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2016, Vol.17, No.2

  • 1.

    Translating Linguistic Hybridity in Postcolonial Fictions

    김기영 | 2016, 17(2) | pp.7~34 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study attempts to propose plausible strategic options in translating linguistic hybridity of ‘postcolonial literature’ by examining their literary features, translation theories, and Korean translations of typical postcolonial texts. Using hybrid and subversive languages, many postcolonial writers try to destroy illusions about “universality” held by imperial languages, such as British English. Those features, however, create tremendous difficulties in translating, as the effects generated by multilayered linguistic texture is hard to survive translations. Linguistic hybridity of postcolonial literary texts is often realized through inserting untranslated indigenous words, using foreign words, coining new words and misspellings, all intended to violate norms of standard English. Korean translations reviewed in this paper normally depend on transliteration(sound borrowings) and translator annotations, and often failed in conveying multiple textuality of the original. Viable strategies and creative interventions by translators should be discussed based on the empirical evidence from accumulated data. This paper confirmed the critical need for accumulating case study data on translating multilingual texts.
  • 2.

    Directionality in the decay of memory for words among graduate students of interpretation

    Jong-Hwa Won | 2016, 17(2) | pp.35~64 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Seleskovitch(1978), who founded the Interpretive Theory, suggested interpretation should be meaning-based, and that recall of surface forms in the source text would decay in an interpreter's memory immediately after listening to the source text. In the years since, a number of researchers have argued that surface forms from the source text continue to play a meaningful role during interpretation, and the interpreter's recall of those forms may endure well into the process of interpreting. This paper aims to investigate whether individual words, one of important components of the surface forms, remain in the memory of Korean-English interpreters when they perform consecutive interpreting as well as when they are just listening to a text. In order to investigate this, an experiment was conducted with 8 graduate students of interpretation. The participants were instructed to recall the texts verbatim either after listening to texts in Korean or in English or after interpreting the text. The percentage of words recalled was calculated and their significance was checked with the chi square test. Interesting conclusions were drawn from the investigation: when the participants just listened and recalled, the percentage of Korean words recalled were greater than English. When they did the interpreting, however, the number of English words recalled was greater, which means that the interpreters hold on to the English words, their B language, more strongly when they do interpreting compared to when they are just listening. The current author divided the participants into two groups, one who were brought up and educated in an English-speaking country for 9 to 13 years and a second group who had never been abroad before the age of 20. The latter group demonstrated the strongest tendency to hold on to words in their memory when they did English into Korean interpreting, even greater than when they just listened and recalled words.
  • 3.

    Future Horizons of Translation & Interpretation: Artificial Intelligence and Interactive-Converged Translation & Interpretation

    Noh-shin Lee | 이신재 | 이재영 and 1other persons | 2016, 17(2) | pp.65~89 | number of Cited : 21
    Abstract PDF
    In this article, we tried to describe rapidly changing landscapes of current technologies related to artificial intelligence, and how A.I. will deliver enormous impacts on the field of translation and interpretation. In addition, we illustrated basic structures of artificial intelligence, which are fundamentally identical with each other regardless of how and where it has been applied to human beings’ real life. In particular, when an artificial intelligence would be programmed to be developed for the machine translation, the deep learning process of the A.I. will be taken to translate or interpret a variety of natural languages. Besides, in this article, we tried to categorize machine translators depending on operation as follows: rule-based system, statistical based system, and neural network system. Korea has developed a rule based translation system, which was named “Genie Talk.” However, one of its weak points is first, all the basic information must be typed by human beings because it doesn't work with any super computer. Therefore, we have found that the future style of machine translation will be based on statistical data and neural network system supported by a strong super computer. In considering the future of translators and interpreters, we stated that they do not have to be afraid of any possibility that the job market for translation and interpretation would be shrunken. For the development of A.I. can be a great opportunity as well as a crisis. Turning their eyes to the new horizon, they will discover new jobs with the new fields such as many different sorts of engineering and biomedical technology, and even special area like developing machine translation for the handicapped. However, regardless of whether the translators and interpreters want or do not, the changes of translation and interpretation will be very radical in the near future. Thus, to prepare for this very soon-upcoming changes more efficiently, they must not only acquire the knowledge of translation and interpretation but also be familiar with a variety of engineering or biomedical related fields.
  • 4.

    Utilizing crowdsourced translation in translator training —focusing on the practices in Japan—

    Ju Ri Ae Lee | 2016, 17(2) | pp.91~117 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    Since the beginning of the 2000s, the commissioning of translation is increasingly based on crowdsourcing. The tendency to capitalize on the collective intelligence of the crowd while saving time and cost has given rise to ongoing debate over low-price markets where professional translators lose ground and translation quality is poor. With help of experts and technical assistance, however, this new mode of translation seems to have a major role to play in future translation markets. Translation schools should take this emerging trend into consideration to keep up with the changing market. This study aims to examine the characteristics, benefits and shortcomings of crowdsourced translation, along with ways to employ crowdsourcing in translator training. Difference in perception towards crowd-sourcing between Korea and Japan, along with students' awareness is investigated. Learner experience of and response to different types of crowdsourced translation is observed, based on which suggestions are made. It is particularly proposed that the assignment of translation work, the actual process of translating and feedback communication should mirror the practices in the professional field. The role of translation schools and professional translators the schools are to produce in the future is also discussed, in light of the growing body of translation produced by regular internet users and the ever diversifying channels for commissioning translation in the cyber space.
  • 5.

    Paraphrasing Competence of Professional Interpreters

    Hyeyeon Chung | 2016, 17(2) | pp.119~140 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Paraphrasing has been employed in entrance examinations in order to select candidates with the highest potential. This study aims to find out the difference between professional interpreters and non-interpreters in their paraphrasing competence, especially to answer the question, if the substitution of synonyms, one of the important strategies of paraphrasing, is really a crucial feature of an expert interpreter. To accomplish this, a paraphrasing test which consisted of 10 sentences was administered to 3 groups with 56 subjects in total: 12 professionals, 28 first-year students at an interpreting school, and 16 undergraduate school students. The results were analyzed according to nine sub-strategies. The professionals achieved the highest score in the categories listed as 'syntactic restructuring', 'division', and 'concept-based reformulation' in addition to 'speed', 'repetition', and 'change of meaning', but not 'synonym substitution'. These results imply that professionals tend to paraphrase quicker and change the sentence formations more dramatically on the basis of their own concepts than other groups (the group difference was statistically significant only in the category of 'speed', however). The professionals also improved the sentence coherence and used more conversational verb endings.
  • 6.

    A Case Study of English Translations of Korean Interjections

    Joo, Jin-kook | 2016, 17(2) | pp.141~161 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Interjections are a group of words or utterances that express the speaker’s state of instinctive surprise, feelings, intention to get attention, response, etc. This peculiar group of words or non-words have traditionally fallen under the category of a disparate word class. Interjections are sometimes an indispensable part of many children’s stories as they serve the role of bringing to life the feelings, emotions, or attitudes of the human and personified animal characters that appear in such stories. The purpose of this study is to compare Korean and English interjections classified based on their discourse functions and meanings and examine the methods employed in translating Korean interjections into English. To this end, Korean interjections that occurred in 12 Korean Children's stories have been classified based on some important previous studies into five categories—displaying, notifying, inducing actions, actions, and hesitation and stammering—and their English translations have been studied.
  • 7.

    A Study on the Appropriateness of Presentation Rates for Simultaneous Interpreting of Korean Speech

    Moon Sun Choi | 2016, 17(2) | pp.163~190 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    A presentation rate being ‘appropriate’ for simultaneous interpreting may refer to one that spares the interpreter additional efforts for decision-making on top of comprehension and rendition of the message. In interpreting studies, it is known that the rate of 100-120 wpm is optimal for simultaneous interpreting. However, whether this statement may also be applicable for Korean speech has not been empirically tested. This study aims to explore and identify the range of presentation rates appropriate for simultaneous interpreting from Korean to English with empirical data. Five professional interpreters performed simultaneous interpreting from Korean to English under three rate conditions of 200, 270 and 340 spm, without being informed of the rate change. After completing the interpreting task, the participants were asked to orally answer the questions regarding their perception of the presentation rates and their effects on interpreting performance. Analysis of the interpreting products in terms of omission, disfluency, pause and EVS revealed that omission increased significantly when the presentation rate rose from 270 to 340 spm while no significant difference was found between 200 and 270 spm. Analysis of oral responses showed that first, the participants perceived a marked change in the presentation rate only when the rate increased to 340 spm, which indicates that the range between 200 to 270 spm was being perceived as a single, homogeneous rate; second, the participants stated that they made a decision to select specific interpreting strategies, i.e. omission and summarization, in order to cope with the increasing rate when it went up to 340 spm. Taken together, these findings suggest that the appropriate range of presentation rate for Korean to English simultaneous interpreting may be found somewhere between 200~270 spm where the interpreters did not have additional burden of selecting and implementing specific interpreting strategies while omission stayed at a relatively low level. However, as was pointed out by some participants, the more ‘authentic’ rate was close to 340 spm, which was set as the highest speed in this study.
  • 8.

    Translation History of Christian Publications in the Modern Time Korea: Focusing on the Main Agent of the History

    Choi, Hyoeun | 2016, 17(2) | pp.191~212 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    This study exams who was the main agent of the translation history of Christian publications in the modern time Korea was. Hermans (2012: 244) has conceptualized translation historiography as the two-step process: first, forming an idea of what translation was like in a given environment, and second, assessing what role it played. Pym (1998: 5-6) has categorized methods of translation historiography into three parts: translation archaeology, historical criticism, and explanation. This study, procedurally, falls into the first part of Hermans’ theorization, and methodologically, translation archaeology by Pym's classification, which he described as “complex detective work, great self-sacrifice and very real service to other areas of translation history” (ibid.: 5). As Pym rightly pointed, this archaeological study too demanded a complex investigations on fact-finding and analyzing. Through a series of research, the author found that the 73% of the translators for Christian publications in the period of 1882 to 1945 in Korea was a person with foreign nationality.
  • 9.

    A Study on the Quality Assessment Criteria and Norms of Korean-English Patent Translation

    Choi, Hyo-eun | 2016, 17(2) | pp.213~250 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to explore quality assessment criteria applicable to Korean-English patent translation, based on the characteristics and functions of patent translation as well as Chesterman’s (1997) expectancy and professional norms. For the purpose, the study reviewed patent-related literatures, guidelines from patent offices, and quality control processes adopted by patent translation service providers in Korea. As a result, it is suggested that quality assessment criteria for Korean-English patent translation be identified as accurate understanding of the technical idea communicated through the ST, accurate translation of technical terms, correct style required for patent translation including correct grammar and characteristics of the genre of patent translation, and strict literal translation, i.e. no addition or omission. The criteria are confirmed from the perspective of Chesterman’s (1997) expectancy norms set by ‘norm authorities’ of major patent offices as well as World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and professional norms by major Korean-English patent translation service providers. The results of in-depth interview also show professional Korean-English patent translators tend to be well aware of the expectancy norms and agree with those criteria. It is expected that the assessment criteria and the norms of Korean-English patent translation lay a foundation for improving quality of patent translation outcomes and, moreover, providing quality training programs.
  • 10.

    Trend and Challenges in Interpreting Studies Research in Korea: Basing on Comparison with Trend in Interpreting Studies Research Overseas

    Han Hyun Hee | 2016, 17(2) | pp.251~286 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    The objective of this study is to analyze Korea’s current foothold in the field of interpreting studies research and present the future path through the use of comparison between the patterns in interpreting studies research in Korea and overseas. To this end, this study sets forth classification of research in interpreting studies, comparing and analyzing papers published in academic journals both at home and abroad. The time range of the corpus of analysis is from 1997 to 2015. The corpus for analysis is 600 studies including: 274 studies on interpretation published in three overseas academic journals, namely Interpreting, Meta and Translation and Interpreting studies; 298 studies on interpretation published in three local academic journals, namely Conference Interpretation and Translation, Interpreting and Translation Studies and The Journal of Translation Studies; and 28 studies on sign language interpretation registered on the Korea Education and Research Information Service (KERIS). Utilizing the classification of research, trend in research is quantitatively analyzed according to year, language, type and genre of interpretation, and scope and theme of research. The results are as follows: 1) Journals that are leading interpreting studies research are Conference Interpretation and Translation and Interpreting and Translation Studies in Korea and Interpreting overseas. Time analysis shows that interpretation related papers are consistently published in the leading journals, whereas great discrepancies exist in the number of interpretation related papers published in the non-leading journals depending on the publishing year; 2) Papers on sign language interpretation account for 9.85% in overseas journals, whereas the number stands at a mere 0.67% in Korea. This showcases the disconnection between research on sign language interpretation and oral language interpretation; 3) In researches that do not distinguish between simultaneous and consecutive modes of interpretation, conference interpretation and community interpretation account for similar proportions in researches abroad, whereas conference interpretation takes up a predominant share in Korea; 4) The analysis on the scope and sub-themes of studies on oral language interpretation shows that the most researched area overseas is descriptive interpreting studies, followed by application, general theory and partial theory, in this set order. In Korea, the most focused is application, followed by general technology, general theory and partial theory, in this order. The order for sign language interpretation research is consistent both at home and abroad, the most researched being general technology, followed by application, general theory and partial theory, in this order. However, the sub-themes of different scopes of studies varies both in the case of oral and sign language. The implications of the results of analysis and the future path that the Korean academia of interpretation should take are as follows. First, in function-oriented DIS, more attention should be given to the relationship among interpretation participants and the atmosphere of acceptance of interpretation. Second, efforts should be made to close the gap between diverging directions of research on oral and sign language interpretation. Third, effort should be made to fill the void that exist in the scope of research. Fourth, all boundaries in interpreting studies research including language format, interpretation mode and genre of interpretation should be dismantled.
  • 11.

    Rhyme and Cultural Context in Proverbs: for Better Translation

    Moon, Jae-ik | 2016, 17(2) | pp.287~310 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Proverbs, simple, concrete sayings, popularly known and repeated, express truth based on common sense or experience. Many are metaphorical and indirect, describing basic rules of conduct. Hence, they often must be read between the lines. Both the Bible, not limited to the Book of Proverbs, and medieval Latin aided by the work of Erasmus have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs across Europe. Mieder, Wolfgang defined proverbs as compact, well-known sentences “of the folk” which express wisdom, truth, morality, and traditions in metaphorical, fixed, memorable forms, “handed down from generation to generation.” Reading and practicing proverbs enriches learning and understanding of American and British cultures. Reading proverbs also improves English fluency. As one proverb says, “If one sheep leaps over the ditch, all the rest will follow,” meaning that a good precedent will be continued. Hopefully, then, when teachers use proverbs, students will do the same.
  • 12.

    A Dual Scandal of Translation: The Un-ethics of Domestication in the Korean Bestseller Translation of the English book Don’t Eat the Marshmallow... Yet!

    Gyung Hee Choi | 2016, 17(2) | pp.311~340 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In translation, fluency has long been appreciated and used extensively in both literary and non-literary texts. In particular, fluent translation seems to have characterized translation strategies adopted to produce bestsellers (Venuti 1998 Chapter 7). While fluent strategy is an inevitable part of the translating process, it entails the risk of domesticating the foreign text by distorting its foreignness (Venuti 1995; 1998: 11). The domesticating strategy dominant in America and UK may also be prevalent in countries like Korea, where a considerable number of published books, and in particular, bestsellers, are translated works. As a case in point, this paper investigates one of the highest-selling translations ever in Korea, the self-improvement parable Don’t Eat the Marshmallow... Yet!, and its Korean translation (2005). In analyzing the translated text, emphasis will be given to the ethical aspect of the translation, which has already been embroiled in a proxy translator scandal (Berman 1992; cf. Nord 2007). The analysis reveals how the translation misrepresents foreignness not just in individual culture-specific content, but also in the message of the parable, seemingly as a result of an active intervention by the publisher with the purpose of boosting sales.