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2009, Vol.10, No.3

  • 1.

    Application of equivalence in Chinese-Korean literature translation —focusing on the case study of “The Chinese Male and Female” by Yi, Zhongtian

    Sujung Kang | 2009, 10(3) | pp.7~29 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Though modern translation theories were developed into variouos fields, they seldom show any interest in Chinese-Korean translation. This study applies the modern translation science which based on the theory of dynamic equivalence to the translation process of Chinese writer Yi, Zhongtian’s work of “The Chinese Male and Female”, which is to be translated from Chinese into Korean. To materialize the theory of dynamic equivalence in the process of Chinese literature translation, translation tactics are differentiated according to different types of texts. It means Yi, Zhongtian’s work, according to ‘The Text Type and Assessment’(Reiss, K.), has been defined as the expressive text, from which the translation work will proceed based on the aesthetic point of view. The result of this study shows that the factors of uncertainty, such as the translator’s arbitrary decision, text heterogeneity, the reader’s arbitrary decision. It doesn’t contribute very much to the verification of the certainty of the equivalence, because of their extensive application. But the categorization of texts, which classifies texts according to their type and helps to apply different translation tactics, makes it easy to embody the equivalence in the process of translation from Chinese into Korean. It is also known that the theoretical discussion of translator’s cultural intervention, which is also called ‘the cultural filter’, is a very important factor in the formation of Chinese into Korean translation theory.
  • 2.

    A Study on Film Subtitling adapted from Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’urbervilles: With focus on Roman Polanski’s Tess of the D’urbervilles

    Kim myung kyun | 2009, 10(3) | pp.31~52 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to investigate how faithfulness and readability in film subtitling adapted from Thomas Hardy's Tess of the D'urbervilles are fulfilled. This paper is to clarify how Thomas Hardy's Tess of the D'urbervilles is dramatized in for Roman Polanski's film work in the course of translating the adapted novel into film. The relationship between the original work and film work has evolved and grown over the years. Roman Jakobson defined the three categories of translation: intralingual, interlingual, and intersemiotic translation. Intersemiotic translation is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of non-verbal sign system. And film translation provides many interesting topics in that it must meet four important criteria: ellipsis, deletion, reduced translation and economy of language of both a source and a target text. Roman Polanski's Tess is faithful to the contents of the original text but Polanski's Tess transforms the image of Tess. Tess in his film is depicted as an object of visual beauty rather than as an independent woman in the novel. On the basis of previous articles, this paper observed subtitle materials of Film, Tess(1979) which translated English into Korean. As a result of the analysis, the subtitles of the movie showed ellipsis, deletion, reduced translation, and economy of language etc in target text.
  • 3.

    Ensuring Readability in the Translation of the Korean Classic 『Hanjungrok』

    Kim Youngshin | 2009, 10(3) | pp.53~75 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Translation by itself is a communicative activity which transcends the dual barriers of time and space between the Source Culture and the Target Culture. This aspect of translation would make the translation of literary classics an even more daunting task. With this understanding, the present paper comparatively analyzes one of the Korean’s brilliant court literature 『Hanjungrok』 and its English translation The Memoirs of Lady Hyegyŏng: The Autobiographical Writings of a Crown Princess of Eighteenth Century Korea(translated by Kim JaHyun Haboush) in order to find out how the translator deals with, bypasses, and overcomes a whole spectrum of problems encountered in the process. The analysis suggests that the translator of The Memoirs seems to have put more weight on readability rather on faithfulness in translating the narrative style and figurative expressions of the ST. First, as to the narrative style, the translator has fragmented lengthy sentences of the ST into multiple short sentences accompanied with various punctuation marks. This strategy represents an effort on part of the translator to pursue a way of writing which is familiar to TT readers, thus ensuring readability of the translation. Secondly, with regard to the translation of rhetorical expressions and culture-specific elements of the ST, the same kinds of efforts were manifested in the TT. Another purpose of the current study was to examine how the court language of 『Hanjungrok』, a trait regarded as one of the contributing factors of its beauty, was rendered in the TT. The findings suggest that the court language and its typical ways of expression have been translated into ordinary language in the TT. The analysis leads us to suggest that the translator has intentionally applied such shift to make the TT more accessible for its readers. The present study concludes with the argument that the aforementioned translation strategies of the TT, which are primarily employed to enhance the “readability” of the TT, make The Memoirs go beyond the level of the translation to the level of a “faithful” introduction to Korea's history, tradition and culture.
  • 4.

    The Structural Explicitation in Korean Translated Text —In Relation to the Restricted Distribution of a Complement Construction—

    Jeong-Woo Kim | 2009, 10(3) | pp.77~97 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at ascertaining the distribution of complement construction in Korean translated text, as a manifestation of structural explicitation. We have used as the starting point, H. Y. Kim(2009: 75-76)’s statement of “It occurs more frequently in the translated text than in non-translated text that the adverbial particle takes place of the complement or subject particle.” As the result of the present survey on the related example sentences in English into Korean translated text, the above statement should be changed in the revised version as follows: “It often occurs that the adverbial particle takes place of the complement or subject particle only when the predicate doe-da has a specific meaning of ‘turning or changing into something different’ in English into Korean translated text. In addition, the present research leads to some implications as follows: First, it is required that the result from the statistical process should be complemented by individual data analysis even though not in a large scale. Second, seen from the present research at least, there is not much distance between the translated language and the non-translated language. Third, if we regard the effort to make target language closest to everyday language as an ideal purpose of translation. the revision stage after translation in order to rewrite the translated text towards the natural text based on everyday language, has an important significance
  • 5.

    Grammatical Errors in the English Information Board of ‘the Monument of Goguryeo in Jungwon’

    박순봉 | 최희섭 | 2009, 10(3) | pp.99~119 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    ‘The monument of Goguryeo in Jungwon’ is a national treasure located in Chungju-si. The monument is an important historical and cultural material to show the relations of the three kingdoms named Goguryeo, Silla and Baekje. It seems to be erected to declare that Goguryeo king Jangsu conquered this area in the fifth century. As this is a national treasure, the information board describes the historical and cultural importance of the treasure. Reading the information board is too difficult, for it contains too many grammatical errors. Comparing the Korean information board with the English one, we can easily find the discrepancy of the contents. Furthermore, the English information board itself contains many grammatical errors and a lot of vocabulary which is not proper for that place. The errors examined in this paper is categorized into such four sub-sections as the place of modifiers, prepositions, conjugation of the verbs, and voice. There should be taken some methods to make the translation of the information board free from errors. To disclose the translator's name on the information board will be an effective way to prevent errors. And if it is difficult, at least the telephone number of the managing officer should be written on the board. But to make the information board in good English, there should be some kind of national policy such as educating and recruiting good interpreters of the information boards.
  • 6.

    A Study on Translation Methods of Buddhist Scripture

    박윤철 | 2009, 10(3) | pp.121~139 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    We have read a Buddhist scriptures and sought for better wisdom from it for a long time. And it was written in Chinese characters which have implicit and comprehensive meanings. In its Korean version, there were some guidelines in the past, which prohibited monks or Buddhist translators from distorting source texts with a view to preserving Buddha's teachings. Until now, the approaches on Buddhist scripture translation have mainly transferred its contents to readers with two different ways, a literal translation and a meaning-based translation. However, it could be found that Buddhist scriptures need both of the methods. This paper suggests an integrated approach, which both methods are combined in order to transfer messages naturally and readily. In previous researches, there were Nida(1967)'s formal and dynamic equivalence approaches which were famous for Bible translation. Formal equivalence can be explained with a literal translation, and it seems that dynamic equivalence placed a value on the responses of readers and effects or results of source text. With help of these devices, this paper analyzed Prajñā-Paramitā, one of the Buddhist scriptures. As a result of analysis, we could find the following facts. First, there were implicit meanings in source text of the scripture, and some messages were transferred to target text naturally. It means that Prajñā-Paramitā requires dynamic equivalence method, which can rewrite the responses of phrases or expressions easily. Second, some expressions like incantation in the end of Prajñā-Paramitā, need formal equivalence way. They involve a simple prayer which can be recited to go beyond this world for better wisdom. It means that they would rather recognize as it is than reconstruct for better understanding the contents. Therefore, this study offers an integrated approach to accept both of the expressions which require formal and dynamic equivalences. Depending on contextural situations, some methods need to transfer messages exactly. An integrated approach will be expected to solve different problems in transferring messages of source text even though Buddhist scriptures are religious books which adhere to literal translation.
  • 7.

    Translating for a Dual Audience of Children and Adults —Focusing on Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows

    Jisun Shin | 2009, 10(3) | pp.141~159 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to explore translation strategies employed in the translation of children’s literature that are written for a dual audience of children and adults. Under the assumption that no one translation can suit both adults and young readers, three Korean translations of Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows are analyzed to identify the different translation shifts. The analysis of translators’ foreword, book cover, illustration, and publisher in the three translations indicates that the two are intended for child readers and the other one is for adults. Reflecting target reader’s experience, age, culture and background knowledge, the first two translations use more onamatopoeia and mimetic words to provide children with literary pleasure, show extensive explicitation for pedagogical purpose, and divide long sentences into short ones for readability concern. The Korean translations of The Wind in the Willows have undergone numerous changes in the process of meeting the expectations of young readers. These shifts can be ascribed to the Desmidt’s translation norms operating when translating for children. They are source-text related norms, literary and aesthete norms, business norms, didactic norms, pedagogical norms, and technical norms.
  • 8.

    Conceptual Space and Semantic Map in Translation :English-Korean Translation of Possessives

    Jae-Hak Yoon | 2009, 10(3) | pp.161~192 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The possessive constructions pose a big challenge to an adequate theory of translation between English and Korean. Various relations in English are expressed and some of them are shared by the inflectional possessive one’s, the prepositional possessive construction of, and the determinative possessive one’s own. One-to-one correspondence is hard to find between English and Korean possessives, particularly because wuri the ‘singular we’ is a big part of the Korean possessive constructions in examples such as wuri abeoji ‘my father’ and wuri nampyeon ‘my husband’. The pervasive nature of the constructions also adds to the total effect of difficulty. Drawing on Haspelmath (1997, 2003) and Croft (2001, 2003), we propose a conceptual space and semantic map approach to the translation of possessive constructions between English and Korean. This approach locates each possessive construction on the semantic maps, clearly delimiting the various relations and overlaps in the constructions within and across the languages. The murky relations between the constructions are illustrated to be manageable under the approach. Consequently, this study renders promising further applications of the conceptual space and semantic map approach to the translation of other constructions.
  • 9.

    Study on English-Korean Structured Translation Memory

    최승권 | Youngkil Kim | 2009, 10(3) | pp.193~216 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at developing a structured translation memory TM+ which can resolve the coverage problem of an string-based translation memory TM and enhance a translation quality of English-Korean machine translation system. The existing TM is basically a type of bilingual corpus with full-form words, while TM+ including TM consists of different translation memories made by the following steps: 1) pre-processing, 2) deletion of sentence-initial adverbs and expansion, 3) chunking of proper noun and substitution of it by a variable PRN, 4) chunking of numeral expression and substitution of it by a variable NUM, 5) chunking of base noun phrase and substitution of it by a variable BNP, and 6) chunking of idioms and substitution of the remainders by their corresponding variables. We evaluated 200 test sentences to compare the translation accuracy of machine translation system with TM with one of machine translation system with TM+. The experimental result shows that while the translation accuracy of machine translation system with TM is 74.44%, the translation accuracy of TM+ amounts 82.40%. From this result we could know that TM+ rose a translation quality of 7.96%. In the near future we have plans to segment the steps of TM+ in more detail, introduce the semantic information for numeral expression, and develop the alignment technology between source segments and their target equivalents. We hope that TM+ be applicable to the computer-aided translation tools like TRADOS and allow the professional translators to translate easier by using it.
  • 10.

    A Study on Parallel Corpus of Korean-Chinese Newspaper Headlines online: A Trial Study for Machine Translation

    YINXIA HUANG | 2009, 10(3) | pp.217~245 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    Studies on translation of newspaper headlines from Korean to Chinese are first conducted. To see if parallel corpus of Korean-Chinese newspaper headlines is applicable for machine translation, Korean newspaper headlines and their Chinese correspondents are analyzed through construction and annotation of parallel corpus. The corpus covers one-month newspaper headlines of three Korean major newspapers online(Dong-a Ilbo, Chosun Ilbo and JoongAng Ilbo). The translation strategies of Korean-Chinese newspaper headlines are classified into three categories, and proportions of each category are calculated: literal translations(36.7%) and free translations(45.7%) that can be applied for machine translation, the rewrite translations that can not be applied for machine translation(17.6%). The literal translations and free translations that can be applied for machine translation(82.4%), are further analyzed four translation strategies, such as addition, omission, transposition and change of mood. Finally, aforementioned strategies are tried to implement to Korean-Chinese machine-translation.
  • 11.

    On the Production of the Complementizer -nun of Korean into English: With Respect to Its Translation

    이일재 | Yong-Beom Kim | 2009, 10(3) | pp.247~267 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article discusses the way in which the complementizer -nun of Korean should be translated into that or which relative pronouns in English. We begin with an overview of pragmatic and social differences between the uses of that and which. Pragmatically, that is used to refer an attributive entity, while which is used to refer a particular entity in the given context. Socially, that is preferred among the people in lower social classes such as those with lower education,y in the givspeakers in America likivLhe no grad ativstudents and their children, which is preferred among those likivpoliticians. We then t is ze the preference between that and which in direct ohich is used toclauses in oral translation and written translation, as produced by 94 ad l iKorean EFL learners divided into basic, inteEFediati, and advanced groups and by eigh ithe givspeakers as the control group. The result shows that the learners generally prefer which but such a tendency is greater in written translation, while native speakers generally prefer that, in particular, in oral translation. The article then suggests the way to translate that and which into Korean.