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2014, Vol.15, No.1

  • 1.

    News Localization and Its Ambivalent Aspect

    김기영 | 2014, 15(1) | pp.7~24 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Since activities of translation started, issues around contentions between word-for-word and sense-for-sense translation have dominated translation practices and the field of translation studies. Noticeably, however, news translation seems to have diverged from the dichotomy as it has shifted its norms from equivalence toward text rewriting. Events and accidents occurring around the world are processed by media companies to be transformed into news products. And those global news products crossing borders in real time are usually going through a series of adaptation according to ideologies and public narratives of target society before reaching readers or end users. This study assumes that news translation is going beyond the classically defined translating activities and norms, expanding its boundary to ‘localization’, the software optimization process. Localization means a range of process carried out to make software products and online games broadly acceptable and consumable in its target locale. One of the most noticeable aspects of news localization is its ambivalence: it softens resistance to foreign context in which foreign news was produced; and protects national media discourse from huge wave of western centered globalization, especially when the news is concerned with political and economic interests of target society. This study examines a range of theories around practice of news translation and software localization, trying to investigate overlap area between them.
  • 2.

    Comparison between Korean-English Onomatopoeia and Translation of Korean Onomatopoeia into English

    Dohun Kim | 2014, 15(1) | pp.25~50 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    Onomatopoeia occupies a unique language category, as it displays non-arbitrariness: its phonological form is more directly associated with meaning. Building upon previous researches on onomatopoeia, this paper aims to answer two research questions. First, what are the unique features of Korean and English onomatopoeia? Second, what strategies can be used to translate Korean onomatopoeia into English?As for the first question, this study illustrates how onomatopoeia takes on the functional role as a unique linguistic entity. Following the analysis, this research contrasts the unique characteristics of Korean and English onomatopoeia, so as to find implications for translation. As for the second question, this paper presents three techniques: replacing Korean onomatopoeia with English onomatopoeia (interjection); replacing Korean onomatopoeia with English onomatopoeia (verb); and explaining (inserting additional information or employing adjective, adverb, etc.). Following the classification, the author discusses how such strategies can be deployed and what attentions should be paid. It is of notable interest that onomatopoeia often invites “headaches” in Korean-English translation and that the issue has been neglected in the academic discipline of translation studies, which calls for the need to address the above research questions. The author hopes the contrastive analysis and translation techniques herein will contribute to characterizing the issues and problems during the course of translation and to offering guidelines for those in the translation profession.
  • 3.

    Translation Criticism based on the Aesthetic Effects of a Literary Translation: Focusing on Wuthering Heights

    Soon Mi Kim | 2014, 15(1) | pp.51~83 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Setting criteria for literary translation criticism has been considered far more difficult than that for the assessment and evaluation of non-literary translation. The most frequently used criteria have been ‘faithfulness’ to the source text and ‘readability’ or ‘naturalness’ of the target text. The comprehensive evaluation of literary translations of English classical works conducted by Scholars for English Studies in Korea(SESK) is one of the attempts to criticize translations in terms of these two criteria. Despite its accomplishments in screening sub-par translations characterized by bad translation, mistranslation, and translationese, the undertaking has shown its limitations in criticising literary translation by focusing on error analysis and giving translations a subordinate position to the original. This study aims to expand the scope of criticism beyond the realm of error analysis by setting criteria of literary translation criticism based on the framework proposed by Reiss. The functionalist argues that the most important factor in literary translation and its criticism is rendering the aesthetic effects in the source text so that the response of the target readers would be the same as that of the source text readers. According to Lefevere, a prominent literary translation scholar, important translation issues in the literary translation process on the level of illocutionary language use are metaphor, allusion, foreign words, names, register, pun, parody etc. Setting these factors as important criteria in criticising literary translation, this paper analyzes Wuthering Heights by Emily Bronte, which was one of the translations evaluated by the SESK. Through the analysis of four translations (two by translators highly evaluated by the SESK and two recent translations), this research finds that translating strategies regarding slangs, metaphors, dialect, and relations between characters in literature differ significantly among translators. By describing rather than rating or evaluating different strategies and perspectives of each translation, this paper suggests that each translation function differently, thereby serving to satisfy different group of readers.
  • 4.

    The Two Ways of Literary Translation in 20th Century China

    KIM HANA | 2014, 15(1) | pp.85~110 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    After the Opium War, the Qing Dynasty that had no choice but to open the door to the Western Powers became to make an effort to strengthen national power by adopting the western civilization and set up an organization that translate western publications. But they had most of interest in practical fields so that translating literature actually took a back seat. Nevertheless Lin Shu made an effort to translate Western novels into splendid Chinese and impressed people who had disparaged western literatures. As a result his translation contributed to making Chinese intellectuals to adopt the western culture and accept its literatures. In 1915, the group of 『Xin Qingnian, New Youth』 who advocate new literary movement under the banner of enlightenment of the youth attacked Lin Shu who is a representative figure of old literature and set up a new literary theory. They introduced new trend of western literature and enlightened the public through new translation. Their efforts actually helped Chinese literature to take a new direction into the modern literature. However, we need to pay another attention to Lin Shu behind the 『Xin Qingnian』. Though his translation had backwardness, it is true that he is a pioneer of chinese literary translation and prepared takeoff for Chinese modern literature. So we should take his way of translation seriously as a part of Chinese translation history.
  • 5.

    Corpus-based Term Extraction Methods for Translator Training

    Park Myongsu | 2014, 15(1) | pp.111~134 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    This paper reports on how to extract terms from a small specialized corpus of Korean Weather Corpus (KWC). The KWC was built from three different sets of data: the Korea Herald, the Korea Times, and Arirang News and its size was 88,042 tokens. It is more than true that the developments in computer technology have made tremendous contribution to the widespread use of corpus in various disciplines and its effects are also felt in the field of the translation studies as well. As part of efforts of encouraging the use of corpus and the corpus-based analytic approaches, the present research aimed at making use of two corpus-based approaches in extracting terms. The first method was using “a list of stopwords” which mainly consists of grammatical function words such as articles and prepositions. By filtering out these words prior to making a list of most frequent words in the KWC, it was made possible to create a list of words that were almost all term candidates. The second one was based on “a keyword analysis.” Keywords are those whose frequency is unusually high in comparison with a reference corpus. These unusually high frequent words can represent the aboutness of a given text and reveal some salient features related to a genre. The method also provided a list of positive keywords, which can result in a good list of term candidates of KWC. The suggested methods, hopefully, can serve as alternative ways of extracting terms and contribute to the widespread us of corpus in the translation study.
  • 6.

    An Analysis of the Translator’s Style of The Great Gatsby: Focusing on Optional Shift

    Han-Nae YU | 2014, 15(1) | pp.135~153 | number of Cited : 9
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies the translator's style by quantitatively analyzing optional translation shifts. Narrative texts of The Great Gatsby and two English-Korean translations by Kim, Wook-dong (TT1) and Kim, Young-ha (TT2) were analyzed to identify and categorize recurring patterns of optional translation shifts, which represent the translator's personal translation style. Distinct differences in recurring shift patterns were found between the translators. The tendencies revealed in the quantitative analysis indicate that TT2 used more than twice as many shifts as TT1, showing greater distance from the source text than with TT1. TT1 expanded mostly by replacing words with phrases, indicating his tendency to explain more about the source text. This tendency resulted in longer sentences. TT2 deleted mostly adverbs and adverbial phrases, resulting in short and simple sentences. This paper suggests a method for the research of the style of a translator by quantitatively analyzing optional choices made by the translator, which represent features of the translator's personal style or voice, thus contributing to translator studies.
  • 7.

    The Painting Techniques-Based Screen Translation Guide and Its Influence on the Translation Learning — Through the Painting Techniques-Based Screen Translation Guide

    이다현 | 2014, 15(1) | pp.155~175 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper aims to help understand screen translation education and screen contents application classes which have been successfully adopted in the field of current English education with the help of rapidly developing demand of practical English education and media-related translation materials. In this paper, I analyze how successfully such renowned artists of different genres as Picasso, Czanne, Stein, and Hemingway, employed painting(or literature) techniques of other artists in order to improve the quality of their works. The cases of Picasso who employed Czanne’s painting techniques for his work, of Stein who employed painting techniques of Czanne and Picasso for his literature, and of Hemingway who used in his writing the painting and literature techniques of the three artists mentioned before, will be carefully explored. Based on the findings of the analysis, I will suggest that the study of screen translation should also be able to improve greatly by taking the same path as they did. And in doing so, I will also show that the Screen Translation Guide(STG) which has been developed based on the painting techniques will have a very important role.
  • 8.

    A Case Study on “Google Translate”: The Correlation between Translation Quality and Units of Translation in Machine Translation

    Lim Soon Jeung | 한미선 | 2014, 15(1) | pp.177~209 | number of Cited : 38
    Abstract PDF
    This study is an attempt to make productive recommendations for the improvement of translation quality in automated translation. With the advent of automated translation in 1949, the field of machine translation has made remarkable progress. Despite its advancement, however, translation quality has failed to meet the expectations of its users. In this sense, it is timely and appropriate to seek ways to improve the translation quality of automated translation services as the user base for machine translation has been rapidly expanding. Against this backdrop, as a contribution towards finding ways to improve translation quality in machine translation, this study explores the correlation between translation quality and the units of translations in automated translation by using “Google Translate”, one of the most popular statistic-based machine translation tools. A set of Korean product information texts, which are composed of a total of 23 smartphone models compiled from the Samsung Galaxy website, are compared and analyzed with their parallel texts translated by Google Translate into English and French. To clearly demonstrate the correlation between units of translation and translation quality in the original and translated texts are used as analytical criteria, which are divided into three categories: functional units, semantic units, and dialectical units, which were first proposed by Vinay & Darbelnet (1958). And based on the results of the analysis, this study attempts to make constructive recommendations for translation quality improvement in statistic-based machine translation models.
  • 9.

    Multicultural Society and Community Interpreting — Marriage Immigrant Women as Community Interpreters: Potentials and Limitations

    Chang Ai Li | 2014, 15(1) | pp.211~238 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    As of January 1, 2013, South Korea has approximately 1.45 million foreign residents, and of them, a total of 266,547 households are multicultural families. As such, it is no longer strange to say that the nation is a multicultural society. As there is a growing demand for community interpreting along with the development of a multicultural society, this study examined the potential and limitation of women immigrants by marriage as community interpreters. The study considered both the features of community interpreting as a discipline of interpreting studies and the demographic characteristics of women immigrants through marriage. It found that their greatest potential as community interpreters included their balanced bilingual skills, understanding of both cultures, a pool of human resources who can command languages of many countries, and experiences as immigrants who were also recipients of community interpreting. However, their negative experiences, including discrimination they suffered as immigrants, may bias their interactions as interpreters. Therefore, they need to overcome such limitation through education of interpreting ethics.
  • 10.

    Corpus-Assisted Analysis of Deixis for Literary Translation: with Focus on the Vocative Form of Old Man in The Old Man and The Sea

    조수연 | 2014, 15(1) | pp.239~264 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This article aims to investigate the manner of deictic expressions, pointing to the protagonist of The Old Man and The Sea by Ernest Hemingway, translated from English to Korean, and provide a quantitative and qualitative account of five (5) different versions of Korean translations from late 1950's to 2012. For these purposes, it uses a small-scale comparative parallel corpus and applies some corpus techniques. The translation of deixis is inevitably affected by the linguistic, social and cultural differences between the source language and the target language, as witnessed in the translation of ‘old man’, the most important and frequently used lexical cluster in the literature in question. As it turns out, a corpus-assisted approach can be effective in identifying what the key words are in a literature and how they are translated differently by translator and thus shedding a new light on various translation problems from the perspective of pragmatics, because it is none other than the pragmatic nature of language which makes it unfavorable, if not impossible, to translate ‘old man’ as ‘old man’. This study also tries different translation strategies to find alternative solutions for translators to consider in their decision-making process. In doing so, it follows the principle of optimal relevance.
  • 11.

    Translation Shifts in Political Ideology of “The June 29 Declaration”

    Choi, Sung-Hee | 2014, 15(1) | pp.265~300 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study investigates the translation shifts in political ideology reflected in the discourse of the June 29 Declaration issued in 1987 by Roh, Tae Woo, the 13th president of South Korea. It identifies the text's ideological linguistic strategies using Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis framework. It makes a comparative analysis of two English translations of the text related to political ideology. It utilizes the Korean text which was featured in the Han Kook Ilbo (ST). The parallel English texts selected for analysis were presented in The Korea Herald and The Korea Times. Analysing the political discourses, this study focuses on Fairclough’s three types of value in the formal features of the language: experiential, relational, and expressive. Critical Discourse Analysis effectively provides the essential framework for revealing how precise components of language continuously steer people's ideas toward the existing order of political discourse, and how the translators mediate such ideological markers. This study argues that the discourses reflect the author's intention to gain support from the people while reaffirming the ruling party's political ideology. The findings suggest that a lot of the ideological shifts occur in the process of translation, demonstrating that the translators eliminate, reproduce, and transform ideological aspects of the ST. The Korea Herald shows heavier elimination of the political ideology of the ST than The Korea Times while The Korea Times shows heavier reproduction of such ideology than The Korea Herald.
  • 12.

    Acceptability of the Bible Translation: Focusing on the Geneva Bible in Shakespeare’s Period

    Myung-soo Hur | 2014, 15(1) | pp.301~329 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Iver Larsen and Diphus C. Chemorion argue that acceptability is one criterion of a good Bible translation. Acceptability is the receptor audience’s subjective response to a translation. This paper compares the acceptability of the Geneva Bible (1560) to those of other translations in circulation during Shakespeare’s lifetime (1564-1616). The comparison demonstrates that among the available translations, the Geneva Bible had the highest level of acceptability. Acceptability was high because the Geneva Bible translators provided readers with copious and relevant information, such as exegetic commentary and notes concerning doctrinal differences between Protestants and Roman Catholics. Faithfulness to available source texts, compatibility with respected protestant theologians such as John Calvin and Theodore Beza, and acceptable responses to the prevailing Anglican conventions and anti-Catholic cultural norms of its time further enhanced the Geneva Bible’s acceptability. The Geneva Bible’s preference for English vernacular over Latin also enhanced its acceptability. Evidence for the acceptability of the Geneva Bible has been found in the fact that its original and revised editions were published and circulated more than any other English version of the Bible prior to the King James Version (1611). However, despite its high popularity and acceptability in Shakespeare’s period, the Geneva Bible failed to become the Authorized Version, mainly owing to the marginal notes’ controversial anti-Catholic sentiments, strong Calvinistic doctrines, and some disparaging comments regarding royal authority. Both Queen Elizabeth and King James rejected the Geneva Bible as the Authorized Version for Anglican worship, and instead ordered a new version which became the King James Version of 1611. The Geneva Bible’s failure to be used as the Authorized version, however, does not diminish the translation’s acceptability among its intended audience. Rather, this failure is merely an indication that royal and ecclesiastical authorities adhered to different evaluative criteria than the English public at large.
  • 13.

    Methods of Teaching World Englishes in Interpreting Programs

    Jiun Huh | 2014, 15(1) | pp.331~364 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This study explores effective teaching methods of World Englishes in interpreting programs drawing on theories of second language acquisition/learning, World Englishes, and Interpreting disciplines. The goal of teaching World Englishes in Interpreting programs is to develop skills in listening and comprehending World Englishes by advancing learners’ knowledge on key varieties of World Englishes and increasing familiarity to them. The author regards ‘English to Korean Simultaneous Interpreting(SI)’, ‘English to Korean Consecutive Interpreting(CI)’, ‘Mock Conference’, ‘Advanced B Language Discourse’, ‘Special Lecture’ most appropriate for teaching World Englishes. Based on previous studies and theories, the author found the structural syllabus, task-based syllabus, and topic-based syllabus appropriate for Advanced B Language Discourse, SI·CI·Mock Conference, and Special Lecture, respectively. Appropriate teaching methods are proposed which are in line with the syllabus types. ‘PPP(Presentation, Practice, Production)’ can be applied to Advanced B Language Discourse, TBT(Task-Based Teaching) to SI·CI·Mock Conference, and CBI(Content-Based Instruction) to Special Lecture. The basic approach is to combine World Englishes materials and contents into existing classes in interpreting programs, thereby achieving the goals of teaching World Englishes while still respecting the priorities of and the balance among other items in interpreting instruction.
  • 14.

    A Study on Textual Intervention in Korean-to-English News Translation

    Hong Jung Min | 2014, 15(1) | pp.365~413 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at investigating textual intervention of translators in the process of Korean-to-English news translation in an attempt to gain a clue to the news translators’ interventionist role as gatekeeper or transeditor, and therefore the current state and future of the relevant services in South Korea. A total of 99 Korean source texts(STs) and English target texts(TTs) were analyzed based on six categories of news text processing strategies proposed by previous studies: literal translation(lexical borrowing, transfer of pattern), deletion, addition, substitution, (re)organization, and synthesis. Using these categories as a framework, the textual analysis revealed three major findings as follows:First, rather than simply adding encyclopedic knowledge and changing the location of sentences or paragraphs, Korean-to-English translators make use of comments from relevant experts and officials or information in the press releases which are not found in the STs, or drastically revamp the structure and focus of the STs. By actively transforming texts like this, the Korean-to-English news translators played a very interventionist role as independent gatekeepr or transeditor in the news text processing process. Second, some activities which are not categorized by the above-mentioned six strategies were also found to hint at to what extent the news translators are intervening texts in the Korean-to-English news production. All of the activities are based on translators’ independent reporting or data collection efforts, and result in TTs which are totally different from or without STs, indicating the translators are intervening texts much more actively and dramatically than previous studies suggested. To explain the newly-found activities, this study suggests ‘(re)creation’ as another category of news text processing strategy. Finally, the ‘(re)creation’ activities are expected to gain more ground amid increasingly competitive media market environment, ultimately requiring more and more interventionist role to Korean-to-English news translators.