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2009, Vol.10, No.2

  • 1.

    Translationese and Translatorese

    HYUNJU RYU | 2009, 10(2) | pp.7~22 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    The present paper addresses translationese and translatorese. This issue is raised with the two points of departure: Can translatorese be considered identical with translationese?; Can translationese examplified in most of previous studies be generalised as “a systematic influence of STL on TTL”? The research shows that this is not always true with the two case observations--Korean translations of Don’t Sweat the Small Stuff series(by Richard Carlson) and The Secret(by Rhonda Byrne)--in point. In a broad sense, translationese includes translatorese but translatorese does not always result in translationese, a “fingerprint” or “mark” of source text language on target text language. Translationese is a kind of dialects while translatorese is idiolect. With translationese becoming a part of normal standard language rapidly over time, some argue that it can make a creative, poetic contribution to enriching STL. This argument brings about another issue of poetic diction realized by poets’ idiolects as well shown by Reynolds’ essay, “Browning and translationese.” As translationese usually carries negative connotation, Newmark uses a different term, ‘interference,’ to suggest some positive function of interlanguage. Meanwhile, translatorese always refers to as awkward uses of language in translated texts which are hardly found in non-translated texts.
  • 2.

    English-Korean Translation Strategies on Tense and Aspect

    설옥순 | 2009, 10(2) | pp.23~60 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    There’s a radical difference, in the grammatical categories and usages of tense and aspect, between English and Korean. Tense, in English, is a grammatical concept of verb that indicates the past, the present, or the future, while aspect as a time of situation stands for a grammatical representation of duration, completion, and repetition of event or state. However, Korean represents tense, aspect, and mood in various ways beyond verb-level. This study, therefore, aims at revealing English-Korean translation strategies on tense and aspect. To accomplish the purpose of the study, it conducted literature review ranging from linguistics of both English and Korean as well as in the field of English-Korean translation. Consequently, this study suggests that English-Korean translators need to use two strategies for a better translation of tense and aspect: ‘translation through conversion of parts of speech’ and ‘translation through grasp of contexts.’ The former strategy reflects lexical/syntactic differences between English and Korean. That is why Korean tense, unlike English tense, is not always expressed by verb, but often implied by adverb, and sometimes tense information appears in the inflection of adjective, and even in noun and article with a verb-like quality of tense/aspect. The latter strategy means translating by way of grasping the effects of semantic performance within underlying structure without using external tense/aspect. That is why Korean tense/aspect can be often situated and decided in the sentence context. Considering the above strategies, it is necessary to develop further detailed skills of translation on time-related expressions between English and Korean.
  • 3.

    Translation Criticism Based on the Skopos Theory: Case Study of Hoodwinked

    Geun Heui Lee | 2009, 10(2) | pp.61~82 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Translated works have traditionally emphasized “faithfulness” over domestication. For most audio-visual texts, this can result in poor translation. In support of the domestication of audio-visual texts, the Skopos theory, developed by Katharina Reiss and Hans Vermeer in the late 1970s, provides a useful means for analyzing translated texts. This theory states that translations can take different forms based on a complex interplay of varying factors that include the purpose of the translation, the client’s requirements, the genre, the audience, practical reasoning, and the impression of the target audience. Thus, the purpose of the target text is the most important criterion in the Skopos theory. This study shows the application of the Skopos theory to an audio-visual text through the analysis of the film Hoodwinked, a piece adapted from the fairy tale Little Red Riding Hood. A research by Ryu claimed that the translation of Hoodwinked was unnatural and lacked quality because it did not adhere to the strategy of faithfulness. However, the target audience enjoyed the dialogue, which was produced through the domestication approach. For Hoodwinked, the Skopos theory shows that domestication was a successful strategy. Thus, the Skopos theory demonstrates the following: (1) the function of translation decides the appropriate translation strategy, (2) varying factors related to translational action interact to create unique translations, and (3) the quality of translation depends on the impression of the recipient or audience.
  • 4.

    A Critical Review Contrasting Venuti’s “Ethics of Difference” and Foreignization with Berman’s Understanding of Foreignization

    이미경 | 2009, 10(2) | pp.83~104 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    This paper explores two different aspects of “foreignization” in translation with respect to the translator’s role and the concepts of translation discourse. Foreignization is a notion that dates back to the well-known German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher, and it has been discussed by many translation theorists with regard to its binary opposite, “domestication”. Lawrence Venuti, one of the most active post-colonial theorists in translation studies, tries to reveal the asymmetrical relations inherent in any translation project, intending to subvert the hegemonic language and culture by revealing the inequalities present in translation. Venuti starts his argument in a very controversial work based on the post colonial perspective, “The Scandals of Translation: Towards an ethics of difference,” by agreeing with Berman’s suspicions of “any literary translation that mystifies the inevitable domestication as an untroubled communicative act”. Berman suggests examining the deforming tendencies in translation “to receive the Foreign as Foreign,” which he calls “the analytic”. What makes the distinction between the ideas of Venuti and Berman is the translator’s status they define. Venuti claims that the translator should never be invisible and the translator’s “heterogeneous discourse” is critical in foreignizing translation. In contrast, Berman says the analytic in translation focuses on “the universals of deformation inherent in translating as such.” He maintains that the “negative analytic” should be extended by a “positive analytic”, an analysis of operations which have always limit the deformation, and it should be practiced in literary translation by a manipulation of signifiers.
  • 5.

    Selection of the Subject of Sentences in English-to-Korean Translation and Agentivity

    JangYoungJun | 2009, 10(2) | pp.105~132 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to critically review Kim, Kim & Jung (2009) and propose an alternative account for the selection of the subject of a sentence in translating English into Korean. Although being sympathetic with their proposal about the animacy effects in translating English into Korean, we are strongly suspicious of the status of animacy and the role that they claim it plays. Instead, we argue that it is not exactly the animacy that the subject of the sentence in Korean translation is affected. It has, instead, been shown that various extra factors such as agentivity, argument structure, and argument hierarchy are in operation in selecting the subject of a sentence in English-to-Korean translation. We apply the notion of agentivity to each problematic sentences discussed in Kim, Kim & Jung (2009) and finely accounted for the subject selection.
  • 6.

    Translation as Inquiry: An approach to the Humanities Translations

    Sung-Gi Jon | 2009, 10(2) | pp.133~157 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    Nowadays the humanities translations are practiced by many, but seriously reflected or discussed only by a few. Our relatively poor translation culture is not without relation with this situation, continuing since already long enough. Inquiring a translation is to become conscious, reflective, and responsive about that translation. In other terms, it means to ask incessantly about a translation and about the factors concerning that translation: original text and author and his other texts, the translator's translational attitude and his other translations, if any, among many others. This is why Michel Meyer’s problematology, which is called a “philosophy of questioning”, could be very useful to whom who consider the Translation as ≪Inquiry≫, and moreover as ≪Discovery≫, as a consequence of the inquiries in question. In this article, we begin by explaining the differences between Translation as Inquiry and Tranlation as Discovery, through several examples. After that, we suggest that the literary translation, which remains the center of the humanities translations, should be a sort of model for these translations, principally, by the notion of “oeuvre”, valued mainly in Antoine Berman’s works. Besides, Woodsworth’s discussion about Baudelaire’s translations of Adgar Allan Poe, Dehusses’s proposal about literay translation, inspired by the Quantum Physics, and Boulanger’s application of Theory of Chaos to literary translation, all appear also very suggestive and helpful for the humanities translations. But it must be noted that the approaches to the humanities translations called Translation as Inquiry is not limited to one “method” or “mode”. Rather, it can vary widely, according to the factors such as intention of the translator, genre of the text to translate, socio­cultural context of translation, etc. But, in any case, in addition to being empathic to the author, the translation especially need to be sincere and “devoted” by itself. If we understand the Confusian Chung yung Ethics as an “Situation Ethics”, as suggested by Park Jai­Joo, this Ethics could be fruitfully explored as possible Ehics of The ≪Translation as Inquiry≫ (and Discovery). To conclude, we expect that through such Translation as Inquiry, and through harmonious coexistence of Translation Studies and Translation Criticism, the humanities translations could be flourishing into a Humanities of Translation.
  • 7.

    A Theoretical Study on Translation and Ambiguity

    정해갑 | 2009, 10(2) | pp.159~180 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The main aim of this paper is to show how we avoid structural ambiguities in translation, based on English syntactic theories. As Eugene Nida suggests, ST and TT in the process of translation are related to Chomsky's deep structures and surface structures. In the process of pursuing a universal grammar, Chomsky proposed a theory of Principles and Parameters, which may account for Nida's translation strategy. The process of encoding SL and restructuring TL is the same as our brain works in language acquisition on the basis of Principles and Parameters. For this purpose, a couple of patterns of structural ambiguity are analyzed: 1. by the relationship between the modifying and the modified, 2. by the omission of the identical phrase, 3. by gerund and participle, 4. by pronoun and reflexive, 5. by lexical scope. Like the shift from ST to TT, deep structures transform into surface structures in the brain of a language user. Since, as Bassnett says, a translator is a creator, and “the product is the result of a complex system of decoding and encoding on the semantic, syntactic and pragmatic levels,” a translator is supposed to do well with the scientific language game of encoding and decoding, let alone creativity.
  • 8.

    Court Interpreting/Translation Education

    Hyeyeon Chung | 2009, 10(2) | pp.181~206 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract PDF
    The process of designing an education system often requires great endeavor; setting goals, defining variables, conducting surveys to diagnose the status quo and, last but not least, fine-tuning the details of the system according to the goals and circumstances. This paper on court interpreter education in Korea follows a similar process. It first attempts to clearly define the goals of court interpreter education, and to figure out which variables are to be considered to forestall unexpected factors adversely affecting the plan. The external (supply and demand of court interpreter market, etc.) as well as internal (age, languages of the court interpreters etc.) variables construct the backbone of this paper. With regard to the external variables, a survey is conducted to identify the current court interpreter market situation in Korea, while the education models of the U.S., Canada, Australia and Europe are examined in relation to internal variables. The final chapter presents a design of a court education system suitable to Korea with relevant details elaborated.
  • 9.

    A Parallel corpus-based study of English and Korean demonstrative determiners shifts in literary translation: The Catcher in the Rye and Contradictions 『모순』

    Cho, Euiyon | 2009, 10(2) | pp.207~246 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    This study is concerned about how demonstrative determiners are shifted in the target texts of English-into-Korean and Korean-into-English literary translation. The data for this study were collected from the parallel corpus of the American novel The Catcher in the Rye and Korean novel 『모순』(Contradictions) and their translations. Since demonstrative determiners such as ‘this’ and ‘that’ are grammatical words whose discourse functions include speaker’s point of view about the referent(s) being described, as done in previous studies such as Mason and Serban (2003) and Bosseaux (2007), this study will focus on translator's discourse presence in the target texts. This study has adopted a cognitive pragmatic approach to explain the translation deictic shifts because the deictic shifts occurred are the results of the translator’s mental construal of the source text message. It will be shown that about 75 to 79% of all demonstrative determiners in the source texts have undergone shifts in the corresponding target texts. Most of them up to 90% appeared to have lost the narrator’s point of view about the speaker or hearer's proximity to the referent being described. It indicates that as far as the demonstrative determiners are concerned, translators in these target texts have not been influenced from the source texts, but they have actively intervened in the translation processes since the shifts under discussion are not grammatically determined but selected by the translators.
  • 10.

    Language Forms and Functionality of Translations: Korean-into-English Translation of Legal Forms as a Case in Point

    Joo, Jinkook | 2009, 10(2) | pp.247~273 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Every text has a set of conventional and culturally determined features that marks it as a text performing a certain communicative function. This set of standardized features, or genre conventions reflects the communication practices established through repetitive use of certain language forms with certain communicative functions. When a written form of communication takes place, the receiver expects the text to display a certain set of lexical, formal, and structural features, and the sender produces a text in such a way that it can meet those addressees' expectations. Therefore, these conventional features serve both as a constraint and as a guide in every communication process. This aspect of communication is a good reason why a translator needs to be very sensitive to the differences in the way communication is made successful in the source and the target cultures. Based on this observation, this article looks at the problems found in Korean-into-English translations of legal forms largely from a functional perspective. In so doing, a sample of original texts currently used in Korea and the United States are taken into account with a focus being laid on the dynamic relationship between language forms and their communicative functions.
  • 11.

    Position of Translated Drama and Translational Norms in Modern Korean Theater during the 1920s and 1930s

    윤후남 | 2009, 10(2) | pp.275~301 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Discussions on the position of translated drama of the 1920s and 1930s in Korea have been fragmentary, and references to individual drama translations have seldom been incorporated into socio-cultural accounts in a coherent way. Given that the position of translated literature is related to translational norms, which govern the choices which translators make, determine the receptor text and hence the relation between the translation and its source, it is very important to draw a whole picture of translated literature before starting translation criticism. This paper aims to explore the position of translated drama in modern Korean theater during the 1920s and 1930s and its implications for translational norms. During this period, the modern Korean theater movement arose as part of cultural nationalism. Being under Japanese colonial rule, the purpose of the movement was to subvert the colonizer’s sinpa theater and establish a modern national theater, and as part of this movement, foreign drama was translated and imported. The leaders of the theater movement set up the translated drama with a threefold purpose: they sought to establish a model to create original Korean drama, to awaken national consciousness and to reform the Korean vernacular through translated drama. This paper argues that these roles of translated drama led to controversies over translational norms of “adequacy” versus “acceptability”.
  • 12.

    An Investigation into the Legal Translation Guideline: With Special Reference to the Korea-US FTA

    Sang-Bin Lee | 2009, 10(2) | pp.303~331 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The translation guideline (institutional translation) as a research topic has been overlooked for so long. The under-representation of this line of enquiry in Translation Studies (TS) seems attributable largely to lack of research subjects, i.e. translation guidelines. It is very interesting, in this respect, that the Korean government unveiled a translation guideline for the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) in 2007 in order to promote the public's understanding of the trade accord. This study examines the KORUS FTA translation guideline from the viewpoint of legal translation. The KORUS FTA translation guideline is comprised of three parts: (1) General Translation Principles; (2) Glossary; and (3) References. The discussion in this paper is centered around the first part (General Translation Principles) that contains some important aspects of legal translation. They are ‘literalness,’ ‘legal terminology,’ ‘plural marking,’ ‘plain Korean movement’ and ‘performative auxiliary verbs,’ to name but a few. After analyzing the guideline from the standpoint of legal translation, this paper explores the implications of the guideline for both TS and translation practices.