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2012, Vol.13, No.4

  • 1.

    A Research on Translators’ Self-Image through Translators’ Epilogues: A Perspective from Translation Sociology

    Kim Youngshin | 2012, 13(4) | pp.7~27 | number of Cited : 17
    Abstract PDF
    The Scopos theory, with its priority on the functions and purposes of translation texts, overthrew a deep-rooted hierarchy between Source Texts and Target Texts. Translator studies now presents another ground-breaking insight, arguing that texts, both STs and TTs, are secondary and the primary interest should be directed to translating agents, human translators. Given the relative invisibility of translators as an occupation, they have hardly been a focus of academic research. Based on such realization, the current study aims to analyze the self-image as perceived by translators, drawing on translators’ epilogues and interviews with the media. Translator’s epilogues, as text types, are unique, since they are the types of discourse where translators can legitimately become "authors". The research into such unique texts will throw some enlightening light on such themes as translator visibility and translator self-image. We have seen that translators’ epilogues can provide the teloi of translators, that is, why they have decided to translate the given text or why they are involved in the field of translation. Translator’s epilogues also provide a space when translators discuss translation strategies, reveal power relations with publishers, express their self image, and even exhibit personal feelings towards authors. The findings of the study appear to support the general picture of translators as a relatively low prestige profession in the Korean society.
  • 2.

    Trends in Chinese Translation Research

    Hye-Rim Kim | 2012, 13(4) | pp.29~54 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    In the history of humankind, translation has always played a role in exchange and communication between cultures. This was particularly true in times of rapid social change and development of new civilizations and ideologies, when the introduction of ideas and spread of civilization through translation proceeded at a rapid pace. China went through two great periods of cultural exchange in its history, namely when Indian culture and Western culture were introduced to the country respectively, in the process of which translation played a crucial role. With the objective of studying the flow of translation research in China, this paper looks at the two main translation theory streams of those times—traditional translation theory, which began with the translation of Buddhist sutras, and the diverse translation theories that formed when many schools of thought entered China with the introduction of Western translation theory—and thereby examines trends in Chinese translation research focusing on formation, changes, and development of theory.
  • 3.

    Drama Translation and Rewriting —Focusing on Beso de la Mujer Araña—

    Park So Young | 2012, 13(4) | pp.55~79 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    The present study aims to consider the genre-specific characteristics of drama translation based on the concept of ‘rewriting’. Together with novel and poetry, drama constitutes one of the three main literary genres. Nevertheless, little discussion has been made on this specific genre. As a rule, drama, as well as novel and poetry, is translated by professional translators to be later published. However, theater professionals often translate the script into draft. Such rough drafts serve as STs(Source Texts), which are in turn reproduced into numerous TTs(Target Texts), or namely scripts. Hence, the initial ST-TT1 relation corresponds to the interlingual translation regarded as the translation proper in the established translation studies. However, the relations between script TT1 availed as the new ST, and the scripts, such as TT2, TT3 and so on that are based on the new ST, or TT1, are intralingual rewritings, regarding which in-depth discussions are going on under the name of adaptation in theatre studies, rather than in translation studies. Yet, drama is a genre of significant cultural impact as archetypal content on account of its dialogical texts, which is easily convertible to films, soap operas and musicals, in contrast to narrative texts. Moreover, when overseas dramas are imported, translation becomes more critical than in any other genre as the first script translated acts as the original for other scripts, stressing the need for specific discussions for drama translations. For the above reasons this study analyzes the rewriting of Beso de la Mujer Araña of the argentine writer Manuel Puig, subdividing it into rewriting between different genres, interlingual rewirting and intralingual rewriting to describe its characteristics. This study pretends to focus on drama translation so to describe the genre specifics of a drama translation. As a result of the study, it was found out that in the intergenre rewriting, reduction-oriented rewriting was used for a successful communication, and rubrics are inserted for concrete representation of the nonverbal attributes of drama. In the interlingual rewriting, basically, it has been shown that rewriting is faithful to its original. In this process, frequent translation errors were found in unpublished scripts. In the intra-lingual rewriting, a freer rewriting occurred as directors tried to better define the relations and personalities of the characters. Notably, honorifics changed in this type of rewriting and less errors were detected compared with interlingual rewriting. These rewriting processes have one thing in common: compared with novel translation, drama translation takes into further account the acceptability by the target audience in its target culture for an efficient communication, being represented in a more effective and explicit manner.
  • 4.

    Log-linear Regression Analysis of Interpreted Sentences: With focus on Korean-to-English consecutive interpretation

    phunil park | 2012, 13(4) | pp.81~104 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper uses log-linear regression analysis to investigate whether there are any statistically significant interaction effects among the four selected categorical variables in Korean-to-English consecutive interpretation: S=Subject (student or interpreter); O=Overseas experience (less than two years or more than two years in majority English-speaking countries); L=Level of original text (easy or difficult); and T=Type of sentences (simple, complex, compound, or compound-complex). The present study also examines the uttered sentences by applying various readability indexes, such as the Flesch-Kincaid grade level, Gunning Fog, and Dale-Chall formula, to explore the complexity of the produced speeches. Our log-linear analysis demonstrates with statistical significance that the observed ratio of simple to complex sentences differs between students who have lived more than two years in majority English-speaking countries and those who have not. Furthermore, it is shown that such difference based on overseas experience does not exist among professional interpreters.
  • 5.

    The universal language and translative space

    Junga Shin | Yong Ho Choi | 2012, 13(4) | pp.105~131 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study proposes a concept of translative space, according to which we would like to reexamine the validity of the notion of universal language in Translation Studies. Our working hypothesis is that universal language is a background-language against which this or that figure-language takes form and shape. By translative space, we mean especially three things: border space, indeterminate space and potential space. Border space is a space opening up while translating from one language into another. From a semantic point of view, this space remains indeterminate until a decision has been taken. In other words, this space is full of potentialities, from which follows the conclusion that a retranslation is always possible. Our main idea is that the universal-particular dialectic which determines the debate on the possibility of universal language is to be reformulated in terms of background-figure dialectic. From this perspective, we attempt to translate the concept of pure language by Benjamin in terms of background-language.
  • 6.

    A study on applying TED subtitles to undergraduate translation course

    안미영 | 2012, 13(4) | pp.133~158 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    Based on literature reviews regarding the role of translator as communicator, the paper proposes to bring media subtitle into translation pedagogy, with the use of task-based class activities as an interface between the translation pedagogy and communicative role of translator. After drawing on the researches regarding the communicative competence of translators, the author discusses the reasons why it believes the use of TED speech subtitles can be compatible with translation pedagogy’s goal of strengthening the translator’s communicative competence. Then, the author illustrates the application of a task-based class activities by framing the task into the class components that consist of goal, input, setting and procedural steps. In the final session, it presents the task-based sample translation class to illustrate the discussion.
  • 7.

    English-Korean Translational Strategies of ‘Be Being + Predicative Adjective’ Constructions: An Analysis of an English-Korean Parallel Corpus

    SeungAhLee | 2012, 13(4) | pp.159~183 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    In both English and Korean, state predicates such as be tall and khuta ‘be tall’ generally disallow the progressive aspect. However, in English, but not in Korean, certain cases arise where the be plus predicative adjective combination can occur in progressive constructions. Specifically, whenever the progressive is used with the be plus predicative adjective or noun combination, the goings-on indicated by these types of expressions are always interpreted agentively. That is, the verb be may be used as a dynamic verb when there is a sense in which it is interpreted agentively. For example, He is being stupid may be paraphrased as ‘He is acting in a stupid manner.’The present study examines English-Korean translational strategies of ‘be being + predicative adjective’ constructions, as this is an area where a grammatical mismatch exists between the source and target languages. To this end, a parallel corpus analysis was conducted using the Harry Potter series, which consists of seven fantasy novels. Among the 36 translated sentences analyzed and classified, 22 (61.1%) were regarded as preserving the meaning of the source texts (STs), whereas the remaining 14 (38.9%) were considered to be cases where interventions were made by the translator. Of the 22 meaning-preserving translations, the most prevalent translation strategy turned out to be the substitution of a dynamic verb for the be plus predicative adjective combination (36.4%). Other strategies included the addition of a verb with the meaning ‘to act’ in the target texts (TTs, 22.7%), the addition of a noun with the meaning ‘action’ in the TTs (13.6%), the addition of a time adverbial implying temporary behavior in the TTs (4.5%), and so on. The use of a parallel corpus in the study of translational strategies provides a means of resolving systematic mismatches between languages that present particular difficulties for meaning-preserving translations. It also sheds additional light on the problems translators may face during the actual translation process.
  • 8.

    Measuring the ‘message’ —A cognitive and text linguistic approach—

    Hyeyeon Chung | 고효정 | 2012, 13(4) | pp.185~209 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    ‘Message’, as it was defined by Seleskovitch (1968), has been regarded as ‘the’ keyword of interpretation mechanism. The main thesis of ‘theory of sense,’ which is one of the most prominent theories of interpretation (Interpretation is not a substitution of the words but creating and delivering messages) makes this point clearly. This paper will first redefine - as it is not an academic term - and characterize the concept of ‘message’ within the cognitive and text linguistic context. Then, the discussion will try to develop a Message Measurement Tool (MMT). The MMT consists of the test categories of ‘intention’, ‘situation’, ‘contents’, and ‘structure’ as well as having its own evaluating system. This paper will aim to examine the reliability of MMT, by means of a pretest. Three female college students, each 22 years of age, were tested for their message creating ability with MMT through both written and oral modes. The results of this test were compared with their actual interpreting performance which was carried out a month later. This pretest demonstrated a high correlation between the two tests, especially between the oral part of MMT and the interpreting test. This paper concludes with suggestions to improve the MMT in future studies.
  • 9.

    The aspects of Korean and Japanese translation appeared in machine translation —negative expression orientation—

    최영수 | 2012, 13(4) | pp.211~233 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This study has analyzed comparisons of two countries’ negative expressions by examining translation patterns and usage analysis between, and translation script modified by professional translator when Korean negation and negative expressions were translated into Japanese. The machine translation between Korean and Japanese, compare to other languages, shows relatively high accuracy as similarity between grammars and structures of two languages yet, it is true that numerous error occurs, and a lot more to be modified and improved. Particularly in case of large quantity of translations, such as technical document translation, newspaper articles, are primarily translated by machine translation and edited by professional translators for partial errors. In this case, this might lead to devaluation of a quality of translations with monotonous expressions. It is also hard to expect high-quality translations as it was influenced by machine translation rather than original translations. Japanese tends to prefer indirect expressions as they usually avoid direct expressions. The negative sentences from two countries, Korea and Japan, can aptly changeable by modifying predicate into negative forms. However, Korean and Japanese are different as its frequency, usages and structure of negative sentence according to an in-depth research. This study examined the comparative analysis concentrated on negative sentences and expressions of Korean and Japanese from newspaper editorials (Dong-A, Joong-Ang) extracted for a month quantity each. And this study not only excerpted negative sentences from original and translation but also selected the sentences contain negation and negative expression in negative sentences as well as predicates. Also this is focused on negative expressions between machine translations and translator translations from extracted negative sentences. Since machine translation has certain rules, it translated regardless of difference in means. It is highly expected to see maximum effect and minimize time and effort consumed in translation by improving and solving the problem of machine translation. This study on machine translation is expected to be utilized as translation strategy, technical document completions and reference of Japanese composition for purpose of education.
  • 10.

    A Qualitative Analysis of Interpreters’ Sight Translation Experience and Pedagogic Suggestions

    Hong, Sul young | 2012, 13(4) | pp.235~267 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Sight translation serves various functions within graduate-level conference interpreting programs. It is at once a tool for selecting interpreters, a pre-exercise for refining consecutive and simultaneous interpreting skills, and a form of professional interpreting in its own right. Calling for more focused and comprehensive training of sight translation as a form of interpreting to future interpreters, this paper attempts to identify aspects of interpreters’ sight translation within the context of their everyday practice. To this end, an open-ended questionnaire survey was conducted to 31 interpreters with Korean and English as their working languages. Questions were raised in areas involving the degree of exposure to sight translation, text types and modes of interpreting that are linked with the act, graduate-level sight translation training received, and pedagogic suggestions. Based on a qualitative analysis of the responses, areas for strengthening the teaching and learning of sight translation is proposed.
  • 11.

    Power Relations among News Translation Participants in South Korea: A Proposal for Revision to Shoemaker’s Gatekeeping Model

    Hong Jung Min | 2012, 13(4) | pp.269~301 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    This paper looks into the interactions and power relations among the professionals engaged in news translation as gatekeepers in South Korea in an attempt to propose a plausible and realistic model to explain the country’s news translation environment. Semi-structured interviews with five news translation participants, including in-house translator, reporter, editor and desk at as many news organizations operating in the nation, revealed vertical and asymmetrical power relations among them, where (1) desks, with greatest authority, control almost every stage of news translation process; (2) in-house translators and reporters have relatively smaller power while freelance translators and editors hold the least say. Notably, the second finding is against the author’s expectation that editors may be given more authority than translators, indicating that the definition of an editor involved in news translation in South Korea is close to a proofreader whose main job is minor linguistic adjustment, far from the definition of an editor in the mass communication studies which is often associated with more drastic modification and reorganization of texts, and sometimes managerial and policy-making responsibility for the editorial part of a newspaper, magazine or other publication. Based on the findings, this paper proposed a revision to Shoemaker’s gatekeeping model(1991), which is seen as a more recent and comprehensive gatekeeping model. More specifically, the proposed model effectively illustrates the unequal power relations among news translation participants by using varying size and thickness of figures, while Shoemaker’s one pays little attention to the different degrees of authority. This study is significant in two aspects. First of all, it will help prospective professionals in the news translation better understand and prepare for the actual working environment. Secondly, it will facilitate interdisciplinary approach between the Translation studies and communication research by providing useful and valuable data on the nation’s news translation practice which will be relevant to both areas.