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2012, Vol.13, No.2

  • 1.

    Readers' Role in Translation Criticism in the Internet Age

    Soon Mi Kim | 2012, 13(2) | pp.7~40 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    An increasing number of general readers of translated texts assume the role of translation critics in the internet age. The ascendancy of reader-critics was brought by the enhancement of cultural and linguistic capabilities of readers, an environment allowing an easy access to foreign culture, and the development of telecommunications and internet enabling people to easily distribute their opinions on the web. In this kind of social atmosphere, mega best sellers such as Harry Potter, Da Vinci Code, and Steve Jobs in Korea as well as in other Asian countries were criticized for their low quality of translation and the lack of proper editing by many reader-critics in the past decade. Comparing the source text and the target text, they catalogue mistakes and errors made by translators—judgements made only by scholars or professional critics in the past. This paper conducted a research on the critical comments posted on the web by translation readers. This kind of comparative criticism by readers has shortcomings as it considers the source text sacred while puts the target text in the lower and submissive position and berates translators as incompetent or ignorant. But, the expansion of readers' role has brought a new era where not just scholars, publishing companies, and policy makers but readers can affect how the translation is done.
  • 2.

    Translation Classroom Communication: An action-research based study on the relations between the translation briefs and translations of postgraduate students

    김진숙 | 2012, 13(2) | pp.41~63 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to identify the notions postgraduate learners have on translation and observe how learners and teachers communicate in the classroom. Although the difference in one’s notion of translation will significantly affect the translation process and eventually the translation s/he produces, there has been a lack of discussion on this in the translation classroom. In particular, teachers and students have different notions of what translation is and, thus, do not share the same understanding on a given translation situation or a translation product. Naturally, this negatively affects the final translation products students produce as well as sets a ceiling as to what teachers and students can achieve in the classroom. To identify the notions students have on translation, ten learners were subjected to this study and divided into two groups. Each group was given a translation task with a different translation purpose—“translation pedagogy (professional translation according to Deisle 2002, 229)" and “pedagogical translation”—in order to identify what translation strategies learners use depending on a given translation purpose. For every translation assignment, students were instructed to submit translation briefs detailing the target readership, target text-type (or medium), translation purpose as well as the translation problems they identified along with the solutions they came up with. Based on their description, it was explored whether there were differences on their translation notion and whether such differences, if any, affected their translations. After the first assignment was completed, a second assignment was given to the students for which the translation purpose was switched between the two groups. In other words, the group that first worked on “translation pedagogy” switched to pedagogical translation, and vice versa. The analysis reveals that the translation briefs drawn up by students is a useful tool to better understand translation learners. The study also shows that producing different translations based on the same source text with different translation purposes can enhance student understanding of the translator’s role. Finally, having students practise translation by reflecting what has been discussed in the previous class helps the teacher identify whether the students have learned and, therefore, enables deeper understanding on the communication process in the translation classroom.
  • 3.

    A Diachronic Examination of the Korean Translations of Poil de Carotte: Issues Regarding Translations for Children

    Sunheui Park | 2012, 13(2) | pp.65~88 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Poil de Carotte (Hongdangmou in Korean), generally known as a children’s story, is a French autobiographical novel of the writer, Jules Renard, based on childhood memories of being unloved by his mother. The focus of some episodes of this novel is not only on the mother who abuses her son, but also on the violent child who cruelly kills small animals. These episodes in Poil de Carotte, call for a caveat as to their suitability for a children’s story. If one considers that one purpose of children’s literature is the protection of children’s emotions and if propriety in language teaching for child readers must be observed, then some translation strategies must be employed to relieve the cruelty and violence of the original text to make Poil de Carotte an appropriate novel for children. In this study, we examined the diachrony of the translation methods in the Korean versions of Poil de Carotte by comparing the past and present versions published from the 1970s until the 2000s. We investigated if this diachrony was in accordance with the features appropriate for the target readers by comparing adult and child versions. Finally, we examined its readability and its suitability for child readers, from an educational perspective, by focusing on the tense of narration, the tone of the character portrayal, and the clarity of euphemisms in the translated versions.
  • 4.

    The Analysis of “Ah(雅)”, Translation Theory of Yan Fu

    Son, Jibong | 2012, 13(2) | pp.89~111 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is to disclose the meaning of “Ah(雅), the translation theory of Yan Fu,” which has come under intense scrutiny in academia. Yan Fu, a scholar of ancient literary writings of Dong Sung School, was a translator of modern Western studies and translation theorist. Shindalah (信達雅), the translation theory of Yan Fu, has been the focus of academic debate since Tang Dynasty. It is a unique theory of translation built on the three principles of translation advocated by Taylor. Whereas Taylor set great store by the loyalty to the original text, Yan Fu emphasized readability, arguing that deviation from the original text is possible if it helps to convey the original meaning. Yan Fu said that Ah(雅) is about rendering the Western literature, product of two thousand years of discrete culture into oriental language. Students of his theory have held the view that Ah is more important than “Shin(信, faithfulness)”and “Dal(達, mastery).” They thought that translator should have a full grasp of the original text before rendering in an easy-to-comprehend manner to the readers, which requires capability, efforts and creativity of the translators. Yan Fu classified the degree of understanding of the original text into superficial, general and fundamental understanding and the level of translated version into a level produced by best efforts, a level enough to convey the original meaning to the readers and a level that can have an extensive impact on the wide strata of readers. Ah is a level that befits the translation born of deep understanding of the original so that it can have an impact on wide strata of readers.
  • 5.

    Hedging in Persuasive Text: Approach from English-Korean Translation

    Jin-won Shin | 2012, 13(2) | pp.113~138 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    In persuasive texts, how to effectively convey propositional contents can be a determining factor to achieving the aim of text act. Hedging is adopted as one of key communicative strategies for such efficient message delivery. It is important for translators to understand the role of hedges and motivations behind writers’ hedgy language, and to make use of this knowledge in their translating work. Nonetheless, due to its culture-dependent and context-dependent quality, translators are highly unlikely to notice hedging expressions clearly and to translate them with strategic approaches. But translating work without understanding the meaning potential and function of hedgy language can easily lead to changing ST writers’ attitude or often translators’ own stance into being more assertive or less assertive; and more subjective or more objective. This paper attempts to apply this complicated but significant concept to translation study, aiming at helping translators much aware of hedging and thereby convey text messages with efficiency. To achieve the aim, this paper examines hedging expressions extracted from Newsweek's columns and their translations, regarded as one of key persuasive text types. The research result of this case study clearly shows how ST writers' or translators' attitudes can be influenced in their translation by the translators' strategic choice.
  • 6.

    A Study of Text Difficulty Analysis for Translation Text

    Lee Migyong | 2012, 13(2) | pp.139~164 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract PDF
    The texts used in translation classes are generally selected by instructors who rely on their intuition and experiences as professional translators to make the choices. Regretfully, such method of selection may not be based on any systematic criteria to ensure that those texts are suitable for students with regard to text difficulty as well as topics. This study analyzes the difficulty level of fourteen texts used in a Korean-English translation class taking two different approaches: readability formula and student survey. First, Readability Formula is an objective measurement of reading ease by tallying factors such as vocabulary and sentence length. Second, students who translated these texts were given a survey to evaluate translation difficulty of each text in six different categories including TT equivalent, ST comprehension, and terminology. Then, the two evaluations are compared to analyze factors influencing translation difficulty of texts. A suggestion is made, based on the findings, on an applicable criteria for determining text difficulty for translation education.
  • 7.

    Korean Translation of English Participle-derived Adverbials

    Lee Young-Ok | 2012, 13(2) | pp.165~184 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this paper is to verify the difference between the verb-oriented Korean and noun-oriented English by examining the problems of translating English adverbials derived from present or past participles into Korean. Basically Korean is different from English in representing the interpersonal relationship between the speaker and the hearer through various grammatical devices including sentential endings, special honorific vocabulary items, as well as various sentence adverbs. In English most of these interpersonal information is provided by metalinguistic elements like sentence adverbs or other grammatical mechanisms fit to the English characteristics of noun-orientedness such as adjectival modifiers or prepositional phrases. With relative dearth of plain adverbs, English has developed the adverb-producing process, thus making a farily large group of derived adverbs based on the participle forms of verbs. These participle-derived adverbs are used to describe the speaker's speech act or nonverbal communicative behaviors; they provide a kind of interpretation for the verbal or nonverbal communicative behaviors. As the Korean does not have an equivalent grammatical device for such participle-derived adverbs, various strategies of translation should be figured out. In many cases, the Korean translation of English participle-derived adverbs adopt the reporting frame even though the original English sentences do not contain speech-act verbs. Cultural consideration will be necessary for some deeper explanation.
  • 8.

    ‘Autonomy’ in Children’s Literature Translation: Focusing on Korean Translations of Dickens's A Christmas Carol

    Inkyu Lee | 2012, 13(2) | pp.185~208 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Refuting Venuti’s definition of the autonomy of translation as “the textual features and operations or strategies that distinguish it”(Venuti 2004: 5) from the non-translational texts, this paper finds the autonomy of translation in the essential condition of translational action itself: the vast textual possibility for a translation of a source text. Based on this position, this paper examines how much autonomy a translator can exercise in the translation of children’s literature, focusing on three Korean translations of Charles Dickens’s A Christmas Carol. The close examination of the three Korean translations of A Christmas Carol shows that translators’ autonomous textual intervention happens in many different ways. These textual transformations are classified under four main categories: reduction, expansion, simplification, and manipulation. Reduction includes omissions and condensation, while expansion consists of additions and over-translation. And simplification comprises sentence-breaking and paraphrasing, while manipulation implies bold transformations by free interpretation or creative domestication. The three Korean translations of A Christmas Carol, compared with the most recent translation for adult readers, turn out to contain a very wide range of translational autonomy. Especially, one of them carries out this freedom far more actively and expansively than the others, to the extent of becoming so-called ‘an unfaithful beauty.’
  • 9.

    A Study on the Korean Translation of Tao Te Ching’s Chapter 78

    Lee JongSang | 2012, 13(2) | pp.209~226 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    There are many Korean translations of the former part(以其無以易之) of the Tao Te Ching’ Chapter 78. But there is a great difference in meaning among the translations, so we can not decide which translation is correct. The objectives of this study are to investigate why the meanings of translations differ according to translators and to try to translate it newly. The main reason why there is a difference in meaning among the translations is difference in the interpretation of a character ‘易’. They interpretate ‘易’ as a meaning of ‘change’, ‘ease’ and ‘replace’. But they take a sentence out of context, so all translations is illogical. They all don’t pause between 無 and 以, so they interpret ‘無以’ as ‘not’ or ‘can not’. Because it is of mistake not to pause 無 and 以, we should pause 無 and 以 to interpret ‘無以’ correctly. When we pause ‘無’ and ‘以’ and supplement the ellipsis of subject and object, the interpretation of ‘無 以’ is ∼not having the form, so~. In accordance with our result of study, we can translate the front part of Chapter 78 of the Tao Te Ching as follows; ‘Nothing in the world is softer and weaker than water. Yet nothing is better at attacking the hard and strong. For water has no fixed form so that the form of water can be changed easily.
  • 10.

    Cultural Competence in Translation and Interpretation: Based on an Empirical Study

    Chang Ai Li | 2012, 13(2) | pp.227~264 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study is a follow-up to the investigation "Cultural Competence in Translation and Interpretation: Focusing on a Theoretical Approach." A survey was conducted in order to test the validity and reliability of the concept and components of cultural competence constructed by the researcher based on a theoretical approach. Through an operational definition of the theoretical research and a pilot survey, a research tool was developed and an online questionnaire survey was performed involving a total of 242 professional translators and interpreters. Through the survey, the validity and reliability of the components which consist of cultural competence were verified: cultural understanding, cultural mediation, and cultural transfer abilities. The findings of the survey also show that these three abilities are interconnected, thus converging into a comprehensive concept of cultural competence. It was also found that varying differences in the perception and practice of cultural competence emerge, depending on personal backgrounds of the subjects and particular translation and interpreting activities they are involved in.
  • 11.

    Evaluation of translation curriculum development: Based on Market demand Analysis

    Cheol Ja Jeong | 2012, 13(2) | pp.265~282 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to evaluate the validity of a translation curriculum through market demand analysis. The translation curriculum was introduced as part of the curriculum reform at a graduate school of interpretation and translation considered to be one of the most representative T&I schools in Korea. The purpose of the curriculum reform was to specialize programs, and the school offered new translation units in the translation curriculum. After the curriculum was developed by the school’s faculty, following the objective-oriented curriculum development model, the translation business data collected from the T&I Center attached to the school were analyzed to evaluate the validity of the translation curriculum. The results of the analysis showed that the school’s decision to introduce the translation curriculum in English only offering such units as Translation in Korean Studies, Humanities, and Social Studies well reflected the demands of the institutional translation market, but further research of the translation markets for printing and media businesses is required to validate other units in the translation curriculum.