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2014, Vol.15, No.3

  • 1.

    English-Korean Translation Methods of Generic Expressions Based on Interpretations

    Kwak, Eun Joo | 2014, 15(3) | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Sentences are interpreted in a single domain even if they belong to different languages. Hence, the translational problem of non-equivalence may be rephrased in the way that sentences of different languages have different morpho-syntactic forms in spite of their equal references. In this study, we aim to approach the non-equivalence problem related with generic sentences. Generic sentences are divided into several categories depending on their denotational properties: kind, subkind, characterizing generic, and normative generic sentences. In part of these categories, English and Korean show different syntactic properties, raising a non-equivalence problem: semantic properties related with plurality may or may not be reflected in English and Korean grammars. To cope with this problem, we overview the syntactic properties of English and Korean generic sentences and suggest translational methods based on the comparative results.
  • 2.

    Functions and Contents of Translator’s Preface: Focusing on Translator’s Visibility

    Soon Mi Kim | 2014, 15(3) | pp.33~81 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    Last decade saw a rapid increase in the studies of translators using various sources including statistics, surveys, interviews, and paratexts. This is a new trend because scholars have concentrated their researches on translated texts focusing on their linguistic and cultural aspects; and readers have not bothered to read paratexts including translator’s prefaces as translated texts are read and accepted as originals. “Translator studies” was not even included in Holmes’ translation map; and when conducted, it was limited in its scope without the consideration of translators’ own voices. The lack of translator studies has been closely associated with the translator’s invisibility and low status. Thus, the changes in research trend reflects the ascendance of translators in the translation community and enhancement of their responsibility. This study aims to find out the characteristics of translators writing a translator’s prefac and to analyze the contents and functions of translator’s prefaces, focusing on how translators recognize their status, responsibility and visibility. Based on the analysis of translator’s prefaces in 24 literary translations, this paper finds out that the traits prominent among these translators are strong sense of responsibility and high level of translation competence. Translator’s prefaces contain their explanations on translation processes, emotions in each process, translation strategies and perspectives, serving as criteria on which critics make an evaluation. They also enhance translator’s visibility and status, differentiate one translation from others in terms of translation strategies, and provide other translators and readers with information on translation strategies taken by a translator.
  • 3.

    Translation Writing of Direct Quotation

    Kim hye young | 2014, 15(3) | pp.83~124 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzes how construction of paragraphs with direct quotation undergo changes in the process of translating novel and potential factors compelling those changes. Comparison is made between the typical forms of paragraphs with direct quotation in the Korean Source Text with the translated version in the English Target Text. Then, an analysis is carried out on the translation methods in converting the paragraphs with direct quotations and possible factors influencing reconstruction in English into Korean novel translation. Findings of the analysis are as follows:1. Single paragraph in ST is divided into several paragraphs in TT, or two ST paragraphs are merged as one paragraph. 2. Reporting clauses and reported speech in ST sentences are translated as individual sentences in TT. 3. While the ST reporting clauses are located in the middle of the reported speech or between two reported speeches, the TT reporting clauses are either moved to the front or the rear of the reported speech. 4. Reporting clauses are eliminated in TT when they are located at the rear or in the middle of the reported speech in ST and thus provide redundant information. Factors that influence the translation of paragraphs with direct quotation are not only the stylistic form in ST but also social aspects such as TT readers and discourse conventions in the target language community. In textual aspect, factors that potentially influence translation process include characteristics of genre, cohesion, economy of sentence, explicitness of meaning, intentionality, readability and acceptability, etc. Translators decided translation strategy in consideration of all these factors.
  • 4.

    Study of Translation and Interpreting Education in Joseon Dynasty

    Yu Jung Hwa | 2014, 15(3) | pp.125~151 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    One of the most notable characteristics of translation and interpreting education in the Joseon Era(AD 1392-1910) is higher degree of segmentation and specialization compared to that in the preceding Corea Dynasty(AD 918-1392). Unlike the previous era when Confucianism, art of war and general knowledge were all taught at Gukjagam, the supreme educational institution, its equivalent in Joseon, Sungkyunkwan, provided education only on Confucianism while other educational disciplines were transferred to different specialized institutions. As per translation and interpreting, translators and interpreters were mainly educated at Sayeokwon while Seungmunwon officials prepared and translated diplomatic documents. Such segmentation and specialization deepened discrimination between Confucianism and other academic fields, lowering the status of translation/interpreting education. The second prominent feature was the emphasis given to interpreting education. A good example was Wooeocheong, an agency installed under Sayeokwon specifically to enhance conversation and interpreting training. Translation and interpreting-related institutions of Joseon including Seungmunwon and Sayeokwon tried to nurture translation and interpreting capabilities in many ways such as translation and publication of conversation text books and employment of foreign instructors. Developing translators and interpreters was a very important national task to Joseon as the country sought Sadaegyorin (serving the great China while having equal relationships with the neighbors) diplomatic policy. Recognizing the importance, the government tried to raise quality of translators and interpreters through systematic education. However, the actual effect was not very high as the education was considered to be meant for a certain class of society given at a certain educational institution.
  • 5.

    Semiotic Approach for Better Understanding of Legal Translation

    윤경은 | 2014, 15(3) | pp.153~175 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to employ a semiotic approach to increase the understanding of legal translation. Although international exchanges have become an important part of our life than ever before, Korea has seen little research effort concerning translation of legal texts. Prior research has primarily focused on individual translation strategies or methods, and education. The macro discussion on how to understand and approach legal translation is limited. To date, literal and free translation and the Skopos Theory have been at the center of discussion on legal translation. They also have important implications, but are insufficient to explain unique, diverse characteristics of legal translation. Since legal translation is also communication, it can be described as an act of translating signs governed by various layers of codes. It is important to understand the relations between signs and the things to which they refer, and the codes they are based on, in order to produce the same legal effect of the source text in the target text. In this study, concepts such as signifier and signified, syntagmatic and paradigmatic, and code are borrowed from semiotics. The semiotic approach helps overcome disputes deriving from previous discussions and makes it possible to produce so-called ‘accurate’ legal translation. An increased understanding of legal translation is the very beginning which enables translators to reinforce concerned competence by establishing proper strategies and educational models.
  • 6.

    A Case Study of T&I Services for Marriage Migrants and Multicultural Families

    Jieun Lee | Chang Ai Li | Moon Sun Choi and 1other persons | 2014, 15(3) | pp.177~210 | number of Cited : 19
    Abstract PDF
    Korea has seen a large influx of marriage migrant women following a dramatic surge in international marriages in the early 2000s. Multiculturalism has emerged as an important issue in the Korean society, which led to the legislation of the Multicultural Family Support Act in 2008. Based on such legislations, the government sought ways to facilitate social integration in a multicultural society and recognized that it was essential to provide language assistance for marriage migrant women who lacked Korean language proficiency. The Ministry of Gender Equality and Family of Korea started offering interpreting and translation services for marriage migrant women through T&I support staff at Multicultural Family Support Centers located nationwide. This paper provides an overview of the community interpreting and translation services for marriage migrant women and discusses recommendations based on a questionnaire-based survey of 204 T&I support staff, who are marriage immigrants themselves. The survey canvassed their perception of the service in general, their job satisfaction, professionalism, training and assessment, perception of the services performance and areas for further improvement.
  • 7.

    Multidimensional Explanatory Analysis of Translation Universals

    Chang-Soo Lee | 2014, 15(3) | pp.211~232 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    The main objective of the paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of mutlivariate explanatory data analysis in analyzing datasets with multiple variables in corpus-based translation studies, particularly those geared toward testing various translation universal hypotheses. The paper accomplishes this objective by carrying out a case study in which principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to test the validity of four linguistic features which are alleged in the literature to be representative of simplification and explication hypotheses, using a comparable corpus of English translations of Korean fiction and authentic English fiction. The case study renders empircal support to the ‘conjunctive’ and ‘that’ explication hypothesis, while finding the others irrelevant as features of translation universals. In the process of the case study, the relevant steps and procedures of using PCA are illustrated, and its merits are discussed in terms of allowing an in-depth integrated explanatory analysis of multiple variables as opposed to the traditional confirmatory statistical methods that simply focus on testing statistical significance.
  • 8.

    Some reflections on the Anglicization of Translation Studies —on the basis of Snell-Horby’s view

    LEE Hyang | 2014, 15(3) | pp.233~252 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at investigating the anglicization of Translation Studies on the basis of Snell-Horby’s critical comments on this phenomenon. Mary Snell Hornby worries about the dominant role of English in academic discourse and its effects on Translation Studies. Is Translation Studies becoming anglicized? Can we make the same diagnosis for Translation Studies in Korea?This study attempts to answer these questions in three steps. First, the ambiguity inherent to the notion of ‘anglicizationʼ is revealed, and more attempts are made to clarify what Snell-Hornby means when she criticises the monolingual approach, or the ‘Empire of English’, in Translation Studies. In addition, some limitations of her views are discussed. Second, preliminary investigations are made to evaluate whether Translation Studies in Korea shows the symptoms of anglicization: the status of Translation Studies in the Korean knowledge classification system for the research fields proposed by the NRF (National Research Foundation of Korea) is analysed, the proportion of non-English majors in the doctoral programme of Translation Studies is measured and analysed, and 424 papers published in the Journal of Translation Studies since 2000 are sorted according to the research language of each paper. Finally, some recommendations are made to counterbalance the anglicization of Translation Studies and to promote a multilingual approach in TS, a discipline that should remain open to a diversity of cultures and languages.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Need to Teach Discriminatory Language of Japanese to Student Interpreters/Translators

    Youngju Cho | 2014, 15(3) | pp.253~278 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    When a text subject to Korean-Japanese translation or interpreting includes “discriminatory language,” whether in a working environment or a classroom, the language is often changed to a neutral, non-discriminatory language or a figurative expression. This is particularly the case when translating or interpreting from Korean to Japanese, due to difference of awareness concerning discriminatory language between Koreans and Japanese, and the underlying socio-cultural differences. This paper aims to examine such differences between Koreans and Japanese regarding discriminatory language by summarizing the concept and types of discriminatory language in Korea and in Japan. A socially recognized concept and definition of discriminatory language has yet to be established in Korea and previous research on the subject is mostly limited to discriminatory expressions regarding people with disabilities. Therefore, this paper will attempt to define the difference of awareness between Koreans and Japanese by focusing on the Japanese concept and types of discriminatory language. Also, the paper outlines the regulations or guidelines of the Japanese media regarding discriminatory language, which are far stricter than in Korea. It then analyzes the level of awareness held by students of the Graduate School of Translation and Interpretation regarding discriminatory language in Korea and in Japan based on the results of a survey. Also, by analyzing the students’ in-class translations, the paper emphasizes the need for a more systematic education on Japanese discriminatory language in translation and interpreting class.
  • 10.

    An Epistemological Approach on a Corpus-Based Translation Studies

    Cho Joon-Hyung | 2014, 15(3) | pp.279~301 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    What is the corpus ? Many researchers have defined this notion in different ways. A corpus is the textual collection of linguistic data produced by a language community. In the same way, we can define the translation corpus as a collection of translations data produced by professional or non professional translators. The corpus is considered as a computational tool in the field of Natural Language Processing and Machine Translation. And then the main goal of a corpus-based translation studies is to extract translation equivalences from a parallel corpus. But we have to admit that it belongs also to translation studies. Strictly speaking, the translation is human language activity and the place where two different language-culture meet. Therefore it is a phenomenon of human sciences. The translation studies as human sciences aims at exploring translation phenomena, at analysing them and at explaining the principle of translation phenomena in linguistic, cultural, philosophical views. In this point of view, we have to consider a translation corpus as a language text for a human studies, not as a computational tool, at least in the domain of translation studies. The language text which represent linguistic-cultural translation between different human communities, that is the essential nature of the corpus.
  • 11.

    Hybridity in the Cultural Translation and Self-translation of Kim Yong Ik’s Works

    Han Miae | 2014, 15(3) | pp.303~329 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study is to analyze hybrid strategies and features in the cultural translation and self-translation of the works of a Korean-American writer Kim Yong Ik. The analysis texts are “The Wedding Shoes” (1956), “From Below the Bridge” (1958) and “After Seventeen Years” (1963), and their respective target texts, “꽃신,” “변천,” and “동짓날 찾아온 사람.” The source texts in English are short stories about Korean traditional materials and culture, and the target texts in Korean are ones that the author translates himself. As the result of analysis, the three source texts are considered as hybrid texts, in that there are “concrete expressions of images” and “Korean rhythmical expressions” in them at the same time. On the other hand, the three target texts have different aspects. “꽃신” can be seen as a hybrid text, since it has creativity in terms that it has the addition and deletion of words compared with the source text and at the same time there are unconventional expressions and syntactics in the text. But “변천” and “동짓날 찾아온 사람” can not be hybrid texts, for they are creative in that the dialogues of characters consist of dialect, unlike those of the source texts, but they don’t have unconventional words and syntactics. It is why these two translated texts feel as if they were originals. In the case of Kim Yong Ik, the source texts are more hybrid than the self-translated target texts. It is because Korean materials and cultures are narrated in English in the source texts.
  • 12.

    Jakobson’s Translation Typology Revisited: Situated Cognition and Its Translative Nature

    Dhonghui Lim | 2014, 15(3) | pp.331~375 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This research aims to scrutinize the intrinsic nature of translation per se and the role of situated cognition in transdisciplinarily examining Jakobson’s translation typology (1959/2004). With the fundamentally and intrinsically translativity-centered and cognition-sensitive—thus, global-biosemiosis-based—perspective(s) employed in order to develop and rethink the paradigm of translation per se (Lim 2014b), this paper proposes to revisit the Jakobsonian tripartite taxonomy in a centripetally (trans-) semiotic way, especially and significantly, by considering the translative nature of the sign (Petrilli 2003) and the experiential situatedness of the translatorial paradigm (Lim 2013a). In employing the (intra-/ inter-/ trans-) corporeally interpretive (thus, situated embodiment-/ enactment-sensitive) cognitivist approach (Lim 2013a, 2014b) and analyzing the sociohistorical and linguisticocultural aspects of Jakobson’s personal experiences accordingly, it argues that the specific notions of (meta) translation and translatoriality should be viewed as diverse kinds of corporeal translation products (that is, target texts) of the theorist’s situated cognition that is based on and/ or sensitive to the then explicit activities, processes (or procedures), and phenomena of translation. In the actual translative cognitivist analysis of Jakobson’s pre-1959 life experiences, a reliable and substantial list of information comes to support—if not prove—the research’s main hypothesis that the Jakobsonian typology is not the meta translation theory made via a purely scientific investigation but, rather, Jakobson’s translatoriality-sensitive conceptual translation on the notion of translation (proper) heavily and multidimensionally influenced by his own bodily experiences situated in certain specific historicities. Finally, it concludes that, with Petrilli’s (2003) paradigm of the sign as the translative process (and vice versa) taken into consideration, (a) situated cognition—as the unique transcorporeal and transsemiotic dynamics of the respective (bio-) translator himself/ herself—helps fathom what translation is and does across various borders; (b) the transdiciplinary follow-up research on translativity and translatoriality on a larger scale of the biosemiosphere is needed and, also, will be helpful (cf. Lim 2013a); (c) the Jakobsonian translation typology now needs and calls for a new(er) understanding.