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2014, Vol.15, No.4

  • 1.

    Presentation of Poetic Space in Chinese Classical Poetry and its English Translation: A Case Study

    Ying Cui | Jilin Sun | 2014, 15(4) | pp.7~27 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Chinese classical poetry is often discussed in relation to paintings, which involves the presentation of space. Studies on the establishment of space in Chinese poetry and its representation in translation have been rare. This research provides a case study on the Chinese classcial poem “The Waterfall in Mount Lu Viewed from Afar” and its translation. It aims to investigate how poetic space, which can be defined as the world presented in a poem, is established via the organization of language, and how the poetic space is re-established in translation. In this investigation, the presentation of poetic space is analyzed with reference to the two perspectives of parts of speech and word order which have direct influences on the construction of poetic space. It has been found that even when the semantic meaning between the original poem and its translation is equal, the poetic spaces in the two versions may still vary. Therefore, analyzing poetic spaces can provide a different perspective on guiding and evaluating the translation of Chinese classical poetry.
  • 2.

    Retranslation Hypotheses and Three Korean Translations of The Martyred

    Han Miae | Cho, Euiyon | 2014, 15(4) | pp.29~59 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper is concerned with whether the second and third Korean translations of the novel The Martyred by the Korean American writer Richard Kim are retranslation or not based on Chesterman’s (2000) retranslation hypotheses. We look at the difference between retranslation and revision and discuss the validity of a descriptive hypothesis, in which retranslations tend to be closer to the source text. The second translated text is claimed to be a retranslation while the third is a revision of the second. There seems a mutual dependency between the second and the third translated text since the third revises only a small part of the second and contains a large portion of the same interpretations found in the second. We also show that Chesterman’s descriptive hypothesis is not valid for some retranslation phenomena. It is shown that revisions tend to be rather closer to the source text and to improve the quality of the earlier translations in terms of a semantic and stylistic equivalence.
  • 3.

    Teaching World Englishes in an Interpreter Training Course: an Action Research

    Jiun Huh | 2014, 15(4) | pp.61~106 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The spread of English around the world is affecting the interpreting profession. The challenges of interpreting various World Englishes varieties call for the need to resolve the issue by incorporating World Englishes in interpreter training courses. Building on the pedagogy proposed by Huh (2014), the present study attempts to implement an action research on a B language enhancement course at a graduate school of translation and interpretation in South Korea. A ‘modified Presentation-Practice-Performance (PPP)’ model is applied to the course, with an additional element of reflective practice. Needs analysis was conducted to create a syllabus based on students’ needs. Indian English, Vietnamese English, and French English were covered in the course. Students received form-focused instruction on the features of the three varieties, went through cloze exercises, performed interpreting tasks, and wrote reflective journals. Finally, an end-of-course survey was conducted. The findings of the action research revealed that the ‘modified PPP’ approach was useful, built higher awareness on the target situation involving World Englishes, and developed capabilities for problem analysis and strategy building.
  • 4.

    Analyse et réflexion sur des approches de l’évaluation de la traduction au niveau micro et macrostructuel

    Daeyoung KIM | 2014, 15(4) | pp.107~150 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Due to the subjective nature of assessment in the field of translation, it is difficult to reach a consensus on a single model of the translation assessment; but at the same time, the need for evaluation of translation is stronger than ever in many countries and there are many approaches of the evaluation of the translation at present. In this paper, we categorize and examine with a critical reflection the models of the assessment of translation, according to whether they are micro or macro structures of strategies, based on the categorization of House (1997). Then we analyze the current problems related to different approaches. Finally our discussions will present an outline of our recommendations that could solve these problems. The results show that the models of micro structural level, defining a rather quantitative absolute and linguistic assessment of the translation may be used as basis for the assessment of the macro-structural level but unable to evaluate the errors of the translation in the level of the full text or discourse, they must be completed. The models of macro-structural level defines a more qualitative and relative assessment of translation. They consider the meaning of the entire text. However, all models of macro-structural level do not specify concretely how to conclude the overall quality of a translation. They do not justify all criteria or standards stated by not relying on enough examples of practical analysis of translations. Therefore, to obtain a less subjective and more applicable assessment in the real cases, each model should turn to a systematic evaluation based on verification of the facts, with clear and concrete criteria and standards to be defined by empirical approaches using the act of communication and analyzing the distribution of roles of the different actors in the assessment of translation: the evaluator, the client, the translation agency, publisher, reader, translator, etc.
  • 5.

    Framing Features Identified in Netizens’ Translations

    Lee, Jimin | 2014, 15(4) | pp.151~178 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper studies how framing is manifested in translations by internet users, or netizens, based on framing theories introduced in media and translation studies. Analysis was performed on 100 recent translations by netizens found in one of the biggest netizen translation community websites in Korea, gasengi.com. Unlike other netizen translation communities such as the TED Open Translation Project or Wikileaks Korea where netizens are required to translate STs commissioned by the website organizer in pre-defined formats (typology and colors) according to strict style guides, netizens on gasengi.com have choice in translation material selection as well as presentation. Gasengi.com translators’ postings are composed of headline/title, introduction, ST (news articles, videos and other materials as well as international netizens’ comments and replies on them), translation of the first part of the ST, concluding statement and the translation of the second part of the ST (international netizens’ comments). Both active linguistic and non-linguistic framings are observed across the components. In introduction, issue-specific framing and generic framing are witnessed. Linguistic framing such as labeling, use of noticeable and emotionally charged words and depictions are readily apparent in non-translation parts. Visual framing is performed by differentiating font colors and shapes across all parts. Usage of the pronouns ‘we’ or ‘ours’ and the community-specific argot or internet jargon shows that netizens’ sense of community also affects their framing.
  • 6.

    Reconceptualizing Explicitation as Informativity Control

    피터리 | 2014, 15(4) | pp.179~221 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Explicitation is an indispensable part of the translator’s arsenal and an essential topic in translation studies. The past few decades have seen a dramatic proliferation of studies on the subject, but the concept is still curiously unsettled and there are ambiguities that have yet to be dispelled. This paper aims to provide some clarity by reconceptualizing explicitation in terms of informativity, one of the textual standards studied in text linguistics. After reviewing the relevant literature, including works by Blum-Kulka, Klaudy, Pym, Saldanha, and Beaugrande and Dressler, we will redefine explicitation as a means of controlling informativity. Informativity can change during translation and shift to a higher or lower level in the target text. Explicitation can be viewed as a means of controlling the relationship between a text and its translation with respect to informativity. Once we make this functional connection, we can further identify explicitation with downgrading and implicitation with upgrading informativity, and distinguish the way both processes either maintain or change the informativity level of the source text by labelling them type-m and type-c processes. This finer distinction should allow us to furnish more detailed predictions and to better explain the phenomenon of explicitation.
  • 7.

    Knowledge of Word Connotations in the Translation of Culture-specific Lexis: Findings from a Pilot Study

    Vivian Lee | 2014, 15(4) | pp.223~250 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper looks at the knowledge of word connotations possessed by participants in Korean into English translation tasks which involved culture-specific lexis (CSL). Students learning Korean into English translation were given pre and post-translation tasks containing culture-specific lexis, and a taught session with discussions was held in between. Pre and post interviews were also conducted. The recorded data was transcribed and coded using NVivo software. Presenting data from the study, this paper looks at what prior knowledge of culture-specific lexis was possessed by the learners, and how translation tasks involving such culture-specific words require consideration of connotations in both L1 and L2 words. Results show that while in most cases L1 speakers may have knowledge of connotations in CSL, when translating from their L1 into L2 it is important to find ways to convey such meanings in translation into the target text. For L2 speakers of the source text, translating CSL from L2 into L1 requires the learning and understanding of any unknown CSL for efficient translation into the target text. The paper also highlights the importance of CSL in translation tasks, and considers pedagogical implications for teachers and trainers of translation studies.
  • 8.

    Serve and Learn! Creating a Service-Learning Course for the Translation and Interpreting Classrooms

    Marko Miletich | 2014, 15(4) | pp.251~286 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Service-learning has been shown to be an important pedagogical tool that benefits college level students, faculty, participating educational institutions, as well as the Non-Profit and Community Outreach Programs where service-learning projects take place. Although Social Work, Sociology and Political Science Departments carry out many of the service-learning projects, the model could be incorporated more often to translation and interpreting courses. The service-learning component incorporated to the courses SPAN 3340, Introduction to Translation, and SPAN 3341 Business and Legal Translation at the University of Texas at Arlington during the Spring 2014, provided a unique learning opportunity for the students and faculty involved. The incorporation of service-learning to translation and interpreting courses helped our students better understand the relevance of their academic coursework and increase their appreciation for social issues. The Non-Profit Program selected benefited by getting help from students who were eager to contribute to their community. Faculty benefited by finding ways to innovate their teaching and research. The educational institution benefited by fulfilling their mission of service and collaboration with a community, breaking away from the “ivory tower” image. This article describes the benefits of incorporating service-learning to translation and interpreting courses and discusses a service-learning project developed for such courses.
  • 9.

    The Ambilaterality of Fluency in Translating Literature in Peripheral Contexts

    윤후남 | 2014, 15(4) | pp.287~321 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Translation history shows that linguistic ethnocentrism and cultural hegemony have influenced translating from antiquity to today. One of the prominent results of such influence is fluency in translating literature. As Venuti points out, in British, American and European contexts, fluency in translating foreign texts has prevailed over other translation strategies, constituting a melting pot where heterogeneous elements are melted together into harmonious ones which are acceptable to dominant cultures. In the process, the differences and the identity of other cultures are erased or reduced so as to be almost invisible. As an ethical strategy against such violence on the source culture, literalism or foreignization has been proposed among Western scholars. In peripheral contexts, however, literalism may not be an ethical strategy but instead may actually inflict violence on the source culture. When translating from a minority-status language culture to a dominant culture, for example, it may produce potentially unreadable texts, increasing the risk of readers being excluded, and thereby confining texts within the national border by closing off the possibilities of texts being circulated throughout the world. These peripheral contexts have rarely been discussed in translation studies. What does fluency strategy mean in peripheral contexts in the case of translating from a minority-status language culture to a dominant target language? What would be the influence of this strategy on the source culture beyond national borders? This paper aims to investigate these questions using the example of the Korean novel Please Look after Mom, a million-copy seller in South Korea, which was translated into English in 2009 and won popularity among English-speaking readers. It argues that fluency strategy constitutes a strategic progressive invasion into a dominant culture in peripheral contexts.