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2010, Vol.11, No.1

  • 1.

    A Study on the Training of Korea’s 1st Medical Interpreters in 2009

    Joong Chol Kwak | 2010, 11(1) | pp.7~43 | number of Cited : 22
    Abstract PDF
    The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare conducted the training of 64 Korea’s first medical interpreters from July to December. 2009. The project had been made possible, in great part, by the influx of so-called foreign patients into Korea and the additional budget approved and alloted to the Ministry by the National Assembly in May, 2009 for training medical interpreters. Medical interpreting is one of the two major pillars of community interpreting, with the other pillar, legal(court) interpreting, on which the first international academic conference was hosted by the Graduate School of Interpretation and Translation(GSIT) earlier in September, 2008. The conference was meaningful in the sense that the Korean interpreting circle paid attention to community interpreting for the first time in about 30 years during which it taught mostly conference interpreting ever since the first interpreting school, GSIT, was established in September, 1979. Six GSIT professors majoring 5 different languages participated in the project for 5 months. They started their contributions by researching the existing theories and papers on community interpreting and in particular, on medical interpreting and made textbooks and manuals to be used for training the first medical interpreters who were chosen mostly from medical personnel and conference interpreters earlier in July. 2009. Five months was not at all enough time for training first medical interpreters, but the trainers did their best to assist their government in meeting the urgent need for supplying interpreters to Korea’s hospitals who had to accommodate patients from abroad. This paper sheds light on the theories on medical interpreting produced in the select foreign countries and the curriculum of the first training in Korea. It analyzes the result of the training and the final assesment of the 64 students, conducted in December 2009. It also presents the challenges and problems which appeared in that process and provide some advice for the following training of the second medical interpreters, planned in 2010.
  • 2.

    A study on the translation of portmanteau words in 「Jabberwocky」

    Dohun Kim | 2010, 11(1) | pp.45~72 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Building upon previous research on nonsense literature and translation studies, this paper aims to explore the role and the importance of portmanteau words that are deployed in Jabberwocky and to illustrate how such devices are transferred in English-Korean translation. Nonsense is a kind of “paradox” or textual double bind. It is both free and constrained. It tells the reader to abide, and not to abide, by the rules of language (Lecercle 25). It should be noted that Carroll’s “paradox” and subsequent “rejection” and “subversion” of the “sense world” are mainly driven by the use of newly created portmanteau words, making St. Jerome’s widely accepted maxim “non verbum e verbo, sed sensum exprimere de sensu (not word for word, but sense for sense)” unfit in the translation of Jabberwocky. Hence the translator must seek to have a clearer understanding of the value that source text portmanteau words possess and attempt to retain and recreate the value of the target text portmanteau words. As for the research data and procedure, this study uses the translations of four target texts and classifies the portmanteau words into three categories―verb, noun, and qualifier. Then, for each category, this paper illustrates and evaluates whether the target text succeeds in reproducing “parallel value,” thereby retaining Alice’s feeling of awkwardness and enchantment and eventually reviving Carroll’s “imaginary” and “pleasant” nonsense world, thereby enabling Alice and readers cross the frontier of the sense world. The author hopes the research will contribute to triggering further discussion on the translation of nonsense literature and to offering guidelines for those in the translation profession.
  • 3.

    Female Translation Styles in Literary Works: With a focus on the usage of Chinese Characters

    김동미 | 2010, 11(1) | pp.73~95 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to offer a comparison between the translation styles of male and female translators, in order to decipher the presence of different translation strategies at work. While investigating the characteristics of the language, used by both male and female translators’ works, this study compares the frequency of the usage of Chinese characters by male and female translators. Currently, in school, women are offered the same opportunity as men, in the study of Chines characters. However, female translators prefer to utilize Korean characters, as a matter of principle, in their effort to differentiate their translation style from men, thus creating their own professional identity. Male and female translators practice different styles of translation. Generally, the style of female translator, is that of the TL’s female language, with a tendency to utilize a female language when translating from the SL to the TL. The existence of a females’ distinctive translation style, is invaluable within the world of Korean translation, as it contributes to the formation of an important translation strategy
  • 4.

    Numeral Expression and Understanding of Culture —in the Translations of Clausewitz’s On War—

    김만수 | 2010, 11(1) | pp.97~126 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In the translations of the classics like On War, written by Prussian general Carl von Clausewitz, it would be desirable, to transcribe the numeral expressions of the source text(ST) in target text(TT), and to write the numerical value of the ST intactly as it is to TT. It would be enough, to put a conversion table and a brief commentary at the end of the TT. For example, the Prussian one Meile(mile) is 7532.484 meters, or the Anglo-Saxon one mile approximately 1609.3 meters. But this meaning was not followed through not only in the English translation of On War, but also in most of Korean translations. If man ‘translates’ the numeral expressions of the ‘source culture’ into those of the ‘target culture’, for instance, the Prussian Meile into the Korean Kilometer, the numerical value of Meile is changed (must be changed), and the Quadratmeile(square mile) even goes wrong or becomes complicated. To avoid this confusion, the numeral expressions of the ST must be respected. And this mind would be necessary, to understand not only another culture, but also other times and histories.
  • 5.

    Changes in Formality in Literary Translation

    Soon Mi Kim | 2010, 11(1) | pp.127~159 | number of Cited : 13
    Abstract PDF
    The paper aims to analyze changes in formality in literary translation. Informal texts including literary works and movie scripts are characterized by implicitness, flexibility, colloquialism, metaphorical expressions, and involvement as opposed to formal texts such as lectures, academic papers, or business letters which are more accurate, rigid, explicit, and complex. Thus, it is important for translators to decide the level of formality before they start translation. Because the Korean culture puts an emphasis on formality, social status, and the distance between people, the Korean language reflects this socio-cultural background. Moreover, translation process in its nature has a tendency to normalize and explicate the implicit meaning of the original for the TT(target text) reader. Previous research on English German translation shows formality and politeness between ST(source text) and TT differs because the translator followed the textual norms of TL(target language)(Hatim 1998: 69). However, according to Hatim, in persuasive text or literary text, where maintaining the atmosphere and socio-textual background of ST(source text) is important, the efforts to keep the level of ST formality intact should be appreciated(97). Thus, translators of literary texts should take both TL textual norms and the genre-specific character of literary translation into account. For the case study of formality, this paper analyzed slangs, idioms, metaphors and derogatory expressions in Catcher in the Rye, a young adult novel by J. D. Salinger. A first person narrative, this novel is known for its profanity, sarcasm, sexual content and informal style. As metaphors, idioms and slangs turned out to be important stylistic devices in the similar Korean literature as are in the English literature, translators could maintain ST formality without lowering the readability and acceptability of target readers. The analysis of four translated texts showed the formality of TTs rose significantly in all texts, although there were some variations among translations in terms of their usage of informal and colloquial language. Only 10-20% of slangs(‘goddam’, ‘as hell’) were translated into TL slangs and the force of expressive meanings, weakened. In the case of idiomatic and metaphorical expressions, only 20-30% of idioms were translated into idiomatic expressions and many rhetorical expressions were translated into conventional language. Translators tried to compensate for the omission in other parts of the text by adding new rhetorical and derogatory expressions. However, there need be more creative efforts to deliver the effect and atmosphere of ST. Explicitation, omission and normalization are not always the best translation technique in literary translation.
  • 6.

    A study on the linguistic characteristics of French-Korean translated literary texts based on comparable corpus : Focused on the simplification and lexical characteristics

    Kim hye young | YI, Yeong-Houn | 고경은 and 4other persons | 2010, 11(1) | pp.161~190 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at analysing the linguistic characteristics of French-Korean translated texts based on the Korean comparable corpus. This paper considers the concept of simplification in French-Korean translated literary texts by building the morph-tagged French-Korean translated literary texts corpus with three hundred thousand words and comparing it with Korean non-translated literary texts corpus, and analyzes the lexical characteristics of French-Korean translated literary texts compared with Korean non-translated literary texts and English-Korean translated literary texts. The lexical characteristics of French-Korean translated literary texts found from frequency per morph in corpus may be summarized as follows:First, simplification of information volume and lexical diversity appears. Second, honorific words are used frequently, but spoken style is used with low frequency, so formality is appeared. Third, negative expressions are used with low frequency. Fourth, adverb and conjunction related with time are used frequently. The first, the second, and the third characteristics are similar to those of English-Korean translated texts. But, the fourth is independent of English-Korean translated texts.
  • 7.

    I&T Acquisition and Language Acquisition

    Hyeyeon Chung | 2010, 11(1) | pp.191~212 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examined the area ‘Interpretation &Translation Acquisition’ as a parallel discipline to ‘Language Acquisition’, an established branch of Psycholinguistics. With regard to this “new” area this study aimed to provide answers for the questions including “what makes the interpreters/translators different from untrained multilinguals?” and “how does the system related to increasing I&T competence create professionals?”. To answer these questions, we first tried to prove the existence of I&T competence using recent neurolinguistic findings. As the next step we probed into psychological aspects to describe the I&T competence as a system. This kind of scientific approach should be distinguished from prescriptive theories aimed at improving I&T ‘performance’. All in all, as this paper has introduced, the characteristics of the discipline ‘I&T Acquisition’ should be regarded as interdisciplinary, comprehensive, descriptive and empirical as its parallel area ‘Language Acquisition’.
  • 8.

    English-to-Korean Translation on Body Language

    Silo Chin | 2010, 11(1) | pp.213~243 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Body language is a huge part of human communication. Its role is as important as verbal language’s one, and its relationship with culture is as strong as verbal language’s. Therefore the same body language can mean very different things in different cultures. In other words, one culture set of acceptable body language or gesture may not be understood with the same meaning in a different culture. For example, in Korea to ask someone to come over, people usually raise a hand with palm facing outward and then bend and straighten it, but the same gesture is used to ask someone to “go” or to say “good-bye” in America. Since similar misunderstandings often occur in translation, translators should sometimes manipulate the expressions including gestures so that target readers can understand the exact meaning of the body language and, as a result, the whole text. This study investigates the common mistranslated cultural body languages between English and Korean languages and offers some practical translation strategies, in order to help translators avoid the pitfall of ‘non-sense’ or ‘distorted meaning’ of body languages.
  • 9.

    Text Structure and English to Korean Translation of Conjunctive Adjuncts

    JINSIL CHOI | 2010, 11(1) | pp.245~269 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper reports on a study of text structure and English to Korean translation of conjunctive adjuncts. The main focus of this paper is to illustrate and explain actual text structure modifications of different text types with which most translators face every day, especially with regard to English to Korean translation of conjunctive adjuncts. For this aim, this paper first sets up boundaries of text structure such as sentence-sequence-paragraph-text considering syntactic levels and orthography such as a period and an indentation, and then specifies the common text structure modifications with actual frequencies and percentages from a data analysis. The most frequent modification happens in the genre of news reporting and speech which prioritize TL text norms. As a general news reporting and speech in Korean prefer short paragraphs, this TL convention is reflected in Korean translation texts. This corresponds to one of the translation universals, namely normalization. Chapter 4 argues that the trend to conform TL text convention is prominent rather than to preserve text structure of ST particularly in the genre of news reporting and speech. This trend is distinct from the genre of novel and general texts, Reader’s Digest.
  • 10.

    A Survey of the Translation of the Titles of the National Treasures in the Homepage of the Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea

    Hie Sup Choi | 2010, 11(1) | pp.271~291 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    As the Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea(CHAK) is a government organization, this paper begins with the examination of the papers which dealt with the translation situation of the public organizations. The examination of the present situation of the homepage of the CHAK shows that they are not paying a proper attention to the management of it. Because the method of translating the vocabulary which contains cultural elements, that is culture specific items in Aixelá,’s words, is not yet studied systematically and there is not an authoritative translation strategy, it is difficult to decide the translation method of the titles of the national treasures. In the homepage of the CHAK, the titles of the national treasures are translated according to the rule of phonetic representation and footnotes are given in parenthesis. When the footnotes of the titles of the national treasures are examined, many errors are discovered in the vocabulary, grammatical structure, and the contents. It seems that because the titles themselves are difficult to understand and very long, errors were easily made. In conclusion, I suggest four things. First, translating cultural properties, the translators should work together with cultural properties specialists. Second, before the translation is publicized, the draft should be supervised by English native speakers. The supervisors should review the draft and correct grammatical errors and suggest vocabulary which average English speakers can understand. Third, they should develop a system to study the translation theories of cultural properties in universities and other institutions. Fourth, such public organizations as the CHAK should hire competent translators and make them study and translate the cultural properties.
  • 11.

    Translatability of Style of Hwang Soon-won’s Novels: —Focusing on “Shower”

    Han Miae | 2010, 11(1) | pp.293~310 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to explore the translatability of the style of “Shower”. For this, the source text is compared and analyzed with three versions of target texts. The characteristics of style in “Shower” are the one-sentence paragraph, the present-past tense combination, a sentence fragment, and repetition. Paragraphs consisting of one sentence creates transition effect and the vivid image of the story. The present tense used in the narration of events set in the past provides sentences with vividness and promptness. Sentence fragment and repetition convey the stylistic effects of interest and emphasis. Among the author’s artistic devices, sentence fragments are not mostly reflected in target texts and the tense combination is never reflected in TT1 and TT2 while done in TT3 for the most part. These two devices are not culture-specific and are commonly used both in Korean and in American literature. The tense combination is seen as historical present (dramatic present), and a fragment sentence is a incomplete sentence as a stylistic fragment and a kind of deviance. Therefore, the four artistic techniques should be reflected in the target text. Style is not a social concept, but the individual characteristics of an author. When the style of the source text is not translated, a translated text can be ‘a beauty without personality’.
  • 12.

    Cultural Translation: A Case Study of Kyeongbokgung Palace

    Lee, Seung Jae | 2010, 11(1) | pp.311~337 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is concerned with communicative part of culture, and is to show the process of translation of culture or cultural transfer. For this purpose, one of the most authentic cultural assets of Korea, Kyeongbokgung palace’s official homepage (http://www.royalpalace.go.kr) is reviewed based on Korean-English comparison tablet. While Kyeongbokgung palace as the total cultural asset accommodates a variety of culturemes, the palace homepage should furnish information in an efficient way for the tourists. The Korean-English transferring tablet based on the official homepage of Kyeongbokgung palace satisfies the linguistic transfer of Baker(1992)’s taxonomy for equivalence with successful delivery of message. As well it verifies Gutt’s(2000) relevance theory in terms of the conceptual transfer (loss of formality, translator’s addition or deletion) in the process of cultural translation. Consequently, the case study of Kyeongbokgung palace illustrates the role of translators in a wider context especially for the cultural translation.
  • 13.

    A Case Study of an Untrained Interpreter’s Court Interpreting

    Jieun Lee | 2010, 11(1) | pp.339~360 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Drawing on the discourse of an untrained interpreter-mediated courtroom examination, this paper examines issues related to the accuracy in court interpreting and the role of the court interpreter, and the need for the legal professionals’ awareness about the role of the court interpreter. Through illustrative examples, this paper demonstrates that untrained and incompetent interpreter’s interpreting may influence the witness examination proper. The results clearly indicate that court interpreting service should be provided by trained professional interpreters and that legal professionals need to be aware of issues that may derive from inadequate court interpreting. This paper argues that legal professionals also need to understand how to work with interpreters in courtroom examinations. Finally, this paper calls for the judiciary’s action on enhancing the quality of court interpreting that impinges on the exercise of justice.