문),” is observed as a deterritorialized space where the cross cultural and lingual practices had taken inevitably yet ideologically in Gaehawgi. The geographical, political, and historical circumstances of the Northwestern region of Chosun are also focused to explore the attributes of nationalism which was born in that period. Moreover, the special identity of Gaehwagi translators is observed as “diasporas," as people who became foreigners in their own tongue/culture. Their unique identity is, then, introduced as an “in-betweenness" which is understood as Venuti's “the irreducible heterogeneity of linguistic and cultural situation." Thus, the Gahwagi situation is understood as the right milieu for the birth of new culture, nationalism, which is created and nurtured by the subversive power of translation.
  • 4.

    Status and Strategies for Writing in Translation

    Son, Jibong | 2008, 9(3) | pp.73~92 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to give due attention to the importance of writing in translation and its difficulties, and to provide solutions as well. In translation and its evaluation, a great emphasis has been placed on writing. Therefore, writing can be said to play a crucial role in translation. Difficulties in writing for translation lie in overcoming "translationese" in which the traces of a source text can be readily detected. The issue of "translationese" which was originally one of the subjects dealt by Korean studies has been extended to the field of translation studies. This paper also presents an overly literal translation which is a main cause of "translationese" and an excessive free translation which places too much emphasis on communicating the message of a source text as obstacles to producing an accurate translation, and introduces writing strategies for translation as a solution. Furthermore, borrowed from those of machine translation of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese and by Linda Flower, writing stages are established and then applied to writing strategies. In this paper, 'refinement' and 'proofreading' are mentioned as important steps in the process of writing for translation. It also maintains that achieving an adequate equivalent to a source text and conveying a consistent message as a target text are equally important. In addition, this paper proposes that an overly literal translation and an excessive free translation be regarded as both obstacles to overcome and necessary steps in order to produce an adequate translation.
  • 5.

    Efficient Management of Translation Time —based on Gile’s Effort Model

    Jisun Shin | 2008, 9(3) | pp.93~112 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to apply Gile's Effort Model to translation process to underline the significance of efficient time management. Daniel Gile emphasizes the difficulties and mental efforts involved in interpreting process, suggesting necessary strategies to handle these problems. The Model is based on the concept of processing capacity and in this model, interpreting tasks are viewed as a non-automatic operation that requires much processing capacity. In order for interpreters to reduce unexpected interpreting errors and enhance the overall quality of interpretation, they are advised to make the best of mental capacity by properly allocating one's own energy to each effort. Unlike Gile's Effort Model, this paper assumes the amount of time given to a translation process as an object of management and coordination. Translation process consists of Listening and Analysis, Information Research, and Production. Each phase requires different time allotments depending on text type, purpose of translation, its status, etc. If a translator gives more than necessary time to a certain process, due to his ignorance of efficient time management, it would result in reduced quality of the product, fraught with under-translation from insufficient time for research or unrefined target language from lack of revision time in production phase. Accordingly, time management model for translation should be contemplated in the translating process to provide high-quality translation.
  • 6.

    Power Differentials of Translation and Their Solutions

    전현주 | 2008, 9(3) | pp.113~130 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis treats the power differentials of translation and their solutions based on Richard Jacquemond's model (1992). He offered the problems of translating across power differentials: A dominated culture will be represented in a hegemonic culture by translations that are (1) far fewer in number than their counterparts in the opposite direction, (2) perceived as difficult and only of interest to specials, (3) chosen for their conformity to hegemonic stereotypes, and (4) often written specifically with an eye to conforming to those stereotypes and thus getting translated and read in the hegemonic culture. Analysed 'Statistics of the Overseas Publication of Translated Korean Literatures into many languages' (See Appendix 1) and 'Statistics for the Publication of Translated Korean Literatures by year, language, and country' (See Appendix 2), the imbalance of translation phenomena has been surfaced and classified four kinds as 'quantitative differentials', 'qualitative differentials', 'selective differentials', and 'moral differentials', whose titles were given by the writer voluntarily. Translated knowledge seems transparent but is not, which makes the inequalities between cultures. Therefore, not being the reciprocal benefits can lead the minor culture to the cultural colony permanently. In order not to degenerate into the dominated culture, the writer suggests the long-term and effective translation strategies regarding the translation situation of Korean texts into English mainly. First, to cope with the selective differentials, it is necessary that the main body who selects the translated texts should recognize the dominating tendency of readership and lead canon(s) in major culture beyond the present. Second, to overcome the qualitative differentials, the translation strategies should be varied with the acceptors' objects and objectives of translated texts. For example, literature translation texts need to translate along with the meta texts to help understand the background knowledge for foreign readers. Third, to find ways out of moral differentials, it is important that translators should recognize and perceive their identity as coordinators, intercessors, and interpreters between cultures. And last, to break through the quantitative differentials, the persons concerning the translation institutes, universities, scholars, translators, publishers and so on should communicate actively, excavate new texts and authors, and supplement the existing versions. Considering above three solutions and various translation strategies, the quantitative differentials can be conquered deservedly.
  • 7.

    Japanese-Korean Translation problems in Korean Translation of 『HON’YAKU TO NIHON NO KINDAI』

    정일영 | 2008, 9(3) | pp.131~150 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Japanese pop culture has been under restriction from influx into Korean soil after the normalization between Korea and Japan in 1965. With the culture-open policy from Korean government since 1998 a great deal of Japanese movies, comic books, and novels and other sects of pop culture flowed into Korean society by stages as much as the words, 'Nihon pil," and "Ild" emerge. Book statistics in 2007 displayed that 23.2 percent out of newly published books of 53,225 kinds was occupied with translated books and 37 percent of Japanese books occupied among the translated books. Occupancy rates of Japanese books in Korean market outgrew 4,837 kinds in 2000 from 774 kinds in 1990. Japanese novels translated in Korean language grew 700 kinds in 2007 which numbered 106 kinds in 1997. The occupation rates of Japanese novels in Korean market have been growing rapidly whereas the renditions have been published with few filtering system. HON'YAKU TO NIHON NO KINDAI (1998, Iwanami co.) is the book often cited to the related theses or book reviews. This thesis has focused on the first and fifth objectives among the five goals of evaluation in translation by New Mark: first, interior problems in languages occurred from the difference in semantics or grammatics and the fifth, exterior problems, such as omission, ellipsis or presentation occurred from comparison failure. I wish similar researches such as wrong translations issues could be stylized and used as a feedback hence to improve the levels of Korean renditions from Japanese books. I also wish this thesis may draw attention to the necessity of filtering system for ever increasing Korean translations from Japanese sources and to the errors and criticism in translation.
  • 8.

    How Students Translate Culture-specific Items: An Analysis of Student Translations & Suggestions for Improvement

    Won Jun Nam | 2008, 9(3) | pp.151~175 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the present case study is to investigate the role of the translator as cultural mediator when working on culture-specific items (CSIs) and to examine how postgraduate students can become better cultural mediators when such a role is called for. For this, the study draws primarily on Aixelá's typology of CSIs (conventional proper nouns, common expressions) and translation strategies (conservation and substitution and their 11 subcategories) in order to review in what areas translator need to assume the role of cultural mediator. After analyzing student translations of CSIs based primarily on Aixelá's typology and the designated reviser's comments in order to gain a better understanding of how native-speaking readers react, a preliminary relationship is inferred between CSI types and translation strategies. The present study is presented in an effort to provide students with a more systematic framework for approaching the thorny translation problems CSIs entail.
  • 9.

    Intertextuality and the Translator’s Adjustment to Convey Similar Implicatures

    Sohn Nagyung | 2008, 9(3) | pp.177~200 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The concept of intertextuality in translation and Translation Studies is one constituent in textuality that should be dealt with importantly during the translation process to deliver the exact meaning of the ST. This is defined as a textual character which has a relationship between a particular text and other texts by sharing characteristics. In the translation process, the translator makes adjustments to deliver implicatures which the author intentionally puts, using expressions which were already used in other texts. The translator's duty to achieve equivalence in the TT in terms of intertextuality is divided into two parts: analysis and adjustment. The translator's first step is analysis to find intertextual elements including intended implicature in the ST. The translator has to have full knowledge of the ST itself, and its circumstantial things, such as its author's other works and another texts written in same language. In addition to analysis, the translator can use several strategies during translation to adjust implicatures, such as complement, literal translation, substitution, and transliteration.
  • 10.

    The Effects of Strengths and Familiarity of Metaphors on the Translating Process

    Jong-Hwa Won | 2008, 9(3) | pp.201~225 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Conceptual metaphors refer to a dominant linguistic phenomenon during which utterances are formulated by mapping one conceptual domain onto another. For example, the expression "Look how far we've come" comes from the mapping between the LIFE domain and the JOURNEY domain. Since conceptual metaphors are such a dominant part of our everyday language use, a number of researchers have talked about translation strategies for metaphors. Few researchers, however, have approached this issue from process-oriented perspectives. This paper aims to investigate how translators' thinking processes evolve while they translate metaphors. Metaphorical strengths as well as familiarity of the conceptual domains in the target language were used as the major tools for the investigation. The observations from this investigation were that metaphorical strengths had definite roles in guiding translators' thinking process. and strong but unfamiliar metaphors had the largest hampering effects on translating process. The final decision in selecting translation equivalents, however, was mostly determined by the familiarity with the conceptual domains in the target language rather than the metaphorical strengths.
  • 11.

    On Translating Na Hye-seok’s Gyeong-hui

    Sung Eun Cho | 2008, 9(3) | pp.227~246 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study offers a case study, from a translator's point of view, of some unique characteristics which mark the process of translating the works of a feminist writer in colonial Korea. Na Hye-seok is one of the first Koreans to graduate form a Japanese art college and is considered to be the most famous member of the first generation of the so-called New Women in Korea. Her short stories, essays and poems reveal her female consciousness, discussing how deeply she thought about what it means to live as a woman in a deeply patriarchal society and how earnestly she strives to overcome the problems she has had to face as an educated women of the period. The study will attempt to show the measures that were employed in capturing and translating the cultural elements in the text and the uniquely feminine voice of Na Hye-seok. The study will also proceed to discuss, from a feminist point of view, why the works and translations of Na Hye-seok had been excluded from the literary canon.