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2011, Vol.12, No.2

  • 1.

    A Comparative Analysis of Korean Translations of Clausewitz’s Vom Kriege

    김만수 | 2011, 12(2) | pp.7~31 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes seven Korean-translated texts of Clausewitz’s Vom Kriege, according to the methodology of so-called micro-analysis, meaning a detailed and exhaustive study of the texts. The criteria for analysis is the faithfulness and readability, which are in general accepted in translation studies. The serious problem in four texts originates from the fact that they were retranslated to Korean from those originally translated into Japanese. These retranslations inevitably made large and small errors in the form of words, terms, concepts etc. In these texts some Korean-translated sentences that were overly influenced by Chinese characters were too difficult to understand. Two texts are the abridged translations. Here some sentences were unnaturally long, or a French geographical name was incorrectly transcribed into Korean. Only one Korean translation is acceptable in terms of faithfulness and readability. If the analysis of this kind is continued and accumulated, and the micro-analysis is extended into macro-analysis, we may expect a reliable Korean translation of Vom Kriege in the future.
  • 2.

    The Translation Types and Methodology of Technical Terms —With a Special Reference to Medical Ones—

    김성원 | Jeong-Woo Kim | 2011, 12(2) | pp.33~52 | number of Cited : 20
    Abstract PDF
    This paper has a purpose; that is, to clarify the types and methodology of translation of technical terms by investigating the English-Korean word pairs(ST-TT) in Essential Medical Terminology(2006). This could be summarized as follows:At first, we have proposed some concepts as criteria to analyse the patterns of translation in consideration of the translation unit in question. They are the depth and the width of the translation. As a result of investigation, it has been revealed that most cases are semantic translation(92.6%), a few cases are phonetic translation(4.6%) and mixed translation(2.8%) concerning the depth of the translation; and a few cases(8.5%) are asymmetrical translations, most of which are reduced types. As for the methods of translation, it has been revealed that the most frequent cases are made by that of transposition(20.6%) and the second ones are by the borrowing(7.4%) except the cases made by word-to-word translation. In the case of transposition we have witnessed the shift of parts of speech from ST to TT in almost all of the examples(96.4%), and that of word order in a few examples(3.6%). The conclusions as above are showing the fact that the persons involved in the translation of medical technical terms paid much attention to the expression in target language.
  • 3.

    Forms of Rewriting in Chinese-Korean Translation for Publication

    김혜림 | 2011, 12(2) | pp.53~73 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Translation is the product of rewriting. Considering acceptability of the text to the target audience, rewriting is a feature of the translation process from the selection of the source text till the finished book reaches the readers’ hands. This paper analyzes Korean-Chinese translated publications that have gone through this process of rewriting to identify characteristics in the form of those publications when compared to the original text, and to identify the differences in form and their causes. Through comparison and analysis of 21 translated publications including Nunmul 1 (Tears I) and 13 original Chinese texts including Binu (碧奴), differences of form were identified and organized according to type. According to analysis of the differences, the major forms of rewriting appearing in Chinese-Korean translated publications are 1) publication of one book in two (or more) volumes 2) omission, 3) creativity on the part of the translator in dealing with the signifiant and 4) cases of re-editing according to the formation of the genre of a particular text in each culture. In the broad framework, through publication of one book in multiple volumes to increase acceptability to the target audience, works translated from Chinese to Korean generally become longer than the original text due to linguistic characteristics and book publication practices. These are characteristics generally found in Chinese-Korean translated publications. On the other hand, in the case of omission, for certain translators (Yu So-yeong, Shim Gyu-ho) partial omission resulting in an incomplete translation is carried out on the condition of the author’s prior permission, as specified in the contract. This suggests that active intervention on the part of the translator is not yet common in Korea. In addition, in novels where there is a close relationship between the names and the story active rewriting on the part of the translator is necessary in dealing with signifiant such as the name of the main character. In particular, when there are forms distinct to each culture such as found in dictionaries, rewriting is carried out in such a way as to make the text acceptable to the target culture.
  • 4.

    Sentences and Clauses in Children’s Literature Translations in Comparison with Non-translations

    성승은 | 2011, 12(2) | pp.75~108 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to examine readability of children’s literature translations in terms of sentences and clauses. To this end, English-Korean translations are compared with non-translations. The age bracket of children for this study is about 11-14. In a recent study which compared translations for children and adult readers, children's translations had significantly more sentences segmented and simplified sentence structure of the source texts(Sung 2010). This paper seeks to gauge such differences against non-translated books for children. If children's translations have shorter sentences and simpler structure, they then need to be compared with non-translations as a part of efforts to find out how they are accepted by children. In particular, this study focuses on the length of clauses and sentences between translations and non-translations. The results showed that the translations had longer sentences and determinative clauses. Overall, the results indicates that the translations, with their longer sentences and clauses, are more similar to the Korean language textbooks of junior high school than those of elementary school. Strategies to enhance readability in terms of syntax are also discussed.
  • 5.

    Translating for Children Based on the Dual Coding Theory

    Jisun Shin | 2011, 12(2) | pp.109~128 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper proposes translating non-concrete verbs into concrete ones in translating children’s literature from Korean into English. ‘Concreteness’ is essential in children’s books in order to give literary pleasure to children and achieve educational purposes of children’s literature. According to Paivio’s much-acclaimed Dual Coding Theory, the mental imagery triggered by concrete words has powerful effects on the readers in terms of comprehension and memory enhancement. Based on the numerous empirical studies which indicate the positive impact of mental imagery on child readers, I suggest that children’s book translators should use concrete words instead of abstract vocabulary. It becomes more vital when it comes to translating Korean verbs into English due to a big discrepancy between the two languages. English has significantly more verbs that depict an action depending on the various elements embedded in the action, while Korean has much fewer verbs that describe the same action. Consequently, when translating for children, it is important for translators to translate non-concrete verbs in Korean text into concrete ones in English text for the purpose of helping young readers create mental images while reading.
  • 6.

    A Study on the English-into-Korean Translation of Metaphors in Economic Texts

    Jin-won Shin | PARK,KI-SEONG | 2011, 12(2) | pp.129~155 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the translational processes and strategies in the English-to-Korean translation of metaphorical expressions in economic texts. It is shown that conceptual metaphor theory is an effective and systematic way to investigate the processes in economic texts. The findings of this study are as follows. First, the conceptual metaphor schema of ‘living organism’ is used most frequently in the STs, and it is also true of the corresponding translated TTs. However, the metaphor schema of ‘physical movement’ is the most common in the non-translated Korean texts. Hence the mismatch in the popular conceptual metaphor schema types between translated TTs and the non-translted Korean texts might lead to the use of ‘translationese’ in the translation of the texts. Second, the most common translational strategies used for the translation of metaphors are ‘accordance’ and ‘explicitization’. However, more strategies which include ‘replacement’, ‘implicitization, ‘omittance’ are used for the translation of metaphors which use the schema of ‘living organism’. Third, the ‘accordance’ strategy is most commonly used for the translation of metaphors of ‘entity’, ‘function’, and ‘quality’ elements. However, it is shown that the translation of ‘entity’ metaphors employs more translational strategies.
  • 7.

    Recontextualization in Translated News Articles: Comparative Analysis with Focus on Evaluative Language in Tranlsated Korean and Japanese Newsweek Articles

    Ju Ri Ae Lee | 2011, 12(2) | pp.157~184 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract PDF
    The research aims to compare and analyze the different aspects that appear on the Korean Newsweek version (TT(a)) and the Japanese Newsweek version (TT(b)) through recontextualization as they are translated from the English Newsweek version(ST). English Newsweek articles are selected and translated into Korean and Japanese versions to fit their social atmosphere and perspective as a means of gatekeeping. Narratives undergo positive or negative reframing during the process of translation when their contents vary in context from the Korean and Japanese social atmosphere and perspective. Recontextualization can take place either partially or entirely. Latter cases of recontextualization are determined so according to their use of appraisals based on the Martin & White(2005) evaluation method. It can also be observed how far TT(a) and TT(b) departs from the ST through recontextualization. The more the TT is recontextualized the further it departs from the ST. When the context of narratives in the Korean and Japanese versions take a different course from each other after entire recontextualization, it can hardly be maintained that they have been translated from the same news article. It is an issue to be raised, through comparative analysis, as readers of TT(a) and TT(b) will be given news articles that are distant and distorted in context from the ST.
  • 8.

    Explicitation of Explicatures in English-to-Korean Translation Process: A Pragmatic Analysis of Asymmetric ‘and’ Conjunction

    Cho, Euiyon | 2011, 12(2) | pp.185~206 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is concerned with how explicatures in a source text are translated in its corresponding target text. It will show that in translation process, explicatures of ‘and’ conjunction utterances in a source text have a strong statistical tendency to be explicated in their corresponding Korean target texts. The results are on the par with the spirit of Sperber and Wilson’s (1986) position on the nature of explicature and Carston’s subsequent study (2002) on that of ‘and’ conjunction. This study is based the explicitation hypothesis proposed by Blum-Kulka (1986/2001) and has investigated two translated Korean texts of American English novel The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger to see how the explicatures of English asymmetric 'and' conjunction utterances have been translated in them. Both of the translated texts are found to have a strong statistical tendency of the explicitation of the explicatures of ‘and’ conjunction. It supports the Relevance theoretic position that explicatures communicated by utterances are explicit.
  • 9.

    Directionality of Translation and the Meanings of Conjunctive Adjuncts

    최진실 | 2011, 12(2) | pp.207~232 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is 1) to analyse and compare formal semantic correspondences between English-into-Korean and Korean-into-English translations, 2) to analyse sub-semantic correspondences in both directions, and 3) to examine ellipsis of conjunctive adjuncts in the semantic perspective. Specifically via a study employing a newly built 31,022-word EXCEL-based parallel corpus, it is shown that the pair of ‘But’ and ‘Geureona’, which is a typical adversative Korean conjunctive adjunct, shows the similar formal correspondence rate in both directions and their sub-semantics represents the closest patterning. On the contrary, although the pairs of ‘And’ and ‘Geureonde’ and ‘Then’ and ‘Geurigo’ show the similar formal correspondence rates in both translation directions, their sub-semantic patterns and their correspondences are not identical. In addition, it has been found that the ellipsis rates of ‘And’ and ‘Geurigo’ are highest when ‘And’ signifies “simple additive” and ‘Geurigo’ represents “additive (cheomga), enumerative (nayeol), contrastive (daejo)”.
  • 10.

    Detoxified Protocols Reading Comprehension: The Key to Language Competence

    Moon, Jae-ik | 2011, 12(2) | pp.233~251 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    English education and learning in Korea have become proficient in the four functions—listening, speaking, reading and writing—which collegiate English education can integrate into a powerful English competence for each student. This has helped us accept overseas advanced technologies, knowledge and cultures, and this will contribute to introducing our own culture to the broader world more and more in the future. Not only for studying many professional fields, but also for the specialized activities of searching for jobs and undertaking international business, the two functions of listening and speaking receive priority. I strongly insist that English reading comprehension education must be front and center, for everything related to English acquisition starts from reading, which also deepens appreciation of the rest of the world and cultivates the inner man. These are truths widely shown. During my presence at classroom rostrums for over 30 years, I have deeply felt that learners wishing to reduce the stress, time and intensity of learning need these “detoxified protocols.” Thus, this monograph aims to help them reach their goals of English acquisition with reading proficiency, provided they learn and understand these protocols thoroughly. This paper allocates reading comprehension significance above all other functions for building translation skills, as well as cultural understanding. The paper concludes by offering methods to improve reading comprehension. To summarize: 1) vocabulary, 2) grammar (especially structure and syntax), and 3) cultural knowledge of both and one’s own language form the bottom line in mastering reading comprehension. We can easily become embroiled in the controversy of whether or not translation is an art or science. Linguists call translation a science because the work requires objective facts. On the other hand, great translation takes skill beyond reasoning; great translation takes talent. We should examine more theories of interpretation as broadly as this monograph has undertaken to teach effective reading comprehension and translation.