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pISSN : 1229-795X

2020 KCI Impact Factor : 1.51
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2017, Vol.18, No.4

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    Audio description in the digital age: Amateur describers, web technology and beyond

    Lee, Sang-Bin | 2017, 18(4) | pp.13~34 | number of Cited : 4
    Abstract PDF
    Audio description is an aural translation of a filmed performance or a live event for the benefit of blind and partially sighted (BPS) people. It entails multiple actors including describers (those writing and editing a script), voice actors (those reading the script at silence spots), and technicians (those responsible for sound recording). It is thus a laborious and complex translational process, and still remains nearly off-limits to sighted laypeople. Recently, however, there have been new attempts to popularise the production of audio description. Among them is YouDescribe, a free web-based platform for adding descriptions to YouTube videos. Creating descriptions in YouDescribe or ‘YouDescribing’ is similar in varying degrees to emerging fields of translation studies, such as ‘collaborative translation’, ‘volunteer translation’, ‘non-professional translation’, ‘community translation’, and ‘translation crowdsourcing’. More recently, a smartphone-based application for audio description has been developed in South Korea to allow describers to cooperate on a common project and improve the daily life of BPS people. These features have not been offered by traditional platforms, and constitute Audio Description 3.0, a new stage of development in audio description practice.
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    Translation in the digital age: SNS and its translation in the classroom

    Vivian Lee | 2017, 18(4) | pp.35~60 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    This paper looks at the application of a pedagogical approach which incorporates the use of SNS as source texts for a translation task for an undergraduate translation classroom, and enables translation students to explore various aspects of translation for digital spaces, such as target audience and source and target text features. The current study suggests the usefulness of applying non-conventional texts such as source texts from SNS to translation tasks to enable students to contemplate and practice translation with tasks which reflect today’s digital age. Findings show that the method can enable students to make observations and contemplations of source and target texts for online communities and output, and also to develop their sensitivity to the different characteristics of the languages they are working with.
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    Fansubbing in Brazil: Fan translation and collaborative production in light of Participatory Culture

    Samira Spolidorio | 2017, 18(4) | pp.61~89 | number of Cited : 0
    Abstract PDF
    Audiovisual translation (Gambier 2001; Romero-Fresco 2013) is as old as cinema and older than television. However, just recently, academic researchers have been focusing on it and its many categories. This study aims to contribute to this emergent discussion by addressing concepts of translation related to the area of audiovisual translation and, mainly the category of subtitling (Diaz-Cintas and Remael 2007) with a specific focus on fansubbing (Diaz-Cintas and Sanchez 2006). Fansubbing refers to the type of subtitles produced in a non-professional manner by communities of fans, and distributed free of charge on the Internet. In order to better understand this relationship between fans that produce these subtitles and fans that consume them, we will investigate the definition of ‘fan’ (Grossberg 1992; Jenkins 1992), and also the communities of fans, known as the fandoms (Jenkins 2006; Duffett 2013). We will also discuss the process of collaborative production of fan-made subtitles (O’Hagan 2009) taking into account how and why those subtitles are produced and consumed, while also examining the aspects related to the (il)legality of fansubbing in relation to copyright infringement (Mendonça 2012) in Brazil.
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    Crowdsourced translation and machine translation and their implications in the digital age: A case study of Flitto

    Lee, Jimin | 2017, 18(4) | pp.91~120 | number of Cited : 7
    Abstract PDF
    In the digital era, Internet users are actively participating in translation using online platforms and machine translation. Now, crowdsourced translation platforms are in active operation, affecting the overall translation landscape. This case study explores how one of the biggest crowdsourced translation platforms in the world, Flitto, uses general and professional translators, develops translation memories, and uses machine translation. It analyzes Flitto’s services and track record and derives implications for general users and professional translators in the digital era: imposition of literal translation, active use of MT and continued development of MT, decline in translation rates, and unclear intellectual property rights clauses. In conclusion, this study offers several suggestions with focus on the jobs of professional translators and translation researchers, specifically with regard to education of the general public on good translation, development of professional translation databases, using MT and TM in ways that raise translation productivity, development of efficient and effective post-editing strategies, and requesting clarification of intellectual property rights to translation work and educating the public about the rights.
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    Double whammy for professional news translators in the digital age: Crisis or opportunity?

    Hong Jung Min | 2017, 18(4) | pp.121~147 | number of Cited : 1
    Abstract PDF
    This study aims to investigate the challenges professional news translators are facing from the rise in their non-professional counterparts whose activities are becoming increasingly visible in this digitalized and globalized era and explore ways to better cope with the challenges. By focusing on news translation, one of the areas non-professional translators have been most active and are expected to be more so, this research examines the features and nature of non-professional news translators and then traditional and newly emerging challenges facing professional translators in relation to the competition from non-professional news translators. Based on the examination of the features and nature of the non-professionals and the challenges from them, the study explores ways in which professional news translators can overcome the challenges and ultimately turn them into opportunities.