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2008, Vol.9, No.4

  • 1.

    Speech Representation in News Translation

    Ji-Hae Kang | 2008, 9(4) | pp.7~40 | number of Cited : 22
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores translation of speech representation in news by comparatively analyzing how direct speech in CNN.com news articles is translated. Starting from a discussion of the relationship between direct speech and translation, the study explores the parallel processes of recontexualization in both direct speech and translation. Then by drawing on Thompson's discussion of the four dimensions of choice for the reporter, namely "voice," "message," "signal," and "attitude," an analysis is carried out of direct speech in CNN.com news articles and their Korean translations. The analysis suggests that the form, meaning, and discourse function of direct speech is shifted as a result of the translation process. By using such translation methods as gist translation, explicitation, specification, ommission, addition, and domestication, the meaning and message of direct speech is transferred in the target text to ensure readability, accessibility and informativity for the target readers. In the target text, direct speech is transferred into direct or indirect speech and indirect speech is changed into direct speech. Other formal, semantic, or functional shifts include the transformation of partial quotation into full sentential quotation, the transfer of sentential quotation into partial quotation, different paragraph divisions in representing direct speech, changes in the reporter's evaluation of the reported message as a result of the shift in the use of the reporting verb. The findings suggest that translation of direct speech in news discourse involves complex processes of reformulating the anterior text in terms of the context in which it is relayed.
  • 2.

    A study on the honorific expression in translated texts on the basis of the morph-tagged corpus

    김혜영 | 2008, 9(4) | pp.41~76 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This paper tries to construct a morph-tagged corpus of a million words sized for non-translated and translated texts respectively, and to explicate the characteristics of the honorific expressions in the translated texts by comparing the two types of texts based on this corpus. The characteristics of the honorific expressions explicated by this paper are summarized as follows: the use of the subject honorific pre-final ending '-si-' is less frequent than in the non-translated texts; in the expressions of the hearer honorification, the final endings in the speech level with which the speaker treats the hearer politely are frequently; in the referential expressions related to honorification, the third person pronoun 'ku' and the honorific second person pronoun are used frequently. I have analyzed the honorific expressions in the translated texts on the side of linguistics with respect to the speech levels and referential expressions in accordance with such characteristics. Comparing the frequencies of each morph from the morph-tagged corpus of the translated and non-translated texts, we can find out that the linguistic characteristics of the former with the latter as the criterion. Thus, if we discover linguistic problems with the translated texts on the side of the target language by analyzing the usages of the relevant morphs on the basis of the corpus, it helps to set up a translational strategy for effective expression of the target language in translation.
  • 3.

    Roman Jakobson's Translation Theory and AVT with focus on Korean Language Habits

    HYUNJU RYU | 2008, 9(4) | pp.77~91 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to examine Korean language uses in audiovisual translation or AVT with Roman Jakobson's definitions of translation. While general translation studies mainly concern interlinguistic translation, AVT has intralinguistic and intersemiotic perspectives as well, in subtitling and dubbing and film adaptation of a novel, respectively. In Korea, it is noteworthy that dubbing has been slowly increasing recently either for a star-marketing strategy or TV broadcasting. Hoodwinked! was unprecedentedly released in Korea as 100% dubbing version with 4 Korean celebrities(two actresses and two comedians) cast for voice. This contributed to a success of the box office yet exercising distorted domestication as it foregrounded the celebrities by overusing their trendy words and tones which were in vogue among Korean people. Along with this mode of vogue words, rude or offensive words are also rampant in a comedy genre. A Korean version of Madagascar allowed for all age group, meaning including children, has full of these language habits. Anything Else shows another problem in comedy AVT: too much English substitutes for Korean equivalents in the interlinguistic translation. The rationale behind these wrong Korean habits is problematic that they add fun and friendliness to help audience enjoy comedies more comfortably.
  • 4.

    Comparative Literature and Translation Community

    Kyung-Il Park | 2008, 9(4) | pp.93~141 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Professor David R. McCann's translation of Korean Modernist poet Yun Dong-ju’s poetry, especially “Self-Portrait”, this paper argues, fails to represent in English the original and/or authorial meanings and emotions innate in the poems which are supposed to be metaphorized and formalized in various poetic forms he adopts. As Walter Benjamin argues in his essay “The Task of Translator”, to translate a poem is to represent the form of the source text most nearly into the target language, as a poem is a form. This paper argues that this kind of mal-translation derives mainly from the translator's personal mis-/interpretation which should be put under the tests of the scientific community related and the translating partners consisted of Korean Yun Dong-ju scholars, English Literature scholars, translation specialists, and native English translators well versed in Korean Literature as well English Literature. This paper names this kind of collaboration “the Wikinomics of translation” or “the translation community”. Personal mis-/interpretation falsifies, as it is argued by the Modernist poet-critic T.S. Eliot in his impersonal theory of poetry or his philosophical impersonalism, and so a desirable correct translation could be achieved by inter-personal and interdisciplinary community of interpretation and translation.
  • 5.

    The Lexical, Syntactic, and Textual Assessment in the Translations of 'Springtime à la Carte'

    Park Ocksue | 2008, 9(4) | pp.143~167 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The objective assessment of a translation should analyze the source text based on its functional aspects and the author's intention, and find out the translator's method and the target text's likely readership. An linguistic approach is one of main methods to achieve those elements. It is a basic means for translation assessment based on text or text-type, one of which this paper has adopted as a tool for analyzing and describing the target texts. This paper analyses and describes four target texts of Springtime à la Carte written by O Henry, which have been translated in chronological order. They have a time difference of forty years between the oldest translation and the newest one. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an analyzing method, the Junliane House’s Model, and to provide information contributing to the improvement of future translation quality with the result. The target texts are analyzed, and their own features are described, then the translation strategies of the translators are examined. As for the assessment method, the three-dimensional assessments are carried out between the source text and the target texts, and the status of the target texts are defined. In specific details, the analysis is made in three levels; lexical, syntactic, and textual level. In the micro rank, lexical and syntactic level are analyzed while in the macro one, the textual level is done. The terminology and analyzing structure of the related texts are adopted from 'a functional-pragmatic model of translation evaluation' devised by Juliane House.
  • 6.

    The Ellipsis and Deletion in Subtitling Translation

    박윤철 | 2008, 9(4) | pp.169~192 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract PDF
    The study is to lay emphasis on the ellipsis and deletion in target text of subtitling. Generally the ellipsis and the deletion refer to omitting something and removal of unimportant elements respectively. Subtitling is influenced on the temporal and spatial restrictions within physical frame. Therefore, it seems that ellipsis and deletion frequently happen compared with other literature translation. Thomas(42-46) argued that ellipsis should have identity condition, recoverability, contextural situation, or grammatical structure. On the other hand, Kovačič(252) said that deletion was dependant on context, and if some element was unimportant information, it would be deleted. In addition, if some element was expended or explicated relation on the context, so would it. On the basis of previous researches, this study observed subtitle materials of Films, Notting Hill(1999) and Must Love Dogs(2005) which translated English into Korean. The result of observation showed that ellipsis in target text worked at the categories like discourse markers, connectives, adverbials, and repeated information etc. And the elliptical elements were redundant information or cohesive and coherent phrases. They included relative clauses and whole sentences, and happened at the relation of meaning expansion or explanation. In conclusion, this study showed that the ellipsis was one thing, and deletion was another. Also, it tried to separate two concepts though, there was still the ambiguity between two boundaries.
  • 7.

    Aesthetics of Assimilation and Ethics of Difference:Two Approaches of Literary Translation

    선영아 | 2008, 9(4) | pp.193~217 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    The translation of literature has developed revolving around two opposing approaches: Aesthetics of Assimilation which focuses on familiarizing foreign ideas using native terms of the prospective readers, and Ethics of Difference which tries to leave intact the unfamiliarity of foreign texts, highli대ghting the differences between the cultures involved. The current debate centers on the question of Ethics. It is concerned with a realization that translation plays a critical role in the cultural encounters of the globalized world, especially when the rein of globalization is in the grip of hegemonic language regions. A. Berman and L. Venuti criticize the ethnocentric strategy as an unethical practice, recommending another approach that “strategically” lets foreign elements stand out. This particular emphasis on Ethics of difference is derived from a serious contrition on the side of occidental world, after centuries of its ethnocentric translation of the non-occidental world. It is undeniable that translation presents many ethical problems which need to be addressed. Nonetheless, if we suppose a universal ethics of translation, independent from the specific situations in which the selection and translation of foreign texts take place, we are ignoring the fact that the social practice of translation is performed in a given context of a given culture. Therefore, before we determine which translational practice is ethical and which isn’t, we need to observe more closely how the Aesthetics of Assimilation and Ethics of Difference manifest themselves in the diverse cultural contexts, and how they organize the discourses regarding translation and how they realize them. This will allow us to recognize that the difference in the mode of translation is simultaneously the difference in the relation that one establishes between the Self and the Other, and finally, the difference in the mode of existence of a given culture.
  • 8.

    Some problems in Korean and Japanese translation of a Japanese loan-word suffix ‘teki (的)’

    손재현 | 2008, 9(4) | pp.219~244 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This paper was that my problem of Korea and Japan translation of a Japanese loan-word suffix 'teki' was considered, and an example of a word with 'teki' in Korean and Japanese was considered in detail, it was considered contrastively to the usage and it was checked to the difference in the usage and a misuse of 'teki' . This study is about the meaning and usage of suffix 'teki'. First, I estracted the meaning of suffix 'teki' in Korean and Japanese dictionaries published in 1999 to find out how a dictionary definds suffix'teki' and how many words of suffix'teki' are included. Secondly, I searched into frequency in use of suffix 'teki'-cling words and examined how many times the same word repeats in daily vocabulary, and finally sorted out which words are commonly used in both Korean and Japanese language or independently used among searched words. As a result, I classified the suffix 'teki'-cling words from Korean and Japanese dictionaries and scrutinized whether the suffix'teki'is found in a dictionary and set a limits to the suffix'teki'-cling item in a phrasal structure classification. At the same time I examined what words do not combine with the suffix 'teki'.
  • 9.

    A Logical Interpretation of an English Sentence in the April 23, 2008 U. S. FDA Press Release

    Hyonyung Yoon | 2008, 9(4) | pp.245~267 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    On April 23, 2008, U. S. Food and Drug Administration issued a press release on its website briefing the purport of the final rule on animal feeds with added safeguards against BSE(Bovine Spongeform Encephalopathy). The regulation was to prohibit the use of certain cattle materials in all animal feeds. And one of the English sentences in the release aroused a nation-wide debate in Korea next month with regard to its translation into Korean. Criticisms of its mistranslation conducted on the governmental level adorned major Korean mass media, followed by the experts’ suggestions for the “right” translation. However, since none of them are really up to being “right,” I have taken on this issue to provide a logical analysis leading to the correct interpretation of the sentence and diagnosing the cases of its mistranslation into Korean. Thus I emphasize the translator’s capability of performing correct logical operation to achieve an equivalence between the source language and the target language. In addition, this paper hopes to start a serious reflection on the drawbacks of the present English education in Korea, in an attempt to search for more comprehensive ways to get them over.
  • 10.

    The Way of Improving Translated Texts' Quality by Removing ‘Translationese’

    Geun Heui Lee | 2008, 9(4) | pp.269~287 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract PDF
    Most translated texts are evaluated first by general readers who are native speakers of the target language but not experts in the original language. The readers unconsciously assess the quality of a translated text on the basis of vocabulary, grammar, and idiomatic or pragmatic usage of the vernacular language. The worse the quality of a text is, the more ‘translationese’ appears because ‘translationese’ is perceived as unnatural, impenetrable and even awkward. It is caused by extremely literal approaches to the translation process or imperfect knowledge of the target language. Therefore, the quality of translation would be improved, if translators removed translationese produced during translation process before submitting the work to their clients. This must be the final step of translation. This paper proves the aforementioned assumption through analysis of translated scientific articles from English into Korean excerpted from a well-known internet site. In addition, this paper analyzes typical types of translationese, listed according to frequency of occurrence. Translators must remove these errors listed on the paper to achieve better quality.
  • 11.

    A Case Study of the English Translators of Japanese Contemporary Novels-Translators of Yasunari Kawabata and Oe Kenzaburo

    LEE Hyung-jin | Sunhae Hwang | 2008, 9(4) | pp.289~311 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to investigate and analyze the critical roles of English translators in the reception and dissemination of the novels of Yasunari Kawabata and Oe Kenzaburo in the United States. The research has found that the first-generation English translators of contemporary Japanese novels came to be in touch with Japanese culture and literature through the personal experience of World War II, and the second-generation translators comprise of mostly American translators who started studying Japanese and Japanese literature in college. Moreover, most of these translators are professors teaching Japanese language and literature in American colleges, which highlights the critical role of the translators of the target culture in the process of reception. The study concludes that various means of introduction and dissemination of Japanese novels by these translators, which aims to bridge Japanese novels and American readers, have critically contributed to the successful reception of Japanese contemporary novels in the North American publication market. These successful efforts include teaching Japanese novels in the classroom, presenting academic papers about Japanese novels and authors, writing newspaper or journal articles about Japanese novels and authors, interviewing these authors for media coverage, etc. which can be accomplished only by these scholar-translators of the target culture. In this sense, translating literature into another language is more than a simple cultural transfer, but inevitably a purposeful cultural strategy.
  • 12.

    Use of Orwell’s Literary Persona as a Political Engagement in Translation of Animal Farm

    김신희 | 2008, 9(4) | pp.313~346 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores the role of the translator as an ethical agent of social change focusing on paratexts as the site for the translator's intervention. Based on Maria Tymoczko's proposal that translation is a metastatment, i.e. a text about a text, the paper maintains that the use of Orwell's literary persona was a specific translation strategy aimed for political intervention in the time of intense dictatorship from mid 1970s through 80s. In order to demonstrate the way Orwell's literary persona was appropriated for political purpose, the paper discusses the general picture of intellectuals in the time of political repression, which can be characterized as the cycle of repression-dissidence-further repression-further dissidence. It shows that, in the given circumstances, translators as intellectuals also had the same aspirations and frustrations, and Orwell as an engaged writer was a model intellectual. The paper claims that hard covered bindings secured the translator's anonymity whereas recreation of Orwell's literary reputation or his literary persona through Orwell materials inside functioned as an effective means of social engagement for the muted intellectuals at the time.
  • 13.

    Locating Irish Drama Translation in Modern Korean Theater under Colonialism

    윤후남 | 2008, 9(4) | pp.347~370 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article is concerned with how translation is formed as a site of resistance and subversion in colonial contexts. Like other social practices in Bourdieu's terms, translation practice can be explained only when we understand the interplay between objective external structures (objective social structures and what Bourdieu calls the fields) and subjective internal structures (the producing agents and what Bourdieu calls 'habitus'). Drawing on Bourdieu's theory of social practice, this article attempts to explain translation practice as the interaction between external and internal structures. Using examples from Irish drama translated in colonial Korea from the 1920s to the 1930s, this article analyzes the process of formation of Irish drama as a site of subversion in modern Korean theater. It first looks at Irish drama translation in colonial Korea, then examines the resistant and subversive field of the modern Korean theater. Thirdly, it discusses the representation of the Irish dramatic movement in colonial Korea, which influenced drama translators and ultimately conditioned Irish drama translation. Finally it deals with social trajectories (as a series of positions successively occupied in translation field or adjacent fields) of Irish drama translators which reveal the influence on their choice of Irish playwrights.