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2016, Vol.17, No.4

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    Translation Choices of Embedded Clauses: A Systemic Functional Linguistics Perspective

    Mira Kim | Jason Heffernan | Bosheng Jing | 2016, 17(4) | pp.11~49 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Translation is the product of a decision-making process during which the translator constantly decides whether s/he wants to choose the same linguistic choice made in the Source Text or to make a translation shift by making a different linguistic choice. In this process, the translator considers a number of contextual variables and typological differences between the two languages concerned. Some of the shifts are made nearly automatically; others made with much consideration and hesitation. One of those shifts which may make translators stop and consider a few options is that associated with nominal groups modified by embedded clauses, which are referred to as defining relative clauses in traditional grammar. It is particularly so when translation takes place between languages in which the position of these embedded clauses is different, as in the case of English and Chinese (Fang and Wu 2009). This study sets out to explore how this challenging issue has been addressed in translated texts of different languages using the French novel Le Petit Prince (The Little Prince) by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry as the ST and its translations in English, Chinese and Korean, drawing on Systemic Functional Linguistics as its theoretical framework.
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    The Application of SFL as a Pedagogical Tool in the Undergraduate Translation Classroom

    Vivian Lee | 2016, 17(4) | pp.51~73 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper reports on a number of benefits of the application of an SFL-based pedagogical approach in the translation classroom on the basis of students’ study logs collected over a semester. A register analysis, based on SFL’s Field, Tenor and Mode, was introduced to undergraduate students taking a Korean into English translation course. The analysis contained the categories of ‘Purpose’ (Field), ‘Target audience’ (Tenor) and ‘Mode’ (Mode/Channel of communication), and was intended for the purpose of aiding analysis of source and target texts. After initial practice in the first week it was introduced, the students carried out the register analysis each time before beginning a translation task, with the purpose of enabling deeper understanding and interpretation of the source text, and consideration of target text-related aspects such as linguistic choice and style. Data showed that the register analysis enabled deeper understanding of the source text message, the organisation of ideas during the analysis stage prior to translation, the making of translation decisions relating to linguistic and modal factors and also helped in the post-translation stages, such as editing or reflection. Based on these findings, this paper demonstrates the usefulness in the application of the SFL-derived register analysis as a pedagogical tool for the student analysis of source and target texts.
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    Constructing the “Stranger” in Camus’ L’Étranger - Registerial and Attitudinal Variability under Translation

    Peter R. R. White | 2016, 17(4) | pp.75~106 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper demonstrates insights arising when some key aspects of systemic functional linguistic theory (Halliday 19994) and the appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) are applied to exploring variation between multiple translations of the same source text. For the purposes of this demonstration, an investigation is conducted by reference to the much discussed and debated variation between the multiple translations of the opening to Albert Camus’ celebrated novel, L’Étranger (translated either as The Stranger or The Outsider). It is demonstrated that Halliday’s notions of “instantiation”, “realisation” and “register” can be applied to show that this variation is communicatively significant in that it involves a shift of register and hence a shift in the social situation being construed for each translation. It is also demonstrated that the account of “invoked attitude” developed in the appraisal framework literature can be applied to show that the different translations have different attitudinal potentials. It is argued that these two lines of analysis can usefully be applied more generally in analyses concerned with inter-translation variation.
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    Why Audiovisual Translators Downplay the Interpersonal: The Case of “Interjections” in English-to-Chinese Movie Subtitling

    Yi Jing | Peter R. R. White | 2016, 17(4) | pp.107~142 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This paper contributes to what appears to be an increasing interest in interpersonal meanings in translation studies scholarship (e.g., Munday 2012; 2015). Specifically it attends to the observed tendency in audiovisual translation (e.g., Díaz Cintas 2013) for the interpersonal elements commonly termed “interjections” (and “minor clauses” in the systemic functional linguistic literature) to be omitted or translated at reduced rates in interlingual subtitling. We adopted systemic functional linguistic perspectives to investigate the translation of “interjections” in seven different subtitlings of the English-language movie, The Croods, into Chinese. Focusing on the frequently occurring “interjections” hey and oh, we found both tended to be omitted but that this omission rate was significantly higher for oh. We referenced the SFL differentiation of “interjections” (minor clauses) which variously function as “calls” (e.g., hey), as “exclamations” (e.g., some uses of oh), and as “continuatives” (e.g., some uses of oh). By this we were able to show that difference in meaning/function does seem to exert a consistent, systemic influence on omission/inclusion. Thus, while the study did confirm a tendency for subtitlers to underplay non-experiential meanings, it also provides evidence that this is not an entirely automatic or “indiscriminate” process; that subtitlers are sensitive to the possibility that “leaving out” one type of interpersonal meaning may be more harmful to the communicative functionality of the target text than leaving out another type. The findings of the paper are significant in providing a clearer picture than is available in the literature as to what is at stake interpersonally when interjections are omitted in the process of subtitling, and consequently a clearer picture of how such omission can result in translations which are more muted than the source text, or less explicit interpersonally. They also provide useful new insights into a key feature of audiovisual translation that of “condensation”. This is the frequent need for some elements of the original dialogue to be omitted from the subtitles, due to the limited display time and screen space available for written text. This effect has frequently been commented on in the subtitling literature but there have so far been few attempts to track in a systemic way just which meanings tend to be lost.
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    Same Chan Master, Different Images: Multi-functional Analysis of the Story of Huineng and Its Translations

    Hailing Yu | Canzhong Wu | 2016, 17(4) | pp.143~180 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Based on the theoretical framework of systemic functional linguistics (SFL), the study analyses meaning and meaning reproduction in the story of Huineng and its different English translations (Wong 1930, Heng 1977, Cleary 1998, Cheng 2011) from the experiential, interpersonal and textual perspectives. These three strands of meaning are closely related to the image of Huineng by depicting what he does, how he interacts with others and how the story unfolds. It has been found that variation in meaning, which is the result of translation shifts, leads to the recreation of different images of the same Chan master in different translated texts. Experientially, the suppression of Huineng’s role as the Actor and the increase of his role as the Sayer, the Receiver and the Carrier in Wong’s translation help to produce an image of Huineng that is less active. Interpersonally, the low status of Huineng is more or less lost in translations by Cleary and Wong where most of the original terms of address are simply rendered as “I” and “you”. Textually, Huineng talks in a more cohesive way in all the translations than in the source text with an increase of textual, interpersonal and marked topical Themes.
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