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2011, Vol.12, No.4

  • 1.

    Suggestions on multisource assessment through editing translation assignments in translation classes

    Kang, KyoungYi | 2011, 12(4) | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract PDF
    Multisource assessment refers to a type of evaluation conducted at different levels and on various aspects by multiple persons including supervisors, subordinates, and colleagues. It includes self-assessment as well. In this paper, the concept of multisource assessment is redefined for classroom environments. To study the educational value of multisource assessment, a multisource assessment model that leverages translation editing is used in a real classroom environment. Class observations and survey results indicate that multisource assessment is effective as it allows rich feedback from multiple participants, creates huge amount of knowledge and advances cognitive development. Three types of multisource assessment were conducted in translation classes: Student conducts 'self-assessment' to review and edit his/her translation assignment from his/her own perspective; classmates carry out 'peer-assessments' to assess the quality of assignments from readers’ perspective; and lecturer conducts 'teacher’s assessment' to give comments as a specialist. These three approaches, carried out in parallel, created synergy effect, thereby raising reliability and validity. Furthermore, students were more engaged in classroom discussions, contributing different opinions on given subjects. Some issues remain unsettled, such as 'ensuring reliability and homogeneity of peer reviews’, ‘developing more effective self-assessment tools’, and ‘streamlining processes or adjusting assessment frequency to resolve excessive time consumption problem’. Once these issues are resolved, multisource assessment is expected to present significant educational value.
  • 2.

    A Comparative Study of Loan Words in the Korean Original Texts and Translated Text

    Soon Mi Kim | 2011, 12(4) | pp.33~68 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    As cultural words and concepts from foreign countries, especially English-speaking countries, become international in their domain, words to express new things and concepts are borrowed from foreign languages. Moreover, with the explosive increase in commercial, technological, and cultural exchanges between countries and a growing receptiveness of Korean people toward foreign cultures and languages, more loan words are used in both the original Korean texts and translated texts than before. In this environment, it becomes more difficult for translators to decide when to use loan words and when to use Korean equivalent words. This study aims at analyzing the use of loan words in the translated text and finding what kind of words are frequently used in these texts and why. When studying the use of foreign words in translation, it is important to see how foreign words are used in the Korean original texts and compare their loan word usage with that of translated texts. Two Korean popular economics genre books and two translated books from the similar genre are analyzed. The results showed that the loan words used in the Korean original texts and translated texts are very similar both in technical terminology and everyday language. Translators used loan words when they failed to retrieve an equivalent way of expressing the same concept in their own language; or they may use loan words on purpose to evoke exotic meanings and attach prestige value. What translators should be careful about is when they use loan words as a way to get their jobs done more conveniently by not searching for the right expressions or vocabularies in their target language.
  • 3.

    Genre-based Appraisal Translation Education in the into-English Translation Classroom: Analyzing the Effect through the Action Research

    SEUNG HYE MAH | 2011, 12(4) | pp.69~97 | number of Cited : 18
    Abstract PDF
    Language resources that express speakers/writers' emotion, judgment about people, appreciation about things or situations are called "Appraisal" in the Systemic Functional Linguistics. The appraisals are also concerned with the force and focus of what speakers/writers intend to deliver. This specific category of language resources is more frequently used in English newspaper article genre than in Korean newspapers. Hence translating the appraisals with proper force and focus or intentionally inserting appraisals in an attempt to make the translation more colorful, which is in line with the characteristics of English newspaper article genre with specific regard to appraisals, would be able to serve as a right stepping stone in the course of educating the genre-based writing and translation. Genre-based writing and translating education has increasingly been praised these days to enhance acceptability among readers in target cultures. To substantiate the validity of the genre-based appraisal education in into-English translation class, an action research had been carried out. Based on the result of the action research, this paper cautiously proposes establishing genre-based appraisal translation education as one of the sub-modules in into-English translation curriculum.
  • 4.

    Translation Studies by Jean-René Ladmiral: Toward an Epistemological Approach

    YUN Seong Woo | LEE Hyang | 2011, 12(4) | pp.99~118 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper looks into the need for discourses on Translation Studies and their significance from an epistemological perspective. In particular, we take a look at the epistemological approach of Jean-René Ladmiral, a French translation scholar and philosopher. The first part of this paper reviews a conceptual definition of ‘epistemology’ as it applies to Translation Studies, which is to articulate the nature of translation-related knowledge or perception. Epistemology herein refers to a comprehensive concept covering such issues as the types of knowledge pertaining to translation, as well as the methods or procedures for obtaining such knowledge, and their feasibility, legitimacy, and rationale. The second part of this paper looks into the epistemological approach of Ladmiral, who is presently one of the most active scholars in the field. In particular, we explore the meaning of four types of Translation Studies proposed by Ladmiral: prescriptive or normative, descriptive, inductive or scientific, and productive. In conclusion, this section articulates the significance and limitations of Ladmiral's epistemological approach. It explores his theory and its implications as an alternative to William Chesterman's approach, which mainly pursues scientificity in Translation Studies.
  • 5.

    A Study on Improving the Legal Status of Fan Translation: With Emphasis on the ‘Fair Use’ Principle

    이상빈 | 2011, 12(4) | pp.119~143 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    The advent and advancement of digital technology has allowed laypeople around the world to recreate licensed cultural products in their own way. For example, fans of Japanese manga and anime translate and edit their beloved titles and share the translations in their online fandom for common knowledge and interaction. This article revolves around 'fan translation', the unofficial translation by a fan (or a group of fans) of various forms of media, including movie, video game, and comic. The paper begins with discussions about the legal status of fan translation under the existing copyright laws and two positive viewpoints of fan translation practices (i.e., (1) Fan translation hardly causes harms to those related to the copyrighted materials and (2) it has highly beneficial effects on copyright holders, businesses and society). The article then proceeds to delve into the legal status of fan translation from the perspective of the US's fair use provision (17 USC 107). The final section looks into the legal status of fan translation under Korea's new copyright law and suggests ways to ensure that it can be accepted as legal or legitimate.
  • 6.

    Experimental view on the significance of Seokdokkugyol in the history of translation in Korea

    Chang, Kyongjun | 2011, 12(4) | pp.145~168 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    Seokdokkugyol is a kind of orthographic system enabling Korean readers to understand the original Chinese text by adding postpositional letters to the original text. The reader who understand the orthographic system of Seokdokkugyol can read the Chinese text with this in Korean. In the point of view of translation, Seokdokkugyol is understood as a kind of translation mode converting Chinese text into Korean text. Studies on Seokdokkugyol have been pursued actively since the mid 1990's when the text materials have been found massively but the outcome of the studies has not yet been known enough to the academia of Korean linguistics. In the history of translation in Korea, Seokdokkugyol should be a subject of study, but researchers in this field have not yet done extensive research on this topic. This paper attempts to provide a general explanation on Seokdokkugyol, and critically review the understanding of Seokdokkugyol recognized in previous studies.
  • 7.

    Cultural Competence in Translation and Interpreting: Focusing on Theoretical Studies

    Chang Ai Li | 2011, 12(4) | pp.169~204 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Translation and Interpreting are regarded as a communicative activity performed between different languages and different cultures. Having higher levels of language competence is referred to as a prerequisite for translation and interpreting. However, cultural competence that is equally important has not drawn much attention until recently and related research has been scarce. Against this backdrop, this study aims to critically review existing theoretical studies on cultural competence discussed within the community of the interpreting and translation study and analyze the relationship between translation and interpreting and culture at the levels of text, participants, and society in the communicative perspective. Through the theoretical approach, it was concluded that culture is an object of understanding to extract the exact meaning of a text in the translation and interpretation process, an object of mediation for effective communication between participants, and an object of transfer to facilitate socio-cultural change and progress as a result of translation and interpreting. Based on the research findings, this study defines cultural competence as a comprehensive concept consisting of cultural understanding, cultural mediation, and cultural transfer and specifies sub-elements in each of these abilities.
  • 8.

    Cognitive Poetic Approaches to Literary Translation — Focusing on "Cranes" of Hwang Soonwon

    Han Miae | 2011, 12(4) | pp.205~229 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze foregrounding features in the source text and three kinds of the target text of “Cranes”, which is the short story of Hwang Soonwon, with cognitive poetic approaches. Cognitive poetics studies universal stylistic features of a literary text, which make the text literariness. It studies not just a literary text in which various stylistic features are embedded, but also the relationship of ‘author-literary text-reader.’ The cognitive poetic approaches to a literary text can provide insight to translators who are readers and authors at the same time, and useful frameworks for the analysis of the translation of a literary text. This study analyzes “Cranes” based on the theory of foregrounding among cognitive theories which are universally stylistic features. Foregrounding is to draw attention of readers and to highlight by parallelism and deviation. Among these features, discourse and tense deviance, and scenic changes are analyzed in ST and three kinds of TTs. These TTs don't have all the stylistic features and their effects, which are maximized in the source text. Therefore, the target texts can be considered not to represent all literariness in the source text. If all the universal stylistic features are reflected in the target texts, the literariness of the texts will be maximized.
  • 9.

    An Analysis of English Tense and Aspect Errors in Korean-English Translation

    김원보 | 2011, 12(4) | pp.231~262 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    We analysed Korean translators' errors in the use of tense and aspect in Korean-English translation. Their errors can be classified into the four main categories, which are Misinterpretation of Context in Source Text, Literal Translation Errors, Target Language Errors, and Misinterpretation of Future-Time Expressions in the Source Text. These four main categories demonstrate that Korean translators are likely to make common mistakes because of their common language background about source and target texts, despite their idiosyncratic language abilities. This research is significant in that it not only shows the causes of Korean translators' tense and aspect errors in Korean-English translation, but also indicates what should be done to prevent Korean translators from committing such errors. It provides useful information about what English tense and aspect in particular Korean translators need to be careful about, and in addition, how Korean tense and aspect should be delivered in Korean-English translations.
  • 10.

    An Error Analysis in Word Choices in Korean-English Translation

    Byun Gil-Ja | 2011, 12(4) | pp.263~289 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    It is worthless to mention that selecting correct words in translation is very important because misusing words gives readers wrong information. However, using correct English words is difficult for Korean students because English and Korean belong to different language groups and they are very different in terms of word forms and usage. What is more, they learn English in EFL situation where there is very little authentic language input. Given such facts, it is not surprising for Korean students to make word choice errors when translating Korean source text into English. Accordingly, to reduce word choice errors, it is meaningful to analyse what factors cause word choice errors and in which situations word choice errors happen. For this purpose, this paper analyses lexical errors on the basis of 9 categories (too general, too specific, terminology, register, addition, omission, part of speech, spelling and collocation) from 19 assignments in two different genres translated by Korean students in the first semester of the master degree course of interpreting and translation. As a result of that, it is found that Korean students make lexical errors because of first language transfer and insufficient vocabulary usage knowledge in the target language. To solve the problems, Korean students should focus on studying vocabulary quality such as usage and the different semantic features between the two languages as well as vocabulary quantity. This paper concludes that education which focuses on instruction in vocabulary usage in different contexts, which offers opportunities to practice the usage, and which provides sufficient authentic input should be given in order to translate source texts into target texts with native-like expression.
  • 11.

    Translating Translated Modernism: A Study on English Translation of Yi Sang’s Nalgae

    Seong-Woo Choi | 2011, 12(4) | pp.291~317 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This is a study on the “decontextualization” and “recontextualization” of Korean modernism by way of analyzing Yi Sang’s short story, Nalgae. It is a translation criticism paying attention to translational shifts considering their relevance in conveying the qualities of Korean modernism to the English-speaking readers. Yi Sang’s works are intertwined with Modernism and Korean colonial modernity. During the colonial times, Modernism was definitely imported from the West into Korea through Japan. Korean modernist writers, therefore, mimicked Western and Japanese modernisms, and consciously or unconsciously became ambivalent and mentally hybrid. Yi Sang’s literary works contain these features of Korean modernism—frequent use of foreign words, coined words written in Chinese characters, and literary forms borrowed from Japan, as well as resistance against traditions, trials of experimental techniques, and destruction of old literary forms. This study analyzes two English translations of Nalgae by comparing them with the original, in order to determine whether or not the translators were aware of the unique features of Korean modernism and how they tried to render them into English. It notes the existence of two schizophrenic narrators having different voices in the prologue and in the main story, and pays attention to its effects based on Korean modernism and colonial modernity. The analysis starts by dealing with the first sentence of the story, “‘박제가되어버린천재’를아시오 (Have you ever seen a ‘genius who became a stuffed specimen’?)” This study points out that “genius” refers to the first narrator in the prologue and “stuffed specimen” is the second narrator in the main story. Based on this premise, this study compares and analyzes the two English translated texts, focusing on how the two English versions convey the features of Korean modernism, particularly in revealing the divided self of Korean intellectuals in the colonial society of the 1930s. The schizophrenic nature of the narrator is unveiled through his style of speech and choice of words in Nalgae. The narrator employs distinctively different speech styles in the prologue and in the main story. The intellectual narrator in the prologue uses Sino-Korean and foreign words profusely while the spineless narrator in the main story uses childlike and commonplace words. However, toward the end of the story, he gradually revives the other self, and aches to soar with him towards the ideal world. The divided self with two different voices implies the intellectuals’ ambivalent and hybrid identities frustrated as they are in colonial Korea. Most of the shifts in the English translations seem to have stemmed from the translators’ lack of awareness of the existence of the two narrators or insufficient understanding about the narrators’ characters although the translators have adequate knowledge of Korean and English vocabulary and usages. The Korean readers notice the two different voices through the use of different vocabulary and speech or writing styles in the prologue and in the main story, but the translators seem to have little paid attention to distinctions between the first and the second narrators’ word preferences.