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2011, Vol.12, No.3

  • 1.

    A Study on the Translation of Legal Texts

    Dohun Kim | 손수연 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.7~31 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Demand for the translation of legal texts is on the rise, with Korea’s elevated status. Legal translation needs to be more accurate than any other text and plays a special role in regulating the society. Therefore, legal translators should recognize the features of legal texts and employ optimal translation strategies. This study aims to explore the features of legal language/sentences and the functions of legal texts. Based on a clear understanding, the paper deals with the strategies to translate legal texts. Specifically, this study touches on the characteristics and types of legal language and explores the conventional practices in the use of legal sentences of both English and Korean. It presents two major functions of legal texts: descriptive and normative. The functions, however, can be changed by translation purpose, i.e. normative legal documents can become descriptive when they are translated for research, not for legal effect. This paper introduces and compares three researchers’ translation strategies, and claims that transposition; expansion and reduction; and modulation are the most “appropriate” strategies. The author hopes this study will contribute to triggering further discussion on the translation of legal texts and to presenting guidelines for those in the translation profession.
  • 2.

    The influence of the translations of (western) feminist works in the modern magazine New Youth on the Chinese society and translation per se

    김진아 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.33~53 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    After the concept of feminism of the West was introduced to China at the end of the 19th Century, it began to take root in China also. With the People’s Republic of China established in 1920, the Chinese intellectuals began repatriating from their studies abroad and enlightening the Chinese people. They did a lot of things like publishing the magazine named “New Youth”. At the turning point of literary development, China began to complement their literature and culture with many translated versions of foreign literature. The Chinese government carried out political, moral and cultural revolutions on the basis of those translations. Among others, the concept of women’s liberalization became one of the most sensational issues in the Chinese society and culture. With the introduction of the western literature, feminism stood out and came to the centerstage of social arguments. The translated works not only gave rise to the feminist literture, but built the foundation of development of the Chinese national literature and the translation theories. They greatly influenced the translation studies of feminist works of the West in the 1980s.
  • 3.

    The Reproduction of Polyphony in the Korean Translation of French Free Indirect Discourse

    박선희 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.55~82 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this paper is to propose ways in which the ambiguous polyphony of Free Indirect Discourse (FID) in a French source text can be reproduced in a Korean target text. Ambiguous polyphony is the key feature that distinguishes FID from other types of discourse such as Direct Discourse and Indirect Discourse. It eradicates the syntactic boundary between the voices of the narrator and the character(s) in the novel text and mixes their voices in a phrase of FID. Therefore, it must be reproduced in the translation of FID. This study explains the polyphonic features and the indices of FID generally applicable to languages and examines the propositions of previous studies concerning the translations of FID in literary texts. Syntactic, stylistic, and typographic indices of FID in French and Korean language are then suggested, with particular attention drawn to the differences between the syntactic indices of the two languages. This is followed by a proposal of possible ways to reproduce the polyphony of French FID in the Korean translation using the indices of Korean FID. The study concludes with a review of the appropriateness of the reproduction of polyphony of the FID in Korean translations of the French novel, Madame Bovary.
  • 4.

    Translation of Powerpoint Slides as a Visual Aid —A Comparison of Professional and Student Translators

    안세림 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.83~109 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    As the use of Powerpoint presentation, a Microsoft application software, becomes commonplace, translators are increasingly called upon to work on Powerpoint slides which are to be used as a visual aid to accompany speech events. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 12 Korean-English professional translators, which provided an insight into the market demand for slide translation and indicated that the majority of slide translation is being done in the Korean to English direction. Textual features specific to Powerpoint slides were examined, and actual works of professional translators were analyzed in comparison to those of translation students, drawing upon three proposed principles of slide translation: concision, simplicity, and coherence with ST. The analysis found that professional translator’s work was shorter in length and retained more of ST content than that of students, suggesting different degrees of consideration given to the textual functions of Powerpoint slides and the situational context.
  • 5.

    Distance Education of Sight Translation: Interaction and Feedback

    오미형 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.111~139 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores how interaction, particularly feedback, can be used effectively in a performance-oriented class of distant educational mode. In constructivism, interaction is one of the key elements in helping students build their own knowledge. It is also one of the critical tools in performance-oriented learning like T&I programs. Surveying 143 students of a cyber E-K sight translation course, the study confirms that students have strong needs for learning-focused interaction as opposed to phatic one. It further analyses tutors’ feedbacks on students’ performance to explore practical options of utilizing tutors in exchanging feedback.
  • 6.

    A Comparison of Two Feedback Types in Undergraduate Translation Class

    Lee Migyong | 2011, 12(3) | pp.141~168 | number of Cited : 25
    Abstract PDF
    Unlike translation classes in graduate programs, translation classes at undergraduate level are, typically, large in size and the language proficiency and subject knowledge of enrolling students vary widely. Such composition of the class make it difficult for the instructors to provide constructive feedback that meet the needs of each different students effectively. This difficulty may potentially have more implications as translation class take the process-oriented approach encourage discussions and peer feedback to provide students with a variety of problem-solving strategies. The goal of this study is to examine the effect of two different types of feedback commonly utilized in A into B translation classes at undergraduate level. Interactional corrective feedback uses translation samples by two or three students per class for in-depth discussion and comments by peers and the instructor. As for the written feedback, students receive a score and written comments on various parts of their translations. This study investigates whether such feedbacks contribute to improving the student translations and if so, how effective the feedbacks and, in what way. In addition, a survey was carried out to find out the learners’ perception of feedback. Tanslations and their revised version of 12 students were evaluated by two native instructors in a course of five weeks to analyze what are the improvements that have resulted from feedback. One hundred students enrolled in translation classes participated in the survey.
  • 7.

    The Translation of Conceptual Metaphors in News Texts: An Analysis of An English-Korean Parallel Corpus

    SeungAhLee | 배지연 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.169~196 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    In cognitive linguistics, the notion of conceptual metaphor refers to the understanding of one conceptual domain (i.e., target domain, which is abstract) in terms of another (i.e., source domain, which is concrete). For instance, in the case of the conceptual metaphor TIME IS MONEY (‘x is y’), TIME (x) is the target domain, whereas MONEY (y) is the source domain. This metaphor is reflected in contemporary English by a wide variety of expressions, such as You’re wasting my time (Lakoff & Johnson 1980: 8). The present study examines news texts in English to investigate how the target domain ABSTRACT COMPLEX SYSTEMS (e.g., the government, a company, economic systems, etc.; Kövecses 2010: 155) is mapped onto various source domains, such as HUMAN BODY, PLANT, BUILDING, MACHINE, etc. It then analyzes corresponding translated texts in Korean to examine whether any changes occur in the mapping of conceptual metaphors. To this end, a parallel corpus was compiled using a small sample of articles from Newsweek magazine (26,613 words) and its published Korean translation (20,209 words). A comparison of the source texts (STs) in English and the corresponding target texts (TTs) in Korean shows that the most prevalent translation strategy turned out to be the “parallel mapping” technique. That is, STs and TTs share identical source domains, and metaphorical expressions of the STs are translated literally in the TTs.
  • 8.

    A study of legal interpreting service providers’ and users’ perceptions of the norms in legal interpreting

    이지은 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.197~224 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines legal interpreting service providers’ and users’ perceptions of the norms in legal interpreting on the basis of a questionnaire-based survey of 139 legal professionals and 48 interpreters in Korea. The legal respondents include judges, attorneys, prosecutors, prosecution investigators, and police officers, and the interpreting respondents include both sign language interpreters and foreign language interpreters. The study reported in this paper canvassed the respondents’ profiles, such as age, gender, and work experience, and their views on the role of the legal interpreter and practical issues related to accuracy in legal interpreting. The data analysis revealed a gap in the legal professionals’ and the interpreting professionals’ perspectives on the role of the legal interpreter, specifically, cultural mediation, reproduction of speech styles and irresponsive testimony, and coping with mistranslation. The findings indicate that both groups of respondents lack accurate understanding of the norms in legal interpreting, which may have implications for legal proceedings. This paper argues for education for both groups of respondents to raise their awareness of the norms in legal interpreting for quality interpreting.
  • 9.

    A Corpus-based Study on Translation Evaluation: Focused on High Frequency Nouns in Korean Translations of the French Novel Moderato Cantabile

    조준형 | YI, Yeong-Houn | 계명훈 and 4other persons | 2011, 12(3) | pp.225~262 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Ever since the first Korean translation of the French novel Jules Verne’s A Journey to the Center of the Earth in 1907, many French novels have been translated to Korean. However, the Korean translations were performed from the Japanese versions or other language versions, and not directly from French. Therefore, a number of adaptations and mistranslations were found when we compared them with the original French text. In addition, today’s Korean translations carried over the same problems issued from the previous texts. In order to help solve this problem and to find correct translations, the researchers of this paper took an interest in the elaboration of the criteria for the translation evaluation. In this sense, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate a corpus-based research for translation evaluation. Most translation studies using a parallel corpus or a comparative corpus focus on the explication of the linguistic traits between two languages. However, by comparing three Korean translations of the French novel Moderato Cantabile published at different times, we tried to examine their translation strategy. Based on the results derived from the statistical analyses (lexical frequency, co-occurrence information, contextual analysis), we could find out the characteristic of these Korean translations by comparing lexical elements. Although we aimed to analyze high frequency nouns in the paper, the statistical method which we used will be able to contribute to the translation evaluation by referring to it as a precedent analysis before conducting an in-depth study.
  • 10.

    A Contrastive Semantic Analysis of English and Korean News Terminology

    주진국 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.263~279 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Every language is the mirror that reflects its users’ perspective from which to look at the reality surrounding them. This is because languages structuralize and organize the world of our experience and more or less influence the way we perceive the objects and notions that exist in the real or an imaginary world. Naturally, this proposition implies the fact that the ways language users in different language communities perceive objects and notions may be radically different from one another because of the difference in their cognitive categories. Therefore, it seems to be a meaningful task to examine and compare the meanings of certain less context-dependent terminology in Korean and/or English and their translation equivalents. Such a study can not only increase our knowledge of how translation works but also help translators find a suitable translation equivalent of a novel concept expressed in a foreign language. It is for this purpose that some perspectives regarding the meanings of a limited number of terminology found in either English or Korean news materials and their Korean and English translation equivalents are introduced in this paper.
  • 11.

    Case Study on English-Korean Translation of Slang and Vulgarism: Analysis of Shifts in Formality Levels

    한미선 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.281~303 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    In general, both spoken and written languages require proper levels of formality and a change in these levels usually lead to a certain shift in the style of a discourse or a text. In light of the fact, this study aims to demonstrate that, as far as novel translation is concerned, it is necessary to translate slang and vulgar expressions in the original into TT equivalents with corresponding levels of formality. To that end, this study employs a comparative corpus analysis based on a five-level word formality model. According to existing research, emotional forces of slang and vulgar words in original texts tend to be lessened to some extent or completely missing in translated novels. That’s because such expressions in the original are often replaced with those of different levels of formality, resulting in the change in stylistic effects and the diminution of negative emotional values in translated texts. To illustrate this argument, dialogues containing slang and vulgar words and their translated counterparts were extracted from three novels and their English-Korean translated texts and then the shift in word formality levels between ST and TT was analyzed based on the aforementioned model. These three novels have in common that slang and vulgar words serve metalinguistic functions assigned by original authors. Therefore, by analyzing these three texts, it can be easily clarified that, if these words of lower formality are translated into words of higher formality or omitted completely, there will be certain losses and which will lead to a failure in reproducing similar stylistic effects to the original.
  • 12.

    Translation as Ventriloquy: Recapturing the Narrative Voice in Song of the Sword

    Ha-yun Jung | 2011, 12(3) | pp.305~333 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Voice is a challenging yet critical aesthetic element in the translation of narratives. This paper aims at establishing the concept of voice as a significant factor in the discourse on literary translation, and at searching for creative solutions to the many obstacles in recapturing voice in the translation of Korean fiction into English. The properties that make up narrative voice can be categorized as tone, style and personality, which are analyzed here through examples of various narrative devices. To explore the specific challenges in recapturing voice in Korean-into-English translation, the paper examines two published translations of Korean fiction--Yi Sang’s “Record of a Consummation” and Hwang Sok-yong’s The Old Garden--alongside this writer’s own translation of Kim Hoon’s novel Song of the Sword, all first-person narratives delivered by distinct and recognizable voices. The biggest obstacles, as observed in the three works, are posed by lexical categories that do not exist in English, including case markers and verb endings, and elements that do not translate well, or at all, into English, including heavy modifying clauses and lyrical devices. These challenges, however, can be overcome by handling language in creative and inventive ways to reflect and retain the effect displayed in the original text. It is all the more important for translators of Korean literature to seek new linguistic possibilities for recapturing voice, considering that the aesthetics of Korean literature has yet to be defined in world literature today.
  • 13.

    A Study on the Effectiveness of Using a Class Blog in Translator Training

    피터리 | 2011, 12(3) | pp.335~363 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Class blogs are increasingly being used in writing courses, providing teachers with an efficient way to organize lessons and communicate with students, and also assisting students by providing easier access to class information and encouraging more active participation. Since translation is a type of writing, it would seem that many of the advantages of using a class blog should translate well into translation courses. As a preliminary experiment, therefore, class blogs were introduced to three translation classes at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies in Spring 2011. This paper presents the various factors that were considered in the decision to use class blogs, the process of their implementation, and the results for the teacher and the students. In particular, a quantitative analysis was carried out to examine whether the class blog motivated students to read more translations done by their classmates, and a student survey was taken at the end of the term partly for this purpose. The analysis shows that students in classes using a class blog read significantly more translations done by their classmates. Other aspects of the class blog were also examined, such as its positive pressure on students to improve the quality of their translations and with what level of blog readership the students were comfortable. This paper’s research results are mainly positive, and it is hoped that they will serve as a catalyst for other teachers of translation to start using class blogs in their classes.