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2014, Vol.15, No.5

  • 1.

    Translating Style Markers of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice

    Dohun Kim | 이은숙 | 2014, 15(5) | pp.7~31 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Style has been neglected in the discipline of translation studies as well as translation practice, since meaning has been considered to be the main agent to be transferred in translation. Nevertheless, meaning and style are inseparable: both elements affect and create each other. Also, style markers in literary writing deliver a number of effects—scene change, slide effect, tempo, rhythm, and so forth. In most cases, they are the writer’s intentional devices that need to be carefully transferred or maintained—so far as possible—by the translator. In a bid to raise recognition of style in literary translation, this paper explores the origin and value of style, elements of style, types and roles of style markers, and translation of form style markers. First, this research defines the concept of style and style markers, and classifies style markers into two categories: content and form. Second, it discusses in detail the relationship between form style markers and translation. Third, it compares Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice and its Korean translations (4 target texts) to examine how stylistic effects are maintained or distorted in the course of translation. Translation of 4 types of form style markers—sentence length, sentence structure, punctuation, and line—are dealt with herein. The author hopes this study will contribute to triggering further discussion on the issue and to presenting guidelines for those in the translation profession.
  • 2.

    A Comparison of Translations of Animal Farm: Focusing on Stylistic Characteristics of Orwell and Translation Strategies

    KIM SOON YOUNG | 박소영 | 2014, 15(5) | pp.33~56 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This study aimed at examining, drawing upon the seven translation strategies proposed in Kim(2012), how stylistic characteristics of Orwell’s Animal Farm were addressed by translators. First, it reviewed stylistic characteristics of Orwell based on his own essay on writing, and related previous studies by other scholars. It then conducted comparisons of four translations, two published before 2000 and two after 2000. Orwell, in his essay, Politics and the English Language (1946), overtly stated five rules of writing and they are: (i) Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print; (ii) Never use a long word where a short one will do; (iii) If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out; (iv) Never use the passive where you can use the active; (v) Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent; and, perhaps Orwell’s most important rule, (vi) Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. Kim translated Orwell’s six rules into Korean translation strategies which he deemed equivalent. This study compared the applications of Orwell’s rules in English with their translations into Korean by the four translators of Animal Farm, using Kim’s translated version of Orwell’s writing strategies.
  • 3.

    Corpus-Based Semantic Prosody Teaching, Necessary to be Incorporated into Translation Courses

    SEUNG HYE MAH | 2014, 15(5) | pp.57~82 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    According to a brief survey on the purpose of taking interpreting and translation courses, the majority of participating undergraduate students responded that they hoped to improve their English skills and acquire native-like competence through interpreting and translation practices. Given that most of the respondents have learned English in Korea, it is presumed that they would show non-native English speaker weaknesses in English speaking and writing. One of the non-native English speaker weaknesses is collocational errors as it was pointed out in a previous research. Such collocation errors are led to the violation of semantic prosody in writing. It is also witnessed in the students' sentence writing with words that are known to have unfavorable or negative semantic prosody such as ‘cause’, ‘utterly’, and ‘on the receiving end’. Students haven't fully developed native speaker-like intuition in determining specific semantic environment of specific words and phrases. Semantic prosody has received more attention recently as the corpus-based research has widely been adopted in translation studies. It is revealed in a data analysis, the conclusion of which could not be generalized due to the constraint in collecting data that suit the criteria set out in the research, that outbound translators in Korea who translate from Korean to English tend to show some difficulties in maintaining semantically consistent attitudes in their translations. It turns out that the violation of semantic prosody in English translation would influence the ultimate acceptance of the translation by native English speaker readers. Semantic prosody can be best figured out by corpus search. Hence it is necessary to incorporate corpus-based semantic prosody learning into translation courses, which would meet the need of undergraduate students in translation classes and, ultimately, contribute to the quality enhancement of into-B translation.
  • 4.

    Thoughts on the Review Process of Translation and Interpretation Journals in Korea

    Hyejung Shin | 2014, 15(5) | pp.83~103 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    One of the key functions of an academic society is publishing academic journals, and three pillars of a journal publication process are authors, reviewers, and the editorial board. Authors submit their paper to a journal in the expectation of being accepted. Reviewers evaluate the paper and comment on things to improve on. The editorial board supports authors and reviewers and mediates between them. The three players depend on each other in the process; each has duties and responsibilities to fulfill and the end product of their collaboration is directly linked to the quality of the journal. Unlike other academic disciplines, there has been no formal discussion of the publication process, more specifically the review process, in the field of translation and interpretation. So, this paper looks at the review process of translation and interpretation journals in Korea and discusses what is expected of authors, reviewers, and the editorial board in each part and what can be done to improve the current review process.
  • 5.

    Verbal-Visual Relationship in the Translation of Picturebooks

    Lee Sungyup | 2014, 15(5) | pp.105~129 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    Picturebooks can be defined as ‘iconotexts’ in that verbal and visual texts are intertwined constituting an inseparable inter-semiotic unity. Based on this definition, the purpose of this research is to perform an in-depth study regarding how the presence of visual text (illustrations) and verbal-visual relationship can influence the translations of picturebooks. In general, the inter-semiotic relationship is subdivided into three categories: redundancy, alternation and opposition. Iconotextual wordplay is a typical example of redundant interrelation: idiomatic expressions and their visual representation can become intersemiotic play, because the proper meanings of their constitutive words are “literally” reproduced in visual text. This verbal-visual tie makes translators take into consideration both the figurative and proper meanings. Rendering the figurative meanings can result in the discordance between the verbal and the visual. On the other hand, translating the proper meanings can lead target readers to incomprehension of the expressions, while the intersemiotic marriage is preserved in the target text. When it comes to the other two verbal-visual relations, it is important to preserve the distance and the tension between the verbal and the visual in the target text. In other words, the verbalization of information inferred from the visual text can denature the intersemiotic connections in the target text. As a result the translation of picturebooks means conveying the verbal-visual interplay, a core textual mechanism of the iconotext.
  • 6.

    Translation Strategy for Polite Expression: Focusing on Dialogue Sentences Using Address Terms

    이숙자 | 2014, 15(5) | pp.131~155 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    In this study, English literature A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce and its three Korean translations are selected to analyse the following with the viewpoints of the fidelity for the original text and the pragmatic level: first, what translation strategies are used to implement politeness of dialogue sentences using address terms in the original; and second, whether the effects are similar to those of the original. From the contrastive analysis of the texts, it is concluded that politeness is also expressed in Korean translations even without using address terms due to the proper use of the Korean's honorific system, but that the character's personality or attitude and the relation of the characters are a little different from those of the original when the situational context of the text is not considered.
  • 7.

    A study on the translation of humor of English-Korean children’s literature

    이현경 | 2014, 15(5) | pp.157~179 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This thesis explores the translation of humor in the children’s literature of English and their Korean translations. The bipolar translation strategies of ‘domestication’ and ‘foreignization’ are applied as parameters in identifying the degree of translator intervention, hypothesized influencing on the translation for different age groups of children. Humor is thought to be one of the daunting jobs for translators since it is intensely interwoven with culture and background knowledge. The primary function of humor is to make the listener laugh, and so the purpose of its translation is. This study categorized humor into linguistic and non-linguistic, and subcategorized them into total of eight: word play, intentional errors in spelling and grammar, slangs, naming, parody, situation, knowledge-clash, and hostility. Translation strategies are consisted of ST transfer, ST footnote, TT replacement, ST explanation, and ST omission. Out of the five strategies, three of them, ST footnote, TT replacement and ST explanation are considered as the domestication strategy while ST transfer as the foreignization one. Humorous children’s literature such as ‘Captain Underpants’ and ‘Wimpy Kid’ series whose main purpose is to bring laughter to children is chosen as the data of the study. Eight English texts of humorous children’s literature were selected based on their popularity and publication dates and their Korean translations were also chosen. The results showed that, out of the eight humor types, six of them, word play, error in spelling and grammar, slang, naming, situation and knowledge clash had significant correlations with translation strategies. And ST transfer and TT replacement strategies were proven to be statistically significant in humor translation of children from age 8 to 13. Domestication and foreignization strategies were found to be used preferably according to the grade levels.
  • 8.

    Analysis of students’ self-directed learning after class: with focus on group studies

    Lim Soon Jeung | 2014, 15(5) | pp.181~220 | number of Cited : 16
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to explore current situation of interpreting students' self-directed learning after class based on expertise & collaborative learning theory. The observation of students' study diary and group study was proceeded during the first semester of 2014. And that result was transcribed and analyzed in terms of type, group size, time, topic, text and method. To acquire interpretation skill and reach expert-level interpretation skills, students need constant and deliberate practices. This concept is known as "deliberate practice", and in interpretation study, it refers to self-directed learning (individual and group study) after class. Although self-directed leaning is crucial for improving students' interpretation skill, unless it is well organized, can not lead to expected results/ effects. To elaborate, i) students experienced difficulties in tuning up individual study and group study, ii) they didn't realize exactly the goal of various learning activities and iii) they didn't have enough competence to set the goal, evaluate, and manage group study. To this end, the author proposes an integrated learning model regrouping individual learning and collaborative learning. And the author claims the development of Self-Directed Leaning Evaluation Scale to maximize the effectiveness of students' self-directed leaning. A close communication between the teacher and the students is needed for a virtuous circle among classroom teaching and students' self-planned and self-conducted learning.
  • 9.

    Measuring Interpreters’ Memory — An Empirical Research on Interpreting Competence —

    Hyeyeon Chung | 2014, 15(5) | pp.221~244 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the special features of the memory system of professional interpreters on the base of psychological and neurological findings and attempts to measure those features experimentally. Previous studies on the memory of interpreters have been based on the presumption that interpreters have greater memory capacity than non-interpreters. The results of those studies did not, however, always confirm that presumption (Padilla 1995, Chincotta & Underwood 1998, Liu et.al. 2004, Köpke et.al. 2006, Nordet & Voegtlin 1998). In this paper, we modified the premise of the previous studies and designed our experiment in the following way. (1) Not only Capacity, but also construction and retrieval of memory are measured. Both process and product of memory usage are thereby important to define the interpreters' expertise in memory more accurately (speed and accuracy of memory construction and retrieval, i.e. effectiveness of memory usage). (2) The semantic memory ('sense' memory) as well as phonological memory of interpreters were tested under the premise that the excellence of the interpreters' memory lies in the constructing sense, not memorizing of lists of words. In this experiment 51 subjects (29 undergraduate students, 14 students of graduate school of interpretation, 8 professional interpreters) were tested in their capacity, construction and retrieval of memory. In memory capacity, professionals scored lower than the control groups in phonological memory test, but higher in the semantic test. Professionals also yielded better results in the accuracy of semantic memory retrieval than the control groups. Both results were statistically significant.
  • 10.

    The Producer as the ‘Hybrid Translator’ in Dubbing of Audiovisual Translation

    Choi Suyeon | 2014, 15(5) | pp.245~286 | number of Cited : 5
    Abstract PDF
    This paper introduces and explains the role of producers in audiovisual translation (AVT), especially, in dubbing. Nowadays, although there are various studies on AVT, most studies focus on subtitles and translators and disregard other factors of translation such as producers, voice-actors and engineers. The producer of dubbing translation plays the role of both director and translator during the whole process of dubbing. The concept of ‘hybrid translator’ reflects both this multiple role of the producer in AVT and the subversive role against the authorship of the translator. In this paper, the producer is designated as the ‘hybrid translator’. Six dubbing translation scripts were analyzed to find out why and how the producers changed the dialogues before and during the recording process.
  • 11.

    A Study on the Quality of News Translations by Translators for News Organizations in South Korea — Focusing on Chesterman’s Norms of Translation

    Hong Jung Min | 2014, 15(5) | pp.287~331 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This research aims at measuring the quality of news translations by translators working for media organizations in South Korea. To achieve this research goal, norms of news translation were identified based on Chesterman's concepts of norms(1997), which are divided into expectancy norms and professional norms, and the norms of news translation identified were used as a set of gauges of the quality of news translation. Against the gauges, which are principles of news writing and reporting, news texts translated by translators were examined. As for research method, textual analysis on 148 pairs of source texts and target texts were conducted and complemented with interviews with 14 translators, reporters and editors. The major findings of this study are as follows. In substituting or reorganizing source texts, translators' intervention in and transformation of texts help improve news value and news language as well as comply with principles of news reporting, indicating that the process and product of their translation are in line with the norms of news translation. In case of deleting, adding, or synthesizing source texts, however, translators often violate some norms of news translation, such as the principles of news reporting, which in turn can affect the quality of the translations they produce. And a closer look at interview results suggests that translators' failure to comply with the norms of news translations as observed in this research is largely attributed to their lack of knowledge or awareness of the norms of news translation. Based on the findings, this study suggests that the media organization should provide the news translators with more effective and systematic education and training programs focusing on the norms of news translation, such as basic principles of news writing and reporting, as a way to help improve the quality of news translations the translators produce.
  • 12.

    Linguistic Knowledge-Based Korean-Chinese Machine Translation of News Headlines

    YINXIA HUANG | 2014, 15(5) | pp.333~362 | number of Cited : 14
    Abstract PDF
    The aim of this study was to conduct a contrastive analysis on the linguistic characteristics of Korean and Chinese news headlines and to apply the research results to machine translations of Korean and Chinese news headlines. To achieve this purpose, this study constructed a parallel corpus and comparable corpus of Korean and Chinese news headlines to conduct a comparative analysis and correspondence study regarding the linguistic characteristics presented in the form, vocabulary, syntax and punctuation marks of Korean and Chinese news headlines. The results from the contrastive analysis were applied to the machine translation of Korean and Chinese news headlines to verify the usefulness of this study. The significance of this study can be largely observed in linguistic and language engineering aspects. First, this study described the linguistic use of Korean news headlines that can be differentiated from general text. In addition, this study clarified the similarities and differences between Korean and Chinese news headlines, and summarized the correspondence rules required in Chinese translation. Next, by applying the experimental results and evaluating the linguistic research results in a language engineering study via machine translation, this study not only enhanced the accuracy rate, but also presented a successful case of interdisciplinary integration between linguistics and language engineering.
  • 13.

    The Establishment and Development of the Korean Association of Translation Studies

    Hie Sup Choi | 2014, 15(5) | pp.363~388 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    As is well-known, the Korean Association of Translation Studies (KATS) held the inaugural meeting in 1999 at Sejong University. Before the KATS held the inaugural meeting on October 30, 1999, professor Ryu Myung-woo and Kim Ji-won prepared the establishment of the KATS for almost a year. Kim Yong-kwon was invited as first president of the KATS. Within a year after the establishment of the academic society, the first volume of its academic journal The Journal of Translation Studies was published. Until 2007, the journal continued to be published biannually. From 2008 to 2011, they published the journal as a quarterly and since 2012, the journal is being published five times a year including an English volume. The society’s journal was listed in the Korea Research Foundation in 2007. When the society was published, the members were about 250, and within a year the members were increased to more than 550. The Korean-translation of Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies was published in 2009 after almost six years’s work. The first international conference was held in 2009. The best paper award was established in 2011 with the fund of advisor Kim Ji-won. It has past 15 years since KATS was established. During that time, the society comes to have its own history and it is needed to leave its history in writing. That is why the advisors, the former presidents of the society are interviewed. This is the record of their interview. Some informations scattered in the journals are included.