The translation of taboo, swear, and slang words is one of the trickiest jobs translators can face in literary translation. Nevertheless, they need to be translated faithfully to achieve the aim that is to create a text which will produce the same pleasure for target readers as the source text does.
The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the notion of 'fidelity' for target readers with regard to translation patterns of the four-letter word 'fuck'. To address this, the translation of the lexeme fuck and its morphological variants (fucking, fuckwit, etc.) into Korean is analyzed based on the same criteria proposed by McEnery and Xiao (2004). The analyzed novels are Bridget Jones's Diary (1996) and Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason (1999) by Helen Fielding and their Korean translations. A significant feature in analysis is that both translations trivialize a highly sensitive resource such as the corpus of fuck through 'omission' and 'mitigation'. In regard to this, a survey asking respondents' views on these omissions and mitigations in translated books is conducted targeting 245 college students and 48 in work. What the respondents expected from existing translation and for whom fidelity should be maintained are reconsidered with the results drawn by the statistical study on the basis of this survey. Readers accepting and consuming translation products are expected to increasingly take the important roles on the market in the near future. Therefore, this paper suggests that more studies on 'readers' are needed for better translation.
This study aims to explore metaphors employed by Korean translators to discuss translation, by drawing on their interviews with the media. In order to talk about this topic, the present study fruitfully utilizes the theoretical building blocks of conceptual metaphors proposed by Lakoff & Johnson (1980). According to them, metaphors are mental mechanisms which allow us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of other subjects. The analysis of the data reveals 6 frequently emerging metaphors used by professional translators to talk about translation. They are TRANSLATION IS MOVING SOMETHING, TRANSLATION IS FILTERING SOMETHING, TRANSLATION IS WEIGHING SOMETHING, TRANSLATION IS BUILDING RELATIONS, TRANSLATION IS CRAFTSMANSHIP, TRANSLATORS ARE VEILED ENTITIES. Illustrating multi-faceted aspects of what we call translation, these metaphors help us better understand the inherent nature of translation. This study takes a step further to argue that these metaphors not only govern and constitute the activities of translators but also have social implications. Thus, metaphors are social and political as well as linguistic.
In this paper which aims at discussing the translation of English plural nouns into Korean, we have emphasized two subjects: one is to present resonable translation rules of English plurality into Korean with the aid of contrastive study of English and Korean; the other is to test and supplement the efficacy of the above translational rules with the analysis of parallel corpus collected in a novel.
Through the discussion the translation rules of English plural nouns into Korean presented here are as follows:(R1a) Plural nouns of English should be translated into Korean with suffix ‘-deul’, if a plural category is logically required. In this case they are interpreted as sum of individual members.
(R1b) Plural nouns of English are translated into Korean with suffix ‘-deul’, if a heterogeneity is found in those nouns. In this case they are animate and active or dynamic.
(R2a) Plural nouns of English are translated into Korean as unmarked forms (i. e. forms without suffix ‘-deul’), if they only represent plurality or numeral concept. In this case, numeral expressions absent in original English text or classifiers specifying quantity, might be introduced.
(R2b) Plural inanimate nouns of English could be translated into Korean as unmarked forms with adverbs, if they are interpreted as sum of individual members.
(R2c) Plural inanimate nouns of English could be translated into Korean as compound nouns combined with nouns signifying collectiveness or declension forms combined with a particle ‘-mada’ adding individuality.
The above two rules (R1) and (R2) theoretically form a complementary or exclusive distribution. Yet they could be supplementarily utilized in real translation of English into Korean. The author hopes that these rules will be adjusted and readjusted towards better solutions to the issues in question.
This study aims to demonstrate undergraduate trainee interpreters' perceptions of and thoughts on interpreter training and interpreting as a profession. For this purpose, a small-scale questionnaire survey was conducted among undergraduates majoring in consecutive interpreting at a university in Seoul. The questionnaire asked the students about 15 topics, including what first comes to mind when they think of interpreter training, changes in their perceptions of interpreting, what they see as most challenging during the course of learning interpreting, their thoughts on the status/roles of professional interpreters, and the strongest/weakest points of interpreting as a profession.
The primary aims of this study are to explore the phenomena of terminology translation in Korean Translation Studies using 4 major reference books and to examine the relative cases in order to suggest the significance, and the dissemination and establishment of the new disciplinary, Translation Studies. The prominent features are the variety and the inconsistency of terminology translation referring to the same one(s) and in the same translated text by the relative academies, languages, and journals. Considering the rapid development of Translation Studies in Korea, the increasing number of scholars, students, relative academic programs, and its study results, the discussions and examinations on the terminology and its translation are timely required. And more attention to the usage of the academic translation terms in the general reference books and papers and to the mutual effort of academic societies shall be consistently required within the academies in order to set up the systematic translation theories and their concepts, to correct the undesirable cases, and to give the improved suggestions or guidelines.
The objective of this research is to show that the Korean sentence endings used in translating the skaz novel, The Catcher in the Rye by J. Salinger must be those plain endings such as '-ci', '-e', '-kuna', and '-ntey' called 'panmalchey' (friendly style without second person honorific '-yo'). The novel whose narrative style is known as skaz (to tell) narrative (Fludernik 1993, Jahn 2005 Lodge 1992) has the first person narrator Holden and the second person listener 'you' whose referent is not rigid nor designated in the novel: Holden tells his story to the listener as if he or she is a close friend of his with colloquial speech containing even slangs such as 'jerk', 'phoney', 'bored/old as hell', and 'big deal.' In order to show this, we have examined three translation texts recommended as those reliable translated texts by English Literature Translation Evaluation Committee (2005). However, they have different sentence endings for Holden's narration: TT1 mainly uses the plain form '-ta' commonly used in a newspaper or research papers; TT2 uses various forms of 'panmalchey' without the second person honorific form '-yo' mentioned in the above; TT3 on the other hand uses two main types of endings '-pnita' and 'panmalchey' with '-yo.' The 'panmalchey' sentence endings in TT2, known as the hearer oriented speech forms, have the highest orality used in causal everyday conversation between friends. Since Holden's narration is characterized as low language casual speech between teenagers, the sentence endings used in TT2 is high in orality and functionally appropriate to Holden's skaz narrative style.
When extracting translation units from a translation corpus and making comparisons, it is common to use the Keyword in Context (KWIC) function. The results create a concordance which shows the contexts of a keyword, or a group of words which surround a keyword. However, a concordance list cannot provide a systematic explanation for the contextual and lexical patterns of this keyword if the list contains a wide variety of contexts. Therefore, context should be reorganized according to the lexical units of which it is composed. In this respect, it is also valuable to look directly at short groups of words (phrases), known as clusters or repeated segments in the field of textual statistics.
The aim of this study was to compare repeated segments in two types of translation corpora: an English-French-Korean corpus and a French-Korean corpus. To examine these units, we used two methods: N-gram analysis and Repeated Segments Expansion. The first method facilitated the observation of frequent clusters in the corpora, while the second one revealed lexical patterns to the left and right of a keyword. English and French showed very similar lexical patterns, whereas French and Korean did not. Nevertheless, the results of the comparison through lexical expansion verified a degree of similar lexical distribution between the French clusters and the Korean ones in terms of translation. These methods allow us to examine not only words but also translated expressions in the corpus. Moreover, they enable us to demonstrate contrasting characteristics between French and Korean in terms of lexical association.
Satirical novels are generally characterized by clear intention and allegories employed within the texts. When working on satirical pieces, authors tend to assume that their expected audiences or readers should recognize allegorical objects used in the fictional world are directly associated with things of the real world. This is the very premise for satirical novels to be read properly. However, the assumption can apply only to the audiences of novels produced in the original culture who share the same spatial and temporal context with the authors.
This study is based on the aforementioned unique characteristics of satirical novels. The authors of the original can not expect that the very assumptions required for a certain satire to be read properly can also apply to the audience in the target culture. That is because different time and space factors are at work between the authors and their audiences. Taking these disparities into account, this study attempts to demonstrate that various forms of paratexts in translation can make up for the inapplicability of the aforementioned premise caused by these differences, thus mediating between the author in the orignal culture and the reader in the target culture or the fictional world and the real world. To that end, this study examines how paratexts are utilized in translated satirical novels by analyzing their forms and characteristics in translated versions of two typical satirical novels: Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels and George Orwell's Animal Farm.
“New Culture movement” changed the traditional way of thinking and built the whole new language perspective. The modern mandarin made th unity of speech and writing possible and had the social communication system open to the public. The publication of Chinese Union Version(CUV) coincided with this movement, therefore the identity of the written and spoken language in CUV was inevitable consequence of the need of the times.
CUV was published in Feb, 1919. It has very important status among various Chinese versions of the Bible. The style of CUV was written colloquial Chinese and gave many influence to the New Culture movement. The writing style of CUV became the model of standard Chinese for schools and government at that periods.
For expressing new way of thinking, there came out many neologism and the powers of description increased a lot. Moreover there became more information in the text. In the Bible translation, the description of the first person and the third female was distinguished. The punctuation in the text made the description more detailed and delicate, besides an interpolation was started to use in the text.
The translation of Bible is deeply related with the religion, culture and political situation of the era. So in the Chinese bible, there can be found many elements such as religious, social and political elements. Therefore, there need more follow-up research to find out the relationship of the social system and translation.
Subtitle translation of Korean films or dramas is growing every day due to the increasing export of its cultural contents. Even so, the academic recognition of subtitles, especially from Korean into English, is lacking in the field of translation.
This paper aims to shed light on the necessity of consistent standards in subtitling translated from Korean into English. To do this, the subtitles of the Korean drama "That Winter, The Wind Blows" (2013) are analyzed. The analysis is through Internet sites such as Viki.com and Hulu.com. The findings of error analysis are grouped on the basis of three categories: syntactic, semantic, and cultural aspects. Through analysis, it is suggested that name-spelling, calling titles, and number notation be consistent. This paper hopes to highlight the importance of Korean-English subtitling of Korean dramas to inform foreign viewers of Korean culture and language all over the world. This will also help Koreans learning to speak English.