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2010, Vol.11, No.4

  • 1.

    Application of Cultural Elements in Chinese-Korean Translation

    Sujung Kang | 2010, 11(4) | pp.7~23 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract PDF
    Many scholars agree that the translation without considering cultures has a hampering effect on the communication between the parties and is a bar to achieving its goals in the process of translation. Many studies simply declare the need for cultural translation, claiming to enhance a personal cultural power, but there are few validated studies about how the mutual relations specifically interact. This paper is to present some basic idea of the culture translation theory, cultural factors in the language are identified ‘Kulturem(cultural element)’ in the theory. In the culture translation theory, cultural differences in both languages are called ‘cultural asymmetry’, divided into real asymmetry, formal asymmetry and semantic asymmetry. In addition, it presents two translation strategies for each asymmetry, domestication and foreignization proposed by Venuti. As a result, it is verified that the concepts of ‘Kulturem’ and ‘asymmetry’ can be applied in Chinese-Korean translation, also confirmed asymmetry caused by the fact that Korea and China belong to the same cultural area of Chinese character. The result of this research is to present some basic idea that the application of culture in the translation is not the problems on personal levels but the problems caused by cultural factors and also propose the strategies how to translate cultural factors in Chinese-Korean translation.
  • 2.

    Gideon Toury’s notion of acceptability and its interpretations

    구하나 | YI, Yeong-Houn | 2010, 11(4) | pp.25~56 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Unlike its opposing concept, “adequacy”, “acceptability” is a concept that was first defined in translation studies by Gideon Toury. Here, adequacy can be connected with the source text (ST) whereas acceptability may be related to the target text (TT). We can therefore consider these concepts as a binary concept of translation studies, along with ‘overt vs. covert’, ‘sourcier vs. cibliste’, ‘foreignizing vs. domesticating’, etc. On the one hand, the notion of acceptability has been criticized by Palma Zlateva, Andrew Chesterman and Theo Hermans because of its ambiguity. On the other, this concept is interpreted differently by Mathieu Guidère, Malcolm Williams, and Beatriz Rodríguez Rodríguez in the Occident, and by Sang-Won Lee, Hyunju Jeon, and the Research Group of Korea University for the Evaluation of Korean Translations of French Great Literature. We will argue that these conflicts of interpretation derive mostly from the ambiguity of Toury’s very definition of acceptability. We can therefore say that, as a concept, it is rather problematic and controversial than clear. However, acceptability is one of the main concepts representing the trend of TT-oriented research today, so we must continue to examine it in detail. To find out the reasons for the diversity of interpretation of Toury’s acceptability, it is necessary to study how acceptability is used in other theories in translation studies and in the theories of translation evaluation that make active use of this notion.
  • 3.

    Translation of Korean Shamatic Songs into English: Strategies for Readability

    Miryang Kim | 2010, 11(4) | pp.57~74 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine effective strategies for translating Korean traditional shamatic songs into English. As previously discussed in other previous papers, we face several difficulties when we are involved in the process of translation: the difficulty in translating L1(Korean) into L2(English), the difficulty in translating literature, and lack of specialized knowledge in traditional culture which operates within and around a work of literature. To overcome these difficulties relating to the work of translating Korean shamatic songs into English, translators must understand that more weight has to be put on readability than on faithfulness in translating shamatic songs. The translation strategies introduced in this paper are as follows; first, to ensure readability, lengthy sentences are fragmented into multiple short sentences with various punctuation marks. Second, as to the translation of most conceptually and culturally different words and expressions, they are simplified at either the lexical or phrasal level, without losing the original connotation. Finally, with regard to the translation of most difficult expressions to understand, they are paraphrased with some degree of adjustment at translators’ discretion. Focusing on readability rather than faithfulness in the translation of Korean shamatic songs might disappoint some scholars as well as certain groups of readers. However, by implementing the above strategies, it is expected that the difficulties that continue to bedevil the work of translating traditional shamatic songs into English may be resolved to some extent.
  • 4.

    A Study Suggesting Avenues for Research on Internet-based Amateur Subtitling, or Fansubbing

    김순영 | 정희정 | 2010, 11(4) | pp.75~97 | number of Cited : 26
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of the present paper is to explore the relatively recent but highly participatory practice of subtitling by amateur translators on the Internet, or fansubbing and to propose the necessity for studying this new practice, with a particular focus placed on the subtitling of American TV dramas into Korean. To begin, we briefly reviewed previous studies on audio-visual translation in order to situate the current study. Next, we examined the possibility of using one standardized term for this new practice which has been known by different names: fansubbing, internet subtitling, amateur subtitling. According to our investigation, the term fansubbing is appropriate for use as an umbrella term encompassing the others. We also investigated characteristics of subtitles created by fans. Some of the features of fansubbing include: use of multiple colours, use of more than two lines, unconstrained location of subtitles on the screen, provision of extra-textual information, using question-form, simultaneous use of ST and TT lines on the same screen among others. Fansubs, according to our findings, are not subject to the norms of conventional subtitling. Fansubbing is free from temporal and spatial constraints imposed by conventional subtitling norms. Therefore, fansubbing should be approached to with a new perspective and different methodology. Touching briefly on the impact of fansubbing on appropriation of western culture and high popularity of American dramas on the Internet, we hope to shed light on the new breed of subtitling practice through this discussion.
  • 5.

    Radio Text Translation and Relevance Theory

    Heejin Park | 2010, 11(4) | pp.99~124 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to study how relevance theory can be used as a translation strategy in translating radio broadcast texts. Despite the importance in media translation in the contemporary age, studies on the new fields in media translations, such as audio-translation has not been studied actively among the translation scholars. The paper studies on the application of relevance theory on to radio text translation, and the types of translation strategies that could be used in translating radio texts. The idea of the relevance theory comes from Sperber and Wilson, who introduced the relation of the relevance between communication in a cognitive view. The paper studies the translation with the relevance theory, mainly with the theories which Gutt has adopted in analysing translation. To find out the distinctive translation strategies that could be used on translating the radio texts, the translations types have been distinguished in two different types, semantic and communicative translations, and the radio translation has been proved to belong to the communicative translation type. To analyse and find out the strategies that has been used in translating, the relevance theory was applied and analysed with the radio translation texts. The case studies were done by the translated texts of various programs that has been used in Busan efm between year 2009 to 2010. Some of the relevance based strategies were found after the analysis, which could become useful in the future when translating radio texts.
  • 6.

    A Sportlight on the Necessity of Professional Curriculum of Translating and Interpreting for Foreign Language Majored Students

    Yang Miae | 2010, 11(4) | pp.125~144 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study reviewed the university foreign language majors’ satisfaction about their studies and how the interest in interpretation and translation studies affects their achievement in language study. To carry out this study, a survey was carried out with 154 university foreign language majors and the survey results were analyzed. The students basically had positive outlook on their studies if their studies are attributed positively towards employment and career development. Subsequently they were much interested in interpretation and translation courses. This trend was even more apparent among the final year students. As for the relationship between satisfaction with major studies, interest in interpretation and translation studies, grades and English Certification Scores, it was apparent that when the students are satisfied with their major with high interest in interpretation and translation studies, the results showed they tend to have better grades. The relationship between the interest in interpretation and translation studies and the foreign language students’ achievement in their studies were quite significant, but it was analyzed that it was not directly reflected on their English Certification Scores. This study showed that raising the university students’ satisfaction and motive for better achievement have positive effects on their studies and their future career development. This study also will lay a foundation for more specific and active support for career planning for individuals, universities and the whole society.
  • 7.

    A Post-Structural Translation Approach of Traditional Cultural Contents: Analysis of Mistranslations of Traditional Archery in Texts and Films, and Their Alternatives

    Noh-shin Lee | 2010, 11(4) | pp.145~173 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This article explores differences in correctness and appropriateness between langue-based translation and parole-based translation in translating certain texts that contain thousands of years of historical and cultural contexts, such as those found in the world of traditional archery. In this case, this article demonstrates that, unlike practical sentences such as those contained in manuals, in which langue takes a key role to support the general meaning of the language in translation, only parole based translation accurately presents the historical and cultural contexts that each participant has developed with respect to the signifiers, in this case the bow and arrow. In addition, this article examines one contemporary literary genre – film – as a type of a pictogram, the message of which is edited and invented by the director and the movie staff in relation to battle scenes in which there are only a few words, and in which, instead, the actors and actresses mostly present a variety of fighting actions to the audiences. Through this, this article discusses how Western films mistranslate and misinterpret the world of traditional archery and Asian traditional archery with prejudices about Oriental culture. In conclusion, this article examines how accurate translating work on the traditional bow and arrows is much different from that done using a purely practical approach. The parole-based translation suggests a post-structural approach in translating culture, tradition and history. And, in this way, the final outcomes of the translation will be much more appropriate.
  • 8.

    Genitive Subjects in English-Korean Translation of the Bible

    JangYoungJun | 2010, 11(4) | pp.175~190 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to examine the case forms of the subjects of embedded and relative clauses in English-Korean Bible translation. We first examine the case forms of the 1954 version of the Bible and compare them with those of the 1973 version. Unlike the genitive subjects in the former, we have seen that the subjects of the embedded and relative clauses in the 1973 version of Bible are nominative case-marked. Why is it so? We found that Middle Korean allowed genitive subjects in embedded and relative clauses, just like Modern Japanese. However, this kind of case system gradually disappeared, leaving behind a small number of genitive case forms in newspapers and other written forms. Genitive subjects have been found to be widely used in religious recordings including Bible translation, for example, the 1954 Korean version. Genitive subjects, however, have been changed to nominative subjects in the 1973 version. This change of case form found in the two Korean versions of the Bible may suggest that the mismatch between the spoken and written Korean, especially the written form of religious recordings, has finally been removed.
  • 9.

    A Study of Controlled Language in Korean-Japanese Technical Document Translation —Control Rules For the Facilitation of Machine Translation Regarding ‘-되다’—

    함수진 | RYU SU-RIN | 2010, 11(4) | pp.191~238 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Technical documents refer to documents produced for the purpose of recording knowledge or information in the area of education, science and technology. Translation of such documents becomes more and more important as their use and application keeps expanding along with globalization reaching readers of different languages. However, the structural ambiguity and vagueness found in such technical texts, as well as several other factors, hinder the comprehension, and therefore, the effective translation of technical documents, especially in the case of machine translations which are used for mass translation. Many errors appear in terms of style, lexicon, and grammar when machine translation is used for translating technical documents from Korean into Japanese. Among the 1,473 [되다] examples of syntax extracted from the Korean-into-Japanese technical document corpus, which is the subject of this study, errors(16.09%) have been found where [N-이/가 되다] syntaxes indicating ‘passive voice’ have been automatically translated into [N-になる] which indicate ‘a change of state’. A deeper inquiry into previous studies revealed that these errors were caused by a structural ambiguity lying at a grammatical layer where the [N-이/가 되다] syntax can imply both ‘a change of state’ as well as ‘passive voice’. This study proposes an approach that uses controlled language to avoid errors caused by polysemic and structural ambiguity of the [N-이/가 되다] syntax which are often found in Korean-Japanese machine translations. The controlled language approach aims to effectively control language from the initial stage of text production with the purpose of enhancing comprehensibility and the facilitation of machine translation. First, the distinct properties and characteristics of said syntax have been analyzed from reference studies to deduce formalized standards and values to resolve the ambiguity of [N-이/가 되다]. Second, controlled grammar and lexicon writing rules presented in previous studies have been considered or applied to form and implement a set of control rules that include writing rules and writing proscriptive rules. There should be follow-up studies to categorize errors found in various layers of style, lexicon, grammar that can affect the quality of Korean-Japanese machine translation and continuous research should be conducted regarding the cause-and-effect relationship in applying the rules of the controlled language to ensure that the rules function complementary to one another.
  • 10.

    A Study of the Hangul Orthography of Loanwords in Translating Classical Literary Works: Focusing on Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream

    Myung-soo Hur | 2010, 11(4) | pp.239~269 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    We often find difficulties in the orthography of loanwords and foreign words, partly because the current Hangul Orthography of Loanwords (enacted in 1986 and amended several times) is not for us to understand and apply easily, partly because we are not provided with sufficient examples and detailed explanations about the orthography. Thus many translators have difficulty in writing loanwords and foreign words in Hangul, especially when they translate the Western classical works into Korean, such as Shakespeare’s works. A Midsummer Night’s Dream, for example, has many characters whose names derive from Greco-Roman myths along with the English names. The mixture of Greek names, Romanized names and English names at the same work often cause us lots of difficulty in writing and transcribing those names into Hangul. I selected 18 translations of A Midsummer Night’s Dream to figure out how those names have been transcribed into Hangul. The result turned out very surprising, for almost all the names are put into Hangul differently by each translator. For example, the name of Theseus(Duke of Athens) has been translated differently into Korean: 테세우스, 티이셔스, 티시어스, 티시우스, 시슈우스, 시시어스, 디슈스, etc. In order to get rid of those difficulties, I would like to suggest tips to supplement the current Hangul orthography of loanwords. First, one should more seriously understand and apply the Hangul Orhography of Loanwords in translation of classical works. Second, one needs to trace the forming process of names which have been derived from Greco-Roman myths and literature, and Romanized and transformed into English names. Third, all the names of the characters in the play shall be put into Hangul according to the pronunciation of each name in the British English accent, because A Midsummer Night’s Dream is a British drama, even though it is set in Ancient Athens and has many Greek and Roman names such as Theseus, Egeus, and Demetrius. Fourth, Greek and Latin words should be put into Korean by the method of transcription based on International phonetic alphabets, and then, if needed, by the transliteration method, which uses the closest corresponding letters of a different alphabet or language.
  • 11.

    An Error Analysis in the Use of the Cohesive Devices in Korean-English Translation

    Won Bo Kim | 2010, 11(4) | pp.271~296 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this research is both to show what frequent errors Korean translators commit in the use of six cohesive devices in Korean-English translations and to explore the way of explaining those errors logically. To achieve this purpose, analyzing the fourteen Korean students’ Korean-English translation errors carefully, we explained the basic reasons for those errors from the viewpoints of language competence, literal translation, language transfer and target language ability. Furthermore, we can speculate from the illuminated reasons for the errors that the errors have several significant implications for translators. They have to have a deeper and broader understanding on common and different features between source and target languages.