The Journal of Translation Studies 2021 KCI Impact Factor : 1.37

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2013, Vol.14, No.1

  • 1.

    Translation of Children’s Picture Book as Iconotext: Focusing on the Domestication of Illustrations

    Dohun Kim | 2013, 14(1) | pp.7~29 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Translating children’s picture book is a complex and dynamic activity, as it deals with a non-conventional text type which involves both words and graphic devices. In other words, children’s picture book is a type of iconotext in which two individual text components-words and illustrations-complement and react with each other and form a new and dynamic text. Of course, this exceptional nature of the genre provides dynamism as well as hardship to the process of translation, as the target text will have to re-balance the relationship and interaction of the two major text constituents. This paper purports to expand the current literature on the translation of children’s picture book by examining it in the framework of iconotext. It will explore the multi-dimensional and multi-faceted relations between words and illustrations and examine how such devices contribute to forming a completed text and to delivering message in an effective manner. With a clear understanding of the iconocity of the children’s picture book, this paper then seeks to stress the need to adjust or domesticate source text illustrations in the process of translation. Examples of domesticated illustrations will be presented and their roles and contributions will be studied. In addition, non-domesticated illustrations-but which should have been domesticated indeed-will also be presented, so as to show the non-equivalence and incompleteness of text caused by lack of efforts to re-balance the target words and illustrations. It is of notable interest that only the words have received attention in the translation practice as well as in the translation studies. The author hopes the research will contribute to triggering further discussion on the translation of children’s picture book from the iconotext perspective.
  • 2.

    How Much Do Quantitative Factors Affect Qualitative Analyses in Corpus-based Translation Studies?

    Jeong-Woo Kim | 2013, 14(1) | pp.31~98 | number of Cited : 11
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims at elucidating what size of corpus can produce the reliable qualitative analyses when the parallel corpus, composed of English original and Korean translated texts, is used. To reach the goal, we have divided the size of corpus into 5 levels from a quarter-million to one million (phonological) words. At each level, the number of words has been increased by one hundred fifty thousand words, i.e., 250,000, 400,000, 550,000, 700,000, 850,000, and 1,000,000 words. Then, we have examined the major differences between the levels. The results obtained from our investigation are as follows:First, with reference to the translation source of the Korean bound noun ttaemun(reason or ground), the zero-morph translation is most frequent in a quarter-million corpus level, while the frequency of the conjunctive translation is the highest in the seven hundred thousand corpus level. This indicates that at least, the corpus size of seven hundred thousand words is necessary to get a meaningful analysis of the bound noun ttaemun. Second, although the differences between the five levels are not significant, the translation of the long-form causative construction becomes more frequent in the seven hundred thousand corpus level while the frequency of the text-free translation decreases more or less. Third, in the case of the translation source of the Korean conjunctive geureona(but), the translation frequency of conjunctive ‘but’ increases by 20 percent in the four hundred thousand corpus level while the translation of either zero morph or conjunctive ‘however’ decreases by 10 percent in the same corpus level. On the other hand, in the case of the Korean conjunctive hajiman(yet or but), certain significant change of translation frequency occurs in the five hundred fifty thousand corpus level. Finally, concerning the translation of the English dash mark ‘-’ into Korean, the five hundred fifty corpus level shows a significant result. For example, the dash mark disappears in many Korean texts, or the contents after the dash mark is rewritten as a new Korean sentence. In conclusion, the reasonable size of corpus, which can be developed into a hypothesis or theory, can vary from four hundred thousand words minimally to seven hundred thousand words maximally according to our investigation. Futhermore, the corpus size over seven hundred thousand words does not make any difference on the qualitative analyses of the 4 items thoroughly investigated in this paper.
  • 3.

    The Voice Choice and Intervention of the Translation Learner: Focus on the Japanese-Korean Translation Analysis as to the Legal Text Specialized Terms

    Park, Mi-Jung | 2013, 14(1) | pp.99~125 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    It is an important task for the translator how to translate specialized terms in specialized texts such as medical volumes or legal documents. For example, the translator has to choose the translation style whether to translate into familiar and general terms such as ‘mad cow disease,’ or into difficult technical terms such as ‘BSE.’ Indeed, at the online Japanese translation site of the 3 large daily newspaper in Korea, the translator chooses a different style for the text under the same ‘translation brief’ such as an article translated into (TT) ‘mad cow disease(ST)’ à and an article into ‘BSE’ (牛海綿状脳症) (TT). Even at the legal document, the translator must decide whether to translate into ‘liable spouse’ or ‘liable spouse (a spouse liable to the failure of marriage)’ a style common people can understand easily. Like this, the translator comes to intervene in the translation either consciously or unconsciously. Mossop explains the intervention by the translator as 3 ‘voices’ as follow. That is, ‘my voice’ à ‘Neutralizing’ (the voice of the translator), ‘your voice’ à ‘Ventriloquizing’ (the voice of readers) and ‘her voice’ à ‘Distancing’ (the voice of SL author). This paper aims at analyzing and stating the Japanese-Korean translation of the legal text translated by the students of Korea University of Foreign Language Graduate School of Interpretation and Translation in the translation courses on the basis of 3 ‘voices’ of Mossop. Especially, we will review how ‘the voices (translation styles)’ designed by the students change as to the legal text in detail from the view of the voice theory mentioned above.
  • 4.

    Goguryeo Tombs: Translation of the Names and the Geopolitical Implications of Chinese Romanization

    Park Hyunju | 2013, 14(1) | pp.127~154 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to raise the issue of the geopolitical implications of translating materials dealing with cultural heritage via the example of Romanization of the names of tombs of the ancient Goguryeo Kingdom (?-668) of Korea. The paper begins with a short introduction to the ancient Goguryeo mural tombs currently located in North Korea and the northeastern part of China, including their significance in Korean history and as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Then, the paper looks into the geopolitical implications of using the Chinese Romanization scheme in translating the names of Gogurye tombs: the reader may be led to perceive the Korean heritage as belonging to China, which is in line with China’s ongoing efforts to integrate the history of its neighbors into its own. The article then proceeds to examine how the names of two particular Goguryeo tombs (Jangcheon and Tonggu) have been translated (i.e. Romanized) and whether any materials produced by Korean government agencies are using the Chinese Romanization scheme. The final section examines web-based databases (e.g. dictionary and thesaurus) provided by Korean government organizations as translation aids, and suggests improvements that will lead the user to Romanize the names of Goguryeo tombs following the Korean Romanization system rather than the Chinese one.
  • 5.

    Language Directionality and Omission as Strategy during Simultaneous Interpreting

    Lee Migyong | 2013, 14(1) | pp.155~181 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Simultaneous interpreting involves a complex deployment of concomitant tasks for which the interpreter needs to strategically allocate her available processing capacity to transfer Source Language message into Target Language. According to studies, simultaneous interpreters are able to carry out different tasks under severe time constraints characteristic to simultaneous mode of interpreting attributable to working memory span and strategies to overcome time constraint. In the course of strategically allocating limited amount of working memory for different tasks, the interpreter will search for ways to use minimum amount of processing efforts for maximum meaning delivery, which will be manifested in her Target Language re-expression. The aim of this study is to explore how interpreters are utilizing omission as a strategy during simultaneous interpreting process by examining omissions that occur in actual conference interpreting data by 4 conference interpreters. For the study, authentic data was collected from an international conference hosted in Seoul. The types of omissions, their frequencies as well as possible cause of their occurrences are examined. In addition, interpreting data of Korean into English and English into Korean are compared to see the implications of language directionality on interpreters’ choice of strategies for re-expression. Although some of the time saving strategies used by interpreters seemed to violate the principle of faithfulness in interpreting, the strategies helped interpreters overcome time constraints and ease cognitive load as well as enhance the communicative relevance of Target Language expression.
  • 6.

    Translation and Reception of Culture-based Humor in a Video Game: A Case Study of StarCraft II

    Lee, Sang-Bin | 2013, 14(1) | pp.183~210 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine whether literally translated humor in a localized video game can be understood and appreciated by target-culture game players. The main focus of attention is on Verbally Expressed Humor (VEH) whose humorous elements are based almost entirely on cultural references. Cultural references refer to intertextual features that are rooted in and tied to a specific culture, especially those related to films, books, celebrities, songs, etc. This study is based on the hypothesis that: (1) if culture-based VEH in a video game is translated literally, the target-culture game players will have difficulty in understanding and appreciating the translated humor for lack of knowledge of source culture and (2) if target-culture game players declare they understood certain instances of culture-based VEH, such response will be a personal, individualized reinterpretation of the humor, not the intended humor response. To examine this hypothesis, the researcher discussed illustrative examples of culture-based VEH in StarCraft II and conducted a comparative questionnaire survey of source- and target-culture game players on whether the two respondent groups understand the intended humorous elements in their respective versions.
  • 7.

    Plausibility & Evaluation of Korea National Tourism Translation Center: From a Perspective of Translation Academics

    Lee Seung Jae , Kim Chulwon | 2013, 14(1) | pp.211~241 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    In-bound tourists visiting Korea have constantly increased spreading Korean Wave to the world since 2003, and finally it reached the 1,000 million in 2012. The acceleration of Korean Wave to the other sectors not restricted to the mass culture contributes to the national image of Korea as well as becomes an engine of attracting overseas tourists. Despite increased in-bound tourists, it still needs the proper communication not only in the areas of transferring information such as signs, brochures, and leaflets, but also in promotion of overseas tourists. In particular, the absence of managing the entire process of translation – Romanization of Korean to English or to other languages, the guidelines for translating and proofreading, and etc. - makes overseas tourists confused and depreciates the image of Korea. Anticipating 2,000 million in-bound tourists, this paper is concerned with the validity and necessity of establishing the national tourism translation center mainly from a perspective of the academics and professionals. This paper surveyed 90 professionals in translation on (1) the distinguishing factors between general translation and tourism translation, (2) the requirements of tourism translators, and (3) the administration policy of the tourism translation organization that is founded by the government. Based on the survey results, this paper concludes that the national tourism translation center is imminent not only for controlling the translation quality including systemizing the data and producing promotional materials but also training qualified professional translators for tourism.
  • 8.

    A Comparative Study of Translation Studies Terms and Translation Types in Korea and Japan

    Eunyong Lee | 2013, 14(1) | pp.243~273 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper focuses on a comparative study of the current use of translation studies terms and translation types in Korea and Japan. The study made an analysis of translation studies terms found in theses and books related to translation studies in Korea and Japan. As most academic terms came from Japan to Korea in the past, translation in Korea was largely done by borrowing terms translated in Japan and then doing a transliteration of the terms. Compared to this method, translation studies terms were accepted as a new field of study by Korea and Japan respectively and accordingly translated to fit in to the political, economic, cultural and social environment surrounding the language of each country. A comparison of translation studies terms of the two countries in this study showed that Korea used a greater number of terms for the same concept than Japan did. The reason may be that Korea has less experience in standardization of academic terminology than Japan. Another comparison of translation types showed that Japan used more loan words than Korea. This can be seen as reflecting the difference in the present use of languages between the two countries: The Japanese language recognizes more loan words in its basic vocabulary than the Korean language does. This study is significant in that it has provided a basis for understanding not only the difference in the current use of translation studies terms and translation types through a comparative study of Korea and Japan but also the background to such difference.
  • 9.

    An Essay on Wonhyo’s Hwajaeng and Translational Humanities

    Sung-Gi Jon | 2013, 14(1) | pp.275~300 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Translational humanities are a project, in which we have been engaged for several years, that aims at renewing our poor and infertile translation culture in the field of the humanities. It seems to us that it must have something to do with the actual crisis in the humanities studies. In this article, we shall explain first what is the task of translational humanities (section 2), and then we will describe briefly how we can achieve this task (section 3). But in order to handle well this task, we need and have to reconsider basically how the humanities should be studied, differently from what we have been doing, for too long, heavily influenced by the American and European humanities. What we have found in this reconsideration is Wonhyo’s hwajaeng, and this hwajaeng method developed by the famous Buddhist philosopher serves as the theoretical basis of our proposition for the new academic studies. Through three sections, we will present the historical background of Wonhyo’s hwajaeng (section 4), his scholarly attainments and academic studies in line with his hwajaeng concept (section 5), and several related studies on his achievements through his famous triad «ilsim­hwajaeng­muae» (section 6). In our last section, we will stress on the aspects of translational humanities as communicative humanities and as rhetoric of enigma. Finally, we shall conclude by advising to approach translational humanities following the road of Wonhyo’s hwajaeng as closely as possible. This endeavor will lead us to the paradigm shifting translational turn of the humanities studies in Korea.
  • 10.

    Omission Strategies in TV News Translation

    정나영 | 2013, 14(1) | pp.301~329 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    TV news translators adopt various translation strategies such as omission, addition, reorganization and summarization to cater for the needs of target TV news audience. In this regard, there is a growing consensus that TV news translation should be studied from the perspective of transediting, a coined term of translation and editing, which has long been used in the publishing field. This paper also adopted the concept of transediting to look into TV news translation strategies in depth. In particular, this paper focused on omission strategies given that target texts are in many cases shorter than source texts in TV news translation. The text analysis showed TV news translators frequently omitted pun or jokes, irrelevant information for Korean viewers, and information that can easily be conveyed through images. They also omitted interviews which are too short, not very consistent with the flow of the report, and contain little information. In-depth interviews were also conducted to see whether TV news translators consciously employ those omission strategies. In most parts, text analysis and in-depth interviews showed the same results. This paper is expected to open the discussion on TV news transediting, which has not been actively studied compared to translation in print journalism.
  • 11.

    Lexical competence of professional interpreters —An empirical research on interpreting competence—

    Hyeyeon Chung , 고효정 | 2013, 14(1) | pp.331~353 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Professional interpreters are regarded as experts with ‘special’ abilities. However, these abilities -or more accurately, ‘the competence’, a psychological term for an innate ability system- are hard to identify. This paper focuses on one aspect of interpreting competence, namely lexical competence. The study builds the hypothesis based on the presumption that the lexical competence of professional interpreters is developed (specified) from the lexical system of bilinguals. The lexical system of bilinguals in turn is based on the lexical system of monolinguals. Based on the findings by researches that relate bilingual and interpreting qualities, this study set up the following hypotheses: The longer one acquires the interpreting competence (1) the more balanced are the L1 and L2 lexical systems (based on Kurz 1996), (2) the more similar are the L2 lexical structure to that of native speakers, (3) the stronger are the links between synonyms in L2 as well as in L1 (compared to non-interpreters) (based on Gerver et. al. 1989). These hypotheses are verified through the lexical transfer and words association tests. In this experiment 16 subjects(4 undergraduate students, 4 first years, 4 second year students of graduate school of interpretation and 4 professional interpreters with more than 5-year-experience) are tested for their lexical transfer and words association competence. In all related tests, the professionals showed the best results, while other groups yielded results that did not differ greatly from one another. This and the fact that undergraduate students who did not take regular interpreting classes, but had more interpreting experiences than first year students, showed constantly better results than the latter, indicate that interpreting experience, rather than interpreting education, has more influence on the development of professional lexical competence.
  • 12.

    Subversion of Colonial Discourse through the Translation of Newsweek

    Choi, Sung-Hee | 2013, 14(1) | pp.355~387 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores translation shifts of colonial discourse in the Newsweek International Edition and Newsweek Korea on North Korean political issues. Based on eight articles in both Newsweek International Edition and Newsweek Korea, this study identifies in detail linguistic features of colonial discourse in the two texts. It also investigates how the ideological power relations between America and South Korea are represented in Newsweek International Edition and how they are transformed in Newsweek Korea through linguistic manipulation. This study applies concepts and methods of critical discourse analysis and functional grammar approaches, using the notion of ideology and representation presented by Althusser and Gramsci to explore power relations in the texts. Postcolonial translation theory is adopted to show that translation can challenge the hegemonic representation of source texts. This study illustrates how representations of Newsweek International Edition are radically transformed or rewritten. The findings suggest that Newsweek Korea reveals questionable condition of U.S. hegemony, subverting the binary logic of Newsweek International Edition, which ‘interpellates’ the U.S. as the superior “Self”, with Korea as the inferior “Other”. The findings suggest that Newsweek Korea reflects the dominant political perspective of South Korea, which runs counter to the U.S. policy.
  • 13.

    Translation of Deixis in the Fictional Text

    Han Miae | 2013, 14(1) | pp.389~410 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This paper presents that the translated deixis influences target readers to construct the frame of a story world (a text world) in a fictional text, which is concerned with the probability of a fiction. For this, first, text world (Werth 1995, 1999) and deictic shift (Galbraith 1995, Segal 1995) theories are explored focusing on the story-constructing process and identification of readers with the character. Second, “Nungil” (The Snowy Road) which is the short story of Lee Chungjun and the two types of target texts, are compared and analyzed concentrating on the relational or perceptional deixis. The deixis, ‘I’ and ‘the old man’ (in fact, the narrator’s mother), in the source text is translated into ‘I’ and ‘the old woman’ in the TT1, and ‘I’ and ‘my mother’ in the TT2. The two characters living in the text world of the TT1 have a distant relationship, which can maximize the love of a mother that ‘I’ will realize at the end of fiction. By contrast, though the two characters living in the text world of the TT2 have a close relationship, ‘I’ say “I owed nothing to my mother” and “a debt-free relationship” himself many times. Because of this inconsistency, the text world of the TT2 is not likely to be a probable world. Deixis such as the present verbs, ‘this’ and ‘today’ can represent the narrator’s consciousness and perception. Therefore, when deixis like this is reflected into the target text, it helps target readers to construct probable text worlds, immerse into the fictional world and identity with characters.