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2016, Vol.17, No.3

  • 1.

    Participatory Translation of Non-professionals in the Digital Age and its Implications on the Translation Community

    Soon Mi Kim | 2016, 17(3) | pp.7~32 | number of Cited : 15
    Abstract PDF
    The Digital age has turned ordinary users into producers of contents for the public, leading to the rapid emergence of non-professionals translating texts without monetary rewards. Drawing on the researches of “user-generated”, “community”, or “participatory” translations, this paper aims to investigate the nature and trend of non-professional translation and its impact on the translation community which has focused on professionalization of the profession in the past forty years. With linguistic proficiency, genre knowledge and a keen interest in the topic, the newly-emerging non-professionals are different from their counterparts in the past few decades. They produce creative and in some way high-quality translations reflecting the sentiment and bondage shared in online communities. Individuals with the same goal of translating dramas, movies, pop-songs, webtoons, games, free open source softwares, news articles, intellectual and educational contents, and websites collaborate to share terminology and background knowledge, give peer-review and edit/revise translations online. With non-professional translations become increasingly commercialized and specialized and professional translations adopting strategies used by non-professionals, non-professionals and professionals are affecting and learning from each other.
  • 2.

    Critical Analysis of Translation and Interpreting Certificates in Korea

    Park Ji Young | 2016, 17(3) | pp.33~59 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study analyzed translation and interpreting certificates in and out of Korea and identified differences as follows. Korea's T&I certifying tests do not require applicants to satisfy any qualifications to sit for an exam and issue certificates of varying levels. They are unique forms of foreign language exams for non-translators and interpreters, hence do not help develop T&I career. In contrast, exams for T&I certificates in the United States, Canada and Australia subject only those with T&I work experiences or at least those who wish to work as translators or interpreters. The certificate holders enjoy competitive advantages on the market. In Korea, government-sponsored organizations operate T&I certificates for the purpose of advancing certain industries, such as medical tourism. However, government agencies in the United States and Australia issue T&I certificates to promote public interest. To have reliable and valid T&I certificates, improvements needs to be made in Korea as follows: Tests should be developed based on job analysis of professional translators and interpreters; Grading policies and test results should be disclosed to applicants; Graduate schools of T&I should introduce and operate certificates in areas where T&I demands are satisfied mainly by those who are not trained as translators or interpreters.
  • 3.

    A Study on Research Models in Audiovisual Translation Research

    오미형 | 2016, 17(3) | pp.61~90 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    Translation Studies is now matured to the point where it systematically looks back on what it has achieved and explores the direction in which it needs to go further. Out of efforts to understand the landscape of Translation Studies, this paper aims to examine research models employed in audiovisual translation(AVT) research papers and identify any potential areas for future research. While AVT is a fast growing field both for research and practice, its research methodologies, in particular models for analysis, have not been often discussed. This paper adopts two frameworks, Grotjahn(1987) and Pérez-González(2014), to analyze research models in Masters and Doctorial theses on AVT produced in Korea. It finds that research models substantially focus on linguistic shifts between source texts and target texts, and that many of the theses qualitatively interpret data of small quantity to support claims made in them. This paper suggests shifting a focus when selecting research models, exploring into new topics, and utilizing parallel and comparable corpus to strengthen reliability of analysis.
  • 4.

    The translation experience of Pascal Quignard: The sensitive synchronism of three declination-clinamen, “Reading-Translating-Writing”

    YOO JAE-HWA | 2016, 17(3) | pp.91~116 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    What does it mean for a writer to translate literary works written by another writer? Especially the work would foretell the writer’s future works. What does it mean for a writer who’s not a professional translator to translate? When Pascal Quignard was twenty years old, he decided to translate Alexandra of Lycophron, a Greek poet of the fourth century BC. And this “descent into the lost century” was fascinating, terrible, lucid experience for Quignard. For him, translation was like to live in the “placenta”. What is it really then the sensation aroused by the double movement of “reading-translating” and “translating-writing”? A translator is immersed, obsessed and fascinated by the text that could belong to him only by his translation. Furthermore, what is the relationship between reading, writing and translating? Are they different or “same and different at the same time”? This study on Pascal Quignard’s act of translation is focused on three declination “reading-translating-writing” which have equal status. These three declination suggested by Quignard might be a wonderful way of living in three different worlds governed by the rule of continuity and discontinuity. Pascal Quignard implies that translation is the double movement which causes the painful joy of metamorphosis, the secret of birth of literature.
  • 5.

    Machine translator and/in a future network of video game translators

    Lee, Sang-Bin | 2016, 17(3) | pp.117~137 | number of Cited : 10
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to explore two major facets of a future network of video game translators: (1) the roles that translation machines like MORT could play in a network of video game translators and (2) the relationship they could have with other network participants such as fan translators (video game players) and professional translators (localizers). MORT, or Monkeyhead’s OCR Real-time Translator, is a ‘translation machine’ using free online machine translation services such as Microsoft’s Bing and Naver’s Translator. This article consists of five sections. The second section introduces MORT, with emphasis on its usage and characteristics. The third section explores what implications MORT could have for the field of video game translation. The fourth section explains what roles translation machines could play in a translator network and what relationship they could have with other network participants. In particular, the translator network in which MORT participates as a key actor is explained in detail, drawing on Bruno Latour’s Actor Network Theory. Finally, the fifth section discusses major differences between the present network of game translators and a future one, and concludes with limitations and implications of the study.
  • 6.

    Cultural Translation of Korean Literary Translation: Location of Cultural Translations of Korean Literature

    LEE Hyung-jin | 2016, 17(3) | pp.139~164 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to examine particular locations where cultural translation takes place in the process of translating Korean literature into English, and analyze the hegemonic conflict points between the established status of Korean literature in Korea and the emerging status of its English translation abroad. Over the course of time the Korean literature has established its own hegemonic tradition which carries the representative cultural identity of Koreans. However, recently these vested rights of Korean literature in Korea have been challenged by the successful reception of the English translations of Korean literature which seems to have established its own cannonical hegemony in English-speaking countries with a different group of Korean writers including Shin Kyung-sook and Han Kang. The particular locations where two different cultural hegemonies conflict each other include school textbook, anthology, literary award, and bestseller. The success of the English translation of Korean literature seems to present a different kind of hierarchy of the tradition of Korean literature, based on the different kind of preference by publishers and readers in English-speaking countries. Eventually, the higher status of cultural hegemony of the English translations of Korean literature in English-speaking countries seems to influence, interfere and eventually subvert the existing hegemonic hierarchy of Korean literature in Korea. The questions of ‘who does own Korean literature?’, ’who does have more authority about Korean literature’ and ‘who does know Korean literature more?’ have become a critical point of cultural translation in the process and reception of the English translation of Korean literature these days.
  • 7.

    Analysis of title of translated literary works: equivalence and functions

    Mikyung Choi | 2016, 17(3) | pp.165~192 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    The purpose of this article is to examine the French translation of the titles of translated Korean literary works. Our corpus consists of 355 books titles published in France from 1892 (when Printemps perfumé, the first Korean book translated into French was published) to the present days. Our aim is to explore the different kinds of translation methods which are used. We try in particular to show whether the method used is efficient with respect to each of the three main functions of any title, which are being designative, descriptive and seductive. Our analysis reveals that more than 90% (330 titles) are translated literally by linguistic correspondence; translators seem to rely on this process for the sake of fidelity and security. In some cases, the translated title does not have exactly the same meaning in French; moreover, its seduction power is often weakened. This is a detrimental loss since the French book market often plays the role of a bridge towards other European languages or North and South America markets. Two other methods are used, namely a simple alteration of the original title and a substitution of the title by a new one. When literal translation alters the meaning of the original title or produces a too long sentence in French, some translators try to modify the title, more often than not with success. The question is to decide whether those alterations meet a real justification and if they still reflect the meaning and the effect the author chose to express. Our study shows the difficulties encountered by translators in this respect and advocates the need of a negotiation with the publisher of the translated text. The title of any literary work is a sophisticated element that must be handled in taking into account several criteria not only in terms of equivalence of meaning but also in terms of function and effect. When it comes to translating a title, translators are expected to act even more actively and creatively than ever.
  • 8.

    A Study of the Stylistics of Translated Korean Literature: A Corpus-based Analysis

    Choi, Heekyung | 2016, 17(3) | pp.193~216 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Korean pop culture has gained increasing popularity in many parts of the world in recent years. Korean literature, although integral to Korean culture, seems to have lagged behind in this trend. It is often said that translation is the key to reaching a global audience of readers; however, translated Korean works, with few exceptions, have not lived up to their expectations. It is high time, thus, to pay attention to the stylistics of translated Korean literature in general and try to find insights to make the translated words more appealing. As a first step, the present study attempts to explore stylistic differences between Korean-native translators and English-native translators, and between translation and non-translation. The study draws on techniques of corpus linguistics to examine stylistics of the texts with a focus on explicitation and lexical bundles. The findings of the study reaffirm the results of prior research in that translated texts show more evidence of explicitation and lexical bundles than non-translated texts. The analysis also reveals stylistic differences between Korean-native and English-native translators, with the former having a greater tendency toward explicitation and lexical bundles.
  • 9.

    Translation of Language Variation Characterized in Comfort Woman by Nora Okja Keller

    Han Miae | 2016, 17(3) | pp.217~241 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper analyzes the source and the target text of Comfort Woman in terms of language variation which is divided into register and dialect. Halliday (1978) suggests that dialect is a variety of language according to the users, and register is a variety of language according to the uses: field, tenor and mode of discourse. Two first-person narrators and a character in the source text use language distinctively depending on the situations and the social status. However, their language uses are not distinguished in the target text. The first reason is that the present point of view is obscure since some of the present tenses connected with field and tenor of discourse are translated into the past tense. The second is that deviant free direct speech linked to mode of discourse is rendered into normal direct speech, and the comfort woman story of Akiko is not foregrounded. The third is that immigrant language and antilanguage, which is one of social dialects and "a language of social conflict" (Halliday 1978: 185), are changed into the standard language in the target text. Since language variation depending on the users and the uses is related to vivid character developments, a stylistic feature, and ethnic identity of Korean-American narrators, it should be represented in the translated text through the translator's mediating role.
  • 10.

    Interpreting Warrant Officer System and Defense Interpreting in Korea

    Joong Chol Kwak | You-jin Lee | 2016, 17(3) | pp.243~264 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    In May, 2012, a new system of Interpreting Warrant Officer (WO) was introduced in the Korean Army under the directive of Korea’s Defense Ministry. The rationale of the system was to meet the increasing demands of translation and interpretation (T&I) from the joint operations of the Korea-U.S. Army. It also aimed at maintaining the continuity and upgrading the professionalism of T&I jobs in the army by complementing the existing system of Interpreting Officers (IOs). Earlier in 2012, the Korea Defense Language Institute (KDLI) was established to incorporate the foreign language training of the entire Korean armies (the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force including the IO education. Until 2012, IOs were selected and trained respectively by each army according to its characteristics and features. Now the incorporated IO training period is 12 weeks, just half of that for WOs. The curriculum for WOs and IOs is focused on T & I only, while the Advanced course for higher ranks has an introductory T & I class in its curriculum. This paper casts a glance at the history of defense interpreting and its education in Korea before and after the new system of WOs. For the newly-established system to take root, some parts in of the current education process need to be complemented to improve the level of Korea’s defense language services.