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2017, Vol.18, No.2

  • 1.

    A study about information literacy of undergraduate translation learners

    Daeyoung KIM | 2017, 18(2) | pp.7~40 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    Information literacy, the ability to ‘read and write information’ is becoming an essential skill in the 21st century and in living the near future which is characterized as the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This study focuses on information literacy of undergraduate students in translation class by applying ‘Big 6 Information Literacy Model’ by Eisenberg and Berkowitz(1990) which was used as an in-class material to write translation process report. The study outcomes can be summarized as the following; First, in translation of ‘socio-cultural text’ and ‘information text’ such as newspaper article, whilst learners most frequently used a common dictionary but they also proactively used encyclopedia, dual language dictionary, single language dictionary, ‘context’ dictionary (www.linguee.fr), Internet, other newspaper article (as parallel text) as reference materials. Second, one can infer a high usage of other newspaper article (as parallel text). In addition, other research methods were used such as blog run by native speakers, www.linguee.fr, and image search. Third, for texts such as literal essays, learners faced much difficulty in understanding metaphors and connotations. They also faced difficulty in understanding socio-cultural knowledge and related expressions. Given that such information cannot be searched, students often relied on dictionary. Based on these outcomes, one can conclude that Korean translation learners are information literate and that their literacy can be enhanced further by introducing information literacy methodology in class. In addition, ‘Big 6 Information Literacy Model’ based translation process report can be an effective learning tool that can be used to promote information literacy.
  • 2.

    Anne Frank: The Diary Of a Young Girl from the Perspective of Rewriting

    Kim, Minseo | KIM SOON YOUNG | 2017, 18(2) | pp.41~66 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    As Lefevere (1992) asserted, “translation is a rewriting of an original text.” Rewriters adapt, manipulate and (re)construct the images of an original to make them fit in with the dominant ideological and poetological currents of their time. Drawing upon this line of thinking, the current study aims to examine how the image of Anne Frank, the author and protagonist of Anne Frank: The Diary Of a Young Girl is (re)constructed in its Korean translations. Three translations were selected and compared to examine how they constructed Anne Frank’s image both paratextually and intra-textually. Paratextual features were examined in three aspects: cover, inner-cover, and translator’s note. Textual features were examined in aspects such as: politeness, ideological expressions, and emotive expressions. The paper discovered that TT1, translated in 1960, conveyed an image of Anne Frank conforming more to the post-war ideology and socio-cultural environment of the time. Anne Frank in TT2 was more girlish, friendly, and innocent, while TT3 constructed Anne as a more mature, independent woman. The study confirmed that translation is not fixed, word-to-word transfer process but a dynamic, evolving process adapting, manipulating, and (re)constructing the original to at least partially assimilate with the ideological and/or social currents of their time.
  • 3.

    Crowdsourced translation in the digital era: Focusing on Viki fansubbing community

    Soon Mi Kim | 2017, 18(2) | pp.67~96 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    In the digital age, an increasing number of users who have linguistic proficiency, digital literacy, and genre knowledge are participating in translation activities. This trend has unsettled the traditional translation practices. Now, translation is making a transition from something static and sequential to something available in a collaborative system which is user-driven, interactive and ubiquitous. Against this backdrop, this study aims to investigate the following: firstly, to find distinctive characteristics of translation in the digital era drawing on Cronin(2013)’s concept of “wiki translation”, Pym(2003, 2011, 2013)’s study on translation ethics and electronic technology, and O’Hagan and Ashworth(2002)’s study on characteristics of translation in the digital age; secondly, to see how these characteristics are manifested in reality through Viki online translating community. Among many user-generated translation community, Viki online subtitling community is chosen for analysis because it is a new initiative which became hugely successful by combining effective commercial strategies and fandom factors. This case study will show how translation activities in the digital environment evolve.
  • 4.

    Inter-personal/actional Function and Its Changes in Movie Poster Translations

    Shin, Naan | Jin-won Shin | 2017, 18(2) | pp.97~126 | number of Cited : 6
    Abstract PDF
    Due to the development of multimedia, the role of language in mass media has been challenged by other semiotic resources. As such, we need to consider not only texts but also images when translating. The aim of this paper is to analyze changes relating to the interpersonal function - one of three metafunctions of movie posters - occurring during translating. For data analysis, 34 pairs of original Korean movie posters and their English-translated counterparts were selected. Two fundamental and relevant social semiotic theories - Halliday’s systemic functional linguistics for text analysis and Kress and van Leeuwen’s visual grammar for image analysis - were employed in the analysis. This paper analyzed the interpersonal function of texts and images in Korean posters, respectively, and examined how these functions have been changed in English-translated posters. This paper also analyzed the factors that may have resulted in such changes. The findings are that the functions of texts and images have been changed in a similar way. The interpersonal function of texts in original Korean posters works in a way to build a very close relationship with viewers. In English-translated posters, however, interpersonal function represents distant relations between poster designers (or speakers in the poster) and viewers. The interpersonal function of images has also been changed like that of texts. Therefore, we find that the interpersonal function of texts and images has changed in a similar manner and that they are indeed linked.
  • 5.

    Interpreting Criminal Suspects’ Rights: A Case for Legal Interpreter Training

    Jieun Lee | 2017, 18(2) | pp.127~150 | number of Cited : 8
    Abstract PDF
    Under international law, criminal suspects and defendants, who do not understand or speak the language used in the legal procedure, are entitled to free assistance by interpreters (e.g. Article 14(3)(1) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, Articles 5 and 6 of the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights). They should be informed of charges, reasons for their arrest or detention, and their rights in the languages they understand. Criminal suspects’ rights to silence and counsel are constitutional rights, which is also explicitly recognized in the South Korean Criminal Procedure Law. Therefore, it is critical that criminal suspects who do not understand Korean should be provided with adequate interpreting and informed of their rights before being questioned by investigators. If an untrained incompetent interpreter is engaged in the legal process, their constitutional rights may be compromised as a result of inaccurate interpreting. Drawing on the interpreting data provided by two groups of interpreting students, namely those who have received no training for legal interpreting and those who have received a very basic training for legal interpreting, this paper suggests that specialized training is essential in order to enhance the accuracy of legal interpreting.
  • 6.

    A Corpus-based analysis of translating free direct speech in ‘the Road to Sampo’ by Hwang Suk-young

    Chang-Soo Lee | 2017, 18(2) | pp.151~169 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    The paper examines how two English translations diverge in the translation of free direct speech in the Korean original short story, ‘Sampo Kanun Kil (the Road to Sampo)’. As a form of speech representation, free direct speech reports a character’s speech in his or her own words without a reporting clause which identifies the speaker and explains the manner of speech. Free direct speech is an critical feature of the Korean original, which contributes to the story’s realism. The two English translations diverged markedly in the degree to which the translator intervened in the original and changed free direct speech to other forms of representation. The study investigates these differences through quantitative analysis of the distribution of free and regular direct speech instances and the frequency of reporting verbs among the original and the two translations. This is followed by a discussion of the significance of the massive shifts observed in one of the two translations from a literary perspective.
  • 7.

    Analysis of the Current Development of Machine Translation and Interpretation in Korea: Focusing on Korean-Chinese Language Pairs

    Chang Ai Li | 2017, 18(2) | pp.171~206 | number of Cited : 34
    Abstract PDF
    With the application of artificial intelligence technologies, machine translation and interpretation has recently made rapid progress. In Korea, Naver Corp., Hancom Interfree Inc., and Systran International Co. Ltd. took lead in providing desktop- and mobile-based translation and interpreting services. All three enterprises apply neural machine translation (NMT), currently the latest technology in machine translation. However, they have different characteristics: Naver, the largest Web portal site in Korea, quickly responds to colloquial expressions or newly coined words by using various types of content as data for translation engine. Hancom Interfree developed Genietalk; its hybrid translation engine combines the strengths of NMT and rule-based machine translation (RBMT), and thus enhances the accuracy of translation. Capitalizing on the advantages of a translation software company, Systran features expertise of translation by industry and area. These ever-evolving machine translation and interpretation are expected to satisfy daily demands for interpretation in shopping and tourism, demands for community interpretation from foreigners living in Korea including marriage immigrants, and temporary demands for translation and interpretation from international events including Olympics. However, in professional areas, it is hard to replace human translation and interpretation with machines in a short term. Rather, the efficiency of translation and interpreting jobs is expected to improve through cooperation between human beings and machines.
  • 8.

    The Technological Turn in Translation Studies: The Impact of AI on Audiovisual Translation

    Choi Suyeon | 2017, 18(2) | pp.207~228 | number of Cited : 12
    Abstract PDF
    This paper examines the direction of audiovisual translation in the AI ​​period by looking at how the technological development in audiovisual translation has changed the environment of audiovisual translation market and audiovisual translators. Digital and Internet, the core technologies of the Third Industrial Revolution, have greatly changed the audiovisual translation environment in Korea. As video and subtitle production programs changed from analog to digital, generation of audiovisual translators was replaced. With the development of the Internet, the accessibility of video and subtitle production programs has increased, and the networks between many participants have become active, so that fansubs have appeared in the audiovisual translation. And with the advent of AI in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, we can expect another big change in audiovisual translation. By applying CAT tools to audiovisual translation, it becomes possible to investigate, organize, and unify terminology. And automatic subtitle creation based on voice recognition technology and video reading technology. The technologies that are currently being developed and will be developed in the future can replace some of the physical and mental labor of audiovisual translation. Future video translators, in which technology will replace physical labor and some mental labor in audiovisual translation, must have a capacity that technology can not replace. Audiovisual translators in the future should be technology experts and creative post-editors.
  • 9.

    Translator study: Hyeonggi Yu, a translator of Christian texts in a modern sense

    Choi, Hyoeun | 2017, 18(2) | pp.229~253 | number of Cited : 2
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to exam the historical value of Hyeonggi Yu as a translator of Christian texts. With a series of fact-finding and analysis, the author verifies that he is “one” in a modern sense with the following four reasons: (Here, “modern” means “possessing more of Today’s general attributes.”) Firstly, he did direct-translation from the English source texts as early as the year 1930, not relaying from Japanese or Chinese translation of English sources, which was more prevalent translation custom of the time. Secondly, his translation works cover various sub-categories of Christian texts, ranging from theological texts like Bible commentaries to popular books like a biography of a Saint’s. Thirdly, he was one of the relatively-rare Korean translators of Christian texts in the first half of the 20’s century when approximately 70% of Christian translators were foreign nationality. From the perspective that considers BA translation is more proper in translation process, he certainly can be viewed as a proper translator of English-to-Korean translation since he was Korean. Lastly, compared to other Korean translators in Christian translation practice, he is exceptional in the volume of works and the consistency of dedication to the field. In the course of the study, the author defines the meaning of Christian texts, translation of Christian texts, and finally, a translator of Christian texts. Also, methodologically, the author proposes the bibliographical approach for the historical study of translation.
  • 10.

    A Study on the Influence of Leading Actors on Musical Lyric Translation in South Korea —A Case Study on “Jekyll & Hyde”

    Hong Jung Min | 2017, 18(2) | pp.255~291 | number of Cited : 3
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims at identifying the possible influence of leading actors on licensed musical lyric translation in South Korea, focusing on Frank Wildhorn’s “Jekyll & Hyde”, the country’s largest grossing musical. The commercial success of its South Korean production, which contrasts with the $1.5 million in losses made by the Broadway original production from 1997 to 2001, is largely credited with the localization involving modification of characters and dramatic evolution to better appeal to the target audience, the majority of whom is young female attracted to male actors. Literature review of newspaper and magazine articles and relevant research shows that the localization focused on evoking more sympathy toward the main characters which strengthened the tragedy of the ending. This was reinforced as the leading actor Cho Seung-woo, who played the title role six times since the South Korean premier in 2004 through 2015 revival, stressed the feebleness, naivety and passion of Jekyll’s character. The actor’s interpretation of the character, which well corresponded to his small frame and delicate face, was enthusiastically received by the audience and then canonized to dwarf the character’s image described by other actors. Text analysis, based on the three key strategies of (re)framing suggested by Baker (2006: 111-39), finds that Jekyll’s image portrayed by Cho was further bolstered in the translated lyrics by means of selective appropriation of numbers, labeling of the character’s attitudes or situation, and repositioning of the character’s relationship or location with others. The findings indicate that various aspects of actors, such as their character interpretation and appearance, can influence on musical lyric translation, and the lyric translation factoring in actor element can help the commercial success of licensed musicals in South Korea.